There are at least two
possible derivations of this name. Firstly, from the Norman French barony of d'Agneux, via England
and Liddesdale in the Scottish Borders. Secondly, from a branch of O'Gnimh, who were the hereditary poets of the O'Neils in
The name was written in English as O'Gnive, then O'Gnyw and later O'Gnew.
Whatever its origins,
the family became established in Wigtownshire in south-west Scotland.
Andrew Agnew was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Wigtown in 1451 and his descendants hold that office to this day. Lochnaw Castle was their base with another branch in Lochryan. Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in
The family prospered
and there were a number of judicious marriages with other wealthy families in the area. The 5th Baronet, Sir Andrew, commanded
a regiment at the Battle of Dettingen, Bavaria in 1743,
when King George II commanded the English and Hanoverian troops against the French (the last monarch to do so directly). When
the king commented on the way the French cavalry had penetrated Sir Andrew's troops he replied "Yes, please your Majesty,
but they didna win back again". Sir Andrew later held Blair
Castle in Perthshire against the Jacobite forces.
The 6th Baronet married
the daughter of the Irish Lord Kingsdale and the 7th Baronet inherited the title and estates. He set about rebuilding Lochnaw
castle (though it is now no longer in Agnew hands). A number of Irish Agnews emigrated to the American colonies, especially
in Pennsylvania. The 11th Baronet, Sir Crispin Agnew of
Lochnaw, is one of Scotland's leading
heraldic experts and is the Rothesay Herald at the Court of the Lord Lyon.
The Sons of Andrew: A History of the Anderson Name
former Clan Anderson Genealogist
The use of surnames started in France around the year 1100 AD, The Norman
invaders brought the practice to Scotland nearly 100 years later. However, the use of surnames was not common for some 50
years or more after this time, or around 1155AD. Prior to this, Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-1093), spouse to Queen Margaret of
Scotland directed his subjects to adopt surnames after their territorial possessions. Such was the origin of the first earls
of Scotland, such as Leslie, Gordon, Shaw, and Abircrumby among others. Written references to actual surnames are first found
during the time of David I, who reigned from 1124-1153AD. One such reference is found for Robertus de Brus (Robert the Bruce).
In light of this understanding about the use of surnames, one can appreciate
that the name ANDERSON would not be a Scandinavian name, as the Danes invaded Britain between 997-1014 AD, some 150 years
prior to the use of surnames. However, we do recognize that some Scandinavians may also bear the name.
Anderson means "Son of Andrew". Typically, the intent was to denote "servant
of Andrew", Andrew being the patron saint of Scotland. The Gaelic form of the name is Gillanders. The Andersons are a diverse
group, with no specific place from which the name is derived. Most likely, the name cropped up all over the country over a
period of time, with one group of Andersons not necessarily related to another group of Andersons.
Anderson or Ross or Donald?
Occassionally, the Anderson name is affiliated with Clan Ross, which creates
some confusion among Andersons. The first five earls of Clan Ross bore the name "Aindrea", and not Ross. They too were "Servants
of Andrew". As the title passed to descendants of the female line, the name, Ross, was assumed by the male representatives
of the earls as it referred to their territorial origin. The name "Ross" is actually derived from the District of Ross, and
is therefore a territorial name. In fact, the Ross's first referred to themselves as do the Andersons: "Andrew's Servants".
It is also possible that some descendants of Highland Andersons rightfully share a heritage with what today is the Ross Clan.
Some other Highland "Gillanders" (Servants of Andrew) may be associated with
Clan Donald, also through the female line. The Lord of the Isles (Clan Donald) assumed the title of Earl of Ross. In fact
it was Donald MacGillandrish who accompanied Moira McDonald of Clan Donald when she became the wife to a McIntosh chief in
the 1400's. their descendants became known as MacAndrew (son of the servant of Andrew). This is the origin of the affiliation
with Clan Chattan.
A Clan in its own Right
According to the Lord Lyon, there was an Anderson of that Ilk in the 1500's.
This specific Anderson is unknown to us today. But this reference verifies that the Andersons are a clan in their own right,
despite having a shared ancestry with other groups. The Anderson name shows up in many forms: Andrews, Andirsoone, Andersonne,
Andersoun, Andersoune, Andison, Andreson, Andherson, MacAndrews, Endirone, and many other
The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros" meaning
keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name is now known around the world as
a result of the legendary King Arthur who may have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record
of the name is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain named his son
Arthur, also in the 6th century.
The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the legendary King Arthur,
are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs
and the Devil". The more established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old kingdom
of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch Fyne.
The clan was at its peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the
heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader, Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded
with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.
When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the
15th century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions. The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could
summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the
end of the clan; unlike others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands,
though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.
For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells. Charles MacArthur,
piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald
Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century, a number of
MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous and as a result of a skirmish on Loch
Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the
situation and appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.
In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon rose to be
a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers of MacArthurs fought on both sides
during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the '45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.
John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia in 1790. He
was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino
breed from South Africa). His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.
In more modern times, US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from
Glasgow in Scotland, became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son, General Douglas MacArthur, became even
more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.
The last clan chief of the MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no
obvious male heir and so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born
James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87
at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan members.
The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich.
The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure
(blue) background". The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur Chief's shield,
has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical
to the description given in ancient manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated
in April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.
The MacArthur clan motto is "Fide et opera" which means "By fidelity and labour".
Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan are limited
Motto: Vincit veritas
(Latin: Truth prevails)
Names associated with the clan: BAXTER BAXTAR BACSTER BAXSTARE BAXSTAR BAXSTAIR BAKSTER
BAXSTER MACVAXTER MAKBAXSTAR MACBAXTAR MACBAXTER BAKER
This is an occupational
name derived from the Old English word "baecestre" meaning a female baker and later Middle English "bakstere" which was applied
to both male and female bakers. In early Latin charters the name is rendered as "pistor" - the Latin word for baker. In that
form the name is found as early as the 12th century.
Baxters are found all
across Scotland but those in the west are generally regarded as dependents of the Clan Macmillan.
they were a prominent family in their own right and witnessed important documents in the 13th century. Between 1200 and 1240
a Reginald Baxtar witnessed a gift of a church of Wemyss
in Fife. The name is still found frequently in Fife and the Baxters of Earlshall in northern
Fife lived in a baronial castle there. Kilmaron
Castle was a mansion built for a Baxter family near Cupar in Fife,
In 1296 Geffrei le Baxtere
of Lossithe in Forfar took an oath of allegiance to the king. Baxter was (and is) a common name in Angus as Forfar was at
one time a royal residence and the first Baxters there may well have been royal bakers.
The Baxters of Kincaldrum
were the first to bring power-weaving to the City of Dundee.
They prospered as a result and gifted Baxter Park to the city. They endowed a college which eventually became the University of Dundee.
In more modern times,
the Baxter family in Fochabers on the river Spey in Morayshire have built a successful business creating quality soups and
produce from local suppliers. And Stanley Baxter has had a long career as an actor and comedian.
The Baxter clan motto
is "Vincit veritas" which means "Truth prevails".
MacBaxter is regarded
as a sept (sub-branch) of the McMillan clan.
CLAN CLAUS SOCIETY
Founder and Chairman: Santa Kona Gant
the 1st day of June in the year 2008, Santa Claus authorized the formation
of The Clan Claus Society. Since that time, membership
has grown to 352 members representing 13 countries around the world!
Kona, a professional Santa Claus, firmly believed in the family ideals inherent in the spirit of
the way of life of the Scottish Clans. He put together
a group of Santa Claus performers, including Santa Bruce “Mac Claus” Arnold and
Santa Bear Garner. Together, these Jolly
Old Elves, along with Mrs. Zelina Shaw another advisory board member, dedicated themselves
to establishing a unique family of Santas, Mrs. Clauses, Elves, Reindeer Handlers, Helpers and others
who, in similar fashion, sought to perpetuate the traditions and family values of the Scottish Santa
The Clan Claus Society,
it’s Founder and Advisory Board members, all have their own separate passion for things
Scottish, the Celtic arts in general, and the music of Scotland’s most famous
musical instrument, the Great Highland Bagpipes.
is the cornerstone to all activities of the Clan Claus Society.
The basic mission of the society is to bring members together in a family-friendly
atmosphere, where the magic of Christmas and the traditions of Scottish Culture
can be enjoyed and experienced by all.
Santa Kona and Advisory
Board Members of the society invite anyone and everyone who believes not only in the spirit of
Christmas and family fun, but also in the thrill that only the spirit of the
Scottish Highlands can inspire, to join the Clan Claus Society.
To all nations throughout the world,
the Society and its membership extend best wishes for Peace, Joy and our Warmest of
Blessings during the coming Christmas Season.
Clan Chief: The current chief of Clan
Haldane is Martin Haldane of Gleneagles.
Origins of the Haldanes of Gleneagles
[The following text is
copied verbatim from The Haldanes of Gleneagles, General Sir J. Aylmer L. Haldane, 1929, William Blackwood & Sons, Ltd., London and Edinburgh, which book is in the Public Domain since 2004. While this
text may appear on some message boards, it is NOT a copyright violation. Contact John Haldane for more information.]
HISTORIANS and genealogists
have ascribed various origins to the family Haldane. Sir James Dalrymple, Nisbet, and others have suggested its descent from
a Danish chief called Haldanus, or from an Anglo-Norman, Brien1 by name, whose son Bernard came to Scotland during
the reign of King William the Lion (1165-1214), and was given by him a manor on the Border.2 The legend of Danish
descent, which probably arose from the resemblance of the family name to that of this chief, is not borne out by the Kelso
charters. In one of these,3 which is dated between 1165 and 1171, Bernard son of Brien is recorded, with some circumlocution,
as granting to the monks of Kelso Abbey a carucate4 of land, ' which they have in the town of Hauden, and which
they had before I came to Hauden in perpetual alms by the same boun¬daries by which they had the same before I came to Hauden.'
A later charter from Bernard's nephew to the monks, which confirms the earlier gift, is couched in precisely the same words.5
A perusal of these two documents shows unmistakably that before Bernard obtained his lands on the border, they bore the name
of Hauden, and proves that his surname - or rather that of his successor and his descendants, for he himself never dropped
his designation of 'son of Brien ' - was derived from the title by which the lands were known, and from it alone.
This Bernard, son of Brien
was the undoubted founder of the Haldane family in Scotland. He was a frequent witness
to royal and other charters, and these, through their being dated at different places, show that he belonged to the royal
retinue and probably filled some post near the person of the King. That he was a man of birth and consequence is obvious from
the fact that he appears as a witness in company with some of the most important persons in the kingdom. Take, for example,
the charter by King William to the abbey of Scone, dated at Dunfermline between 1165 and 1171.6 This charter, which
confirms to the abbey all liberties that had been granted to it by the King's elder brother Malcolm IV., was witnessed, amongst
others, by Nichol, the Chancellor of Scotland Duncan, 5th Earl of Fife, who was Justiciar of the northern kingdom for more
than twenty years, and who, 'as in the case of former Earls of Fife, is given precedence over the other Earls of Scotland
as witnesses to the King's charters;' 7 Walter Fitz-Alan, the first High Stewart of Scotland, who had great possessions
in the lowlands ; David Ollifard, godson of David I., and the earliest known holder of the high office of Justiciar;8
a Richard Cumin, ancestor of the Red Comyn, who fell by the hand of Bruce ; Robert de Quincy, who through marriage owned
estates in Fife, and whose son, Sair de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, was one of the twenty-five celebrated barons who were
appointed to enforce the observance of Magna Charta ; and last on this list of notables comes Bernard son of Brien.
Apart, however, from the
inference to be drawn from the royal charters, it is otherwise clear that Bernard son of Brien was a man of good birth, and
one who knew who his ancestors were. This emerges from the fact that both he and his nephew, also called Bernard, in not less
than six charters, refer to their 'ancestors and successors' - an expression which, though it is to be found in other deeds
of the time, more particularly in deeds of mortification or bequests to religious houses, is not without significance.9
The question of Bernard's
descent from a Danish source has been shown to be unfounded, and as regards the suggestion that he was of Anglo-Norman extraction
no evidence has been found to substantiate it. It may, however, be mentioned that his father's name Brien was a common one
in the family of the Counts of Brittany, who, though not Normans in the strict sense of the word, were nominally vassals of
the Conqueror, and fought under his banner at Hastings. The dates associated with one of them, known as Brien Fitz-Count,
a son of the head of that family, coincide closely with those of Bernard's father. This alone might count for little, but
the facts that Margaret, a sister of King William the Lion, was the wife of Conon IV Duke of Brittany, and that Bernard was
in that king’s retinue, and was given a manor by him, lend colour to the possibility of a connection with that nominally
Norman family. [please refer to Clan Haldane for further information]
Motto: "Vive Ut Vivas" - Live, So That You May Live
Arms: Three black Talbots (a species of hound) heads
Haule, Haul, Hal, De Aula, Hale, Haw, Collingwood, Crispin, Fitz William, MacHall.
History: The history
of Scotland, shrouded by the mists of
time, indicates that the name 'Hall', is a Norman surname. The name 'Hall', was found in Lincolnshire [England] where they were granted lands
after the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Upon entering England with the Norman Conquest, the Hall's were actually 'FITZ WILLIAM'S', they being settled in Greatford Hall in
Lincolnshire, and being directly descended from Wentworth,
Earl FitzWilliam. The younger son of this noble house, Arthur FitzWilliam, was called 'Hall', to distinguish him from his
senior brother. Hence Arthur Hall would be the first on record about the year 1090 AD. The line continued in Lincolnshire, and intermarried with the Crispins, and the Earls of Chester. In Cheshire [England],
the Hall's were a cadet branch of the Kingsley Hall's of that county. By 1340 AD, the name had moved northward at the invitation
of Earl David of Huntingdon, later to become King David of Scotland.
In Scotland, they were granted lands in
Berwickshire, specifically the lands of Glenryg in the barony of Lesmahagow.
The Hall's were one of the sixty (60) major riding families of the Anglo-Scottish border
and were involved in reiving as other border clans were. During one of the 'Day of Truce' occasions, a Robert Spragon 'fyled' a complaint
against two Halls that had rustled 120 sheep. The traditional homes of the Hall's were at Redesdale in England; East Teviotdale, and Liddesdale, in Scotland.
Some notables in the Scottish East March were: John Hall of Newbigging; George Hall (called Pats Geordie there; Andrew Hall
of the Sykes, and Thom Hall in Fowlscheils. Other Hall's lived in Aynstrother; Glenryg, in the barony of Lesmahagow; Garvald;
Irvide; Glasgow; Sancharmvr, in Preswick; and Perth.
By 1600 AD, many branches had developed in England
and Scotland: Lord Llanover, Sir John Hall, Bishop Hall of Bristol,
Bishop Hall of Wearmouth, and at the same time, continuing their interest and seats at Skelton
Castle, Yorkshire, Greatford Hall in Lincolnshire,
and Gravell House in Middlesex. Notable amongst the family at this time was Hall of Berwickshire.
[This information courtesy
of W. Wiseman of New Zealand]
Badge: An oak tree, penetrated by a frame saw, standing above a ducal coronet.
with the clan: Hamilton, Hammeltoune, Hammyltoune, Hamyltoune, Hammyltoun,
Hamyltone, Hamulthone, Cadzow.
Origin of the name:
In Old English "hamel dun" meant "bare
hill" and there were a number of places in England with names derived from these
words. Walter de Hameldone, owned property in near Paisley in Renfrewshire in 1294. In the
War of Independence in 1290-1305, he was initially loyal to King Edward I of England but later supported
Robert the Bruce. He was granted further lands by Bruce in Lothian and Lanarkshire, including lands at Cadzow (which was later
renamed Hamilton). Walter's son, David, fought for King David II at the Battle of Neville Cross in 1346.
In 1474, James Hamilton married Princess
Mary, daughter of King James II and was made Lord Hamilton and their son, who was in line of succession to the throne, was made Earl of Arran.
The family built Brodick Castle as a Highland home (it is now National Trust
property). The second Earl of Arran was made Regent of Scotland during the childhood of Mary Queen of Scots and proposed that his son should marry her. However, she married the Dauphin (heir to the throne) of France instead. Nevertheless, the Earl of Arran was created
Duke of Chatelherault, a French title. Later, the Earl tried to save Mary after her ill-fated marriage to Lord Darnley and
sheltered her at Cadzow after her escape from Loch Leven.
The fourth Earl of Arran became Chancellor
of Scotland and in 1599 and he was advanced
to the rank of Marquess. His brother Claud was created Lord Paisley and then Lord Abercorn and this branch prospered, becoming
a dukedom in 1868, with a seat in Ulster.
The third Marquess supported King Charles I and he was made Duke of Hamilton in 1643 and the premier peer of Scotland.
His daughter, Annie, married William Douglas, Earl of Selkirk. The foundations of a palace, near Hamilton in Lanarkshire, were laid at this time. The palace was later demolished because
of mining subsidence but the magnificent hunting lodge named Chatelherault still survives in a public park. The seat of the Duke of Hamilton is now Lennoxlove, in East
of note in Scottish history include Patrick Hamilton who was martyred for his Protestant beliefs in 1528 and the grandson
of the 3rd Duke who climbed Vesuvius 22 times and married Emma, Lord Nelson's beloved. The 14th Duke was the pilot of the
first plane to fly over Mount Everest (in 1933).
clan motto is "Through".
Names Associated with Clan Hannay: Hannay
Hanna · Hanney · Hannah Clan Chief: Ramsay William Rainsford Hannay of Kirkdale
and of that Ilk, Chief of the Name and Arms of Hannay, Died 10 January 2004 – Gatehouse-of-Fleet,
Scotland and was succeeded by his son, Dr. David R Hannay.
Origins of the clan: The
name Hannay may have originally been spelt Ahannay, possibly deriving from the Gaelic word 'O'Hannaidh' or 'Ap Shenaeigh'- "Son of Senach". The family can be traced back to Galloway in South-West Scotland. The name 'Gillbert de Hannethe' appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296, submitting to King Edward I of England. The Hannay's lands of Sorbie in Wigtownshire were reportedly acquired by the same Gillbert de Hannethe.
many Scottish nobles and clans the Clan Hannay did not support Robert the Bruce but instead supported John Balliol because he was more local to them through his descent from the Celtic
Princess of Galloway.
& 16th centuries: In
1488 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Later in 1513 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field which was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1532 Patrick Hannay was acquitted of the murder of Patrick McClellen as he had killed him in self defense.
James Hannay, the Master Gunner in the reign of James V led the clan at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 which were part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The family began to spread and a tower built at Sorbie in 1550 which commanded views their ever increasing territory.
The ancient clan seat, Sorbie Tower
is owned by the members of Clan Hannay International and in 1965 received grants from Historic Scotland.
century Patrick Hannay had a
distinguished military career and was patroned by Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James VI and sister of Charles I. After the death of Queen Anne who was the wife of James VI in 1619 Patrick Hannay composed two eulogies
and in return had many published on his own death, one of which said: 'Go on in virtue, aftertimes will tell, none but Hannay
could have done so well'. Sir
Patrick (3rd) Privy Councillor of Ireland, and Master of the Chancellery in Ireland, died at sea in 1625.
Possibly the best known Hannay was James Hannay, the
Dean of St Giles' in Edinburgh who had the claim to fame of being the target of Jenny Geddes' stool. In an infamous incident in 1637 the Dean had begun to read the new liturgy
when with a cry of "Thou false thief, dost thou say Mass at my lug?" was heard and a stool came flying from the congregation,
thrown by an incensed Jenny Geddes. The incident began a full scale riot which took the town guard to control. Sir Robert
Hannay of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia In 1630, and from the Sorbie roots the Hannays of Grennan, Knock, Garrie
and Kingsmuir also evolved.
conflicts The fortunes of the
original Hannays of Sorbie were seriously dented in the seventeenth century when a long running feud with the powerful Clan Murray of Broughton resulted in the Hannays being outlawed. The clan has also had previous
feuds with the Clan Kennedy and Clan Dunbar. After the feud with the Clan Murray the famous tower at Sorbie fell into disrepair and was lost along with the neighbouring
lands around 1640. Many Hannays moved to Ireland, in particular Ulster and the name can still be found there and in many surrounding counties,
particularly in the form "Hanna".
Another form of the name, "Hannah", is particularly
common amongst the descendants of those that remained in Scotland.
Another variation of Hannay is "Hanney". In Oxfordshire,
England, there are two villages called East Hanney and West Hanney. Yet another version of Hannay
is "Hanner". Although less common, Hanner, like Hanna, is found amongst the descendants of those who moved to Ireland.
Clan Hannay Sir Samuel Hannay, who
had served within the Habsburg Empire. He returned to Scotland
having amassed a considerable wealth and built a great mansion house which was said to be the inspiration for Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Guy Mannering. Sir Samuel's baronetcy became dormant on his death in 1841 and the estates passed to his sister, Mary, then further
to her nephew, William Rainsford Hannay, on her death in 1850. From this direct line comes the present chief Hannay of Kirkdale
and of that Ilk.
One branch of the family begun by a younger son of
the Sorbie Hannays, Alexander Hannay took lands at Kirkdale, by Kirkcudbright. The line established by his son John Hannay of Kirkdale is now recognised as
the chiefly one.
Motto: "Veritas Vincit" which means "Truth conquers"
Chief: The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Kintore
with Clan Harvey: HERVEY/HERVIE/HARVEY/HARVIE.
Origins of the name:
This ancient surname, well recorded in Scotland, has two possible sources, the first being from the Breton personal
name "Aeruiu" or "Haerviu", composed of the elements "haer", meaning battle, and "vy", - worthy. The 1086 Domesday has various
references to followers of William the Conqueror, including Herueu de Berruarius of Suffolk,
and later Heuei de Castre of Lincoln, in 1157. These were
not surnames, although in fact the first surname recording was only just behind. The second source is Irish. It is said that
a Galway clan called originally the O'hAirmheadhaigh, did 'anglicise' their name to Harvey
The Gaelic translates as 'the descendant of the son of Airmed'. The surname is generally recorded as Harvey,
Harvie, Hervie and Hervey, and early recordings include William Hervy of Essex in 1232, Warin Harvi in the Pipe Rolls of Cambridge
for the year 1273, and John Hervy, burgess of Aberdeen in
1398. The roll of famous namebearers includes William Harvey (1578 - 1657), who discovered the circulation of the blood in
1616, whilst Edmond Harvey, a Parliamentarian Colonel, was one of the fifty three regicides who signed the death warrant of
Charles 1st in January 1649. Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey was one of the 1798 leaders of the Irish rebellion, whilst curiously
Robert Hervie of Scotland was a member
of the Huntly Volunteer force, raised to combat a possible French-Irish invasion. The first recorded spelling of the family
name is shown to be that of William Hervi, which was dated 1190, in the 'Calendar of Abbot Samson of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk',
during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199.
There are those who could argue that the Keith Clan name more correctly would be Harvey.In the time of
David I, King of Scotland (about 1160), a Scottish Knight named Hervey is said to have obtained a grant of the north-west
portion of the lands of Keith, in East Lothian (near Aberdeen). From the owner, it was called Keith-Hervey. It was this Hervey
who held the office of King's Marischal under Malcom IV and William the Lion. The title Marischal became hereditary, and was
passed to his grandson Philip upon Hervey's death in 1196. As was the custom at the time, the family became known by the name
Keith, after the lands they possessed. The Keiths were a very powerful Celtic family in the far north of Scotland and their chiefs continued to hold the important
office of Marischal of Scotland for six hundred years. Numerous Earl Marischals used the name Hervey or Harvey throughout
their history. Famous episodes of their chronicles are a bloody and treacherous battle with their Norse neighbors, the Gunns,
in 1464 and the rescue in Cromwell's time of the Scottish Regalia which the sixth Earl Marischal hid safely at Dunottar Castle.
Crest: A horse's head coupled Argent. Motto:
Aegre De Tramite Recto (With difficulty along the right path) Chief: Armigerous*
The lands & barony of Horsburgh lie near Innerleithen in Peebleshire.
The ruins of the tower of the same name still stand, and according to Black, the first of this race is believed to have been
an Anglo-Saxon designated horse or orse, who settled on the north bank of the River Tweed and there built the castle which
communicated the present surname to his descendents.
The earliest name on record is Simon de Horsbrock, who witnessed a charter by William Purveys of Mospennoc to the monks
of Melrose Abbey in the reigh on Alexander II. William de Horsboroch is recorded in 1283. In the diocese of Glasgow
in 1287, he is lited as a Notary Public. In 1297 Simon de Horsbrok was in the foreigh service of Edward I and had his
lands restored in the same year.
Horsbrock of that Ilk is recorded in 1479. and another Alexander Horsbruik
was served heir to John Horsbruik, his father, in the lands and mill of Horsbruik (1550). Lady Horsburgh of Horsburgh was
the last Horsburgh to hold the barony, which, upon her marriage, passed into the Chinnery family.
The arms recorded by Nisbet of a silver horses head
on a blue shield are clearly a pun based on the family name.
James Horsburgh, a fellow
of the Royal Society, was a distinguished hydrographer at the beginning af the nineteenth century. In 1810 he was appointed
hydrographer to the East India Company. He published numerous works on maritime subjects, which were to become standard authorities
in that field.
The name is still found
in the Borders and around Edinburgh..
Chief: Rt Hon Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll and Lord
High Constable of Scotland.
Badge: A falcon flying. The coat of arms shows farm implements which, legend has it, were weapons
by which the Hays repelled a Danish invasion at Luncarty.
Motto: Serva jugmen - "Keep the yoke".
Names associated with the clan:
Alderston, Arroll, Aue,Ay, Aye, Ayer, Beagrie,
Con, Conn, Constable, da Hay, Da Haya, D'Ay, D'Aye, de Hay, de Haya, de la Hay, De la Haye, de Plessis, Delgatie, Dellahay,
Des Hay, Deshays, Drumelizior, Dupplin, Erroll, Garra, Garrad, Garrow, Gifford, Hawson, Hay, Hayburn, Hayden, Haydock, Haye,
Hayens, Hayes, Hayfield, Hayhoe, Hayhow, Haylees, Haylor, Hayne, Haynes, Haynie, Hays, Hayse, Hayson, Hayston, Haystoun, Hayter,
Hayton, Haytor, Hayward, Haywood, Hea, Hey, Heyes, Kellour, Kinnoullm Laxfirth, Leis, Leith, Lockerwort, MacGaradh, MacGarra,
MacGarrow, MacHay, McArra, O'Garra, O'Garrow, O'Hay Aue, O'Hea, Peebles, Peeples, Peoples, Slains, Turriff, Tweeddale, Yester.
Also certain families of: Ritchie, Ley, Watson, and King.
The first record
of the name Hay, Norman in origin, is William de Haya, Cupbearer of Malcolm IV of Scotland, who arrived in this country around 1160 and married
a Celtic heiress. He was one of the hostages held in England
with William the Lion and on his return was granted an extensive manor in Erroll. His younger brother Robert was progenitor
of the Earls of Tweeddale. Tradition has it that Thomas the Rhymer prophesied that an oak tree, covered by mistletoe would
fall during a strange Hay ritual which took place every Halloween. When this prophecy became fact, the estate of Erroll was
sold in 1636. The 3rd Baron, Gilbert was Co-Regent of Scotland, Sir Gilbert the 5th chief featured prominently in the Scottish
War of Independence and was given Slains castle in Buchan and made Hereditary Lord High Constable of Scotland by Bruce. (A post which the family retains and is the highest ranking
position in Scotland after the Royal family)
The 7th chief married the King's daughter, while William, 9th chief was created Earl of Erroll in 1452. At the Battle of Flodden
in 1513, the 4th Earl, William was killed along with 87 other Hays. In 1594 the Royal forces under Argyll were defeated by
the Earl of Huntly in alliance with the 9th Earl of Erroll. In revenge King James personally blew up Slains Castle. Sir William Hay of Delgaty,
Montrose's Chief of Staff was beheaded with him in 1650. The 13th Earl, Charles helped to organise the 1708 Jacobite attempt
and was imprisoned after the Rising. His sister Mary who succeeded him as Countess of Erroll in 1717 raised her clan for Prince
Charles during the '45. The Border branch of the Hays became Lords Hay of Yester in 1488 and are now represented by the 11th
Marquis of Tweed-dale.
Henderson Gaelic Name:
Motto: Sola virtus nobilitat (Virtue alone
Badge: Cotton grass
Lands: Caithness and
Origin of Name: Henry's son
The Chief of Clan Henderson is Alistair Donald Henderson
of Fordell, an environmental engineer specialising in air pollution control who lives in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Chief is recognized by Lord Lyon, King of Arms, and is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish
Origins of the Clan
Clann Eanruig (pronounced
KLAHN YAHN-reegk) is the Gàidhlig (Scots Gaelic) name for the Scottish clan known as "the Hendersons" in English. The words "Scot," "Scots" (not scotch), "Scottish," and "Scotland" derive from the Latin word "Scotus" meaning a Celtic inhabitant of Hibernia (Ireland) at the time of the Roman occupation of southern Britannia (Great Britain), i.e., an Irishman. The Scots of Caledonia flourished and soon outnumbered their Pictish neighbors.
The ancient Picts and Scots followed
the Celtic custom of matrilineality. This meant that sons could not depend on their father's status, but instead had to establish domains of their
Pictish prince Eanruig Mor
mac Righ Nechtan (Big Henry the son of King Nechtan) established a distinguished family line. The descendants of Prince Henry
were known collectively as “clann Eanruig” meaning the “family of Henry.” The males of the clan took
the surname “mac Eanruig” meaning “son of Henry,” which was later translated into English variously
as “Henryson,” “Henderson,” “McHenry,” “McHendry,” “MacKendrick,”
and such. The females of the clan took the surname “nic Eanruig” meaning “daughter of Henry.” A woman
normally kept her own clan surname after marriage, and she could usually depend on her clan's support in a dispute with her
husband. Families could give children the clan surname of either their mother or father. Over time, the descendants of other
prominent Henrys also took the family name "clann Eanruig." Eventually, the most prominent of these families coalesced into
a single clan identity.
Though a small clan, the
Hendersons rose to prominence in Caithness, Glencoe, the Shetland Islands and Fordell in Fife. In Caithness, Clan Henderson associated with Clan Gunn. In Glencoe, Clan Henderson forged a close alliance with the powerful Clan Donald. A separate family grouping arose in Liddesdale and Ewesdale, being one of the smaller families of Border Reivers.
The Hendersons known for their size and strength became the personal body guards of the chief
of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe. In 1692, King William III, suspecting the loyalty of Clan Donald, secretly set the Clan Campbell upon the MacDonalds and Hendersons in the Massacre of Glencoe. Standing six feet and seven inches tall, the powerful "Big Henderson" of the Chanters was the MacDonald chief's
piper and protector, and fell with the chief in the cold February night of 1692. After the Massacre, many Henderson families emigrated to Ulster ,North America and mid wales.
During the Highland Clearances from 1746 to 1822, many more Henderson families left Scotland for Ireland, England, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and other lands.
Hendersons in the Modern World
In 1934, British statesman Arthur Henderson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for world disarmament. Epidemiologist Dr. Donald Ainslie "D.A."
Henderson led the World Health Organization's successful effort to eradicate smallpox throughout the world.
Hepburn is a family name of the Scottish-English border area. It is associated with
a variety of famous personages, places, and things. Although usually a Scottish name, the origins may be just south of the
border in the north of England. It may have derived from the Northumberland towns of Hebron or Hebburn. It is perhaps
the same as Hebborne, from the Ancient English words heah ("high") and
byrgen ("burial mound"). Alternatively it could mean something along the
lines of "high place beside the water. A "burn" is a word meaning "river" in both English and Scots. ,
The remains of a Bastle Tower can be found near Chillingham
Castle. This is where the family originated. This was the seat of a line of the family until the eighteenth century
when that branch died out having left only a female heir. The Hepburn family is perhaps best remembered because of the Earl
of Bothwell, a husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. Katherine Hepburn, the famous American actress is another well
remembered part of this family. A branch of the family originated in Lothian. A Hepburn was granted land for having
saved the Earl of March from a horse that had lost control. Subsequently they became the Lords of Hailes and were ultimately
rewarded by being granted the Earldom of Bothwell.
There were also Hepburns of Waughton, thought by some to have branched off from the Hailes line, thought by others
to predate it. Another line was the Hepburns of Beanston, and yet another was the Hepburns of Athelstaneford. Primarily located
in East Lothian, all of these families were prominent in various ways at various junctures of Scottish history.
Associated With Clan Hogg: Hogg, Hogge, Hogue, Hoig
Origin of the
Taken from a person who was very tall. From the
Germanic element hoch meaning 'tall'. This is a hereditary surname of Nickname Origin. Nicknames were derived
from a physical feature, character, a favoured style of clothing or from animals, birds, flowers or a colour. Naming was borne
thousands of years ago and at first there were just first names.
Around the 11th century the Normans introduced the first hereditary
surnames taken from their estates in France.
By the 15th century they had spread to England, Ireland,
Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, Spain,
Portugal and the rest of the European
countries. They consisted of a store of Baptismal, Locality, and Occupation names with Nicknames being formed from the Norman
originals and Old Norse terms.
In these early centuries Coats of Arms were borne.
The knights wore heavy armour from head to foot and the only means of identification for his followers was the emblem on the
shield and on this surcoat. The Coat of Arms for this surname is one of the first granted from the very early centuries.
Clan chief: The chief of Clan Hope is Sir John Hope of Craighall, Baronet.
The chiefly line of the Hope family survives through the Baronets of Craighall.
Motto: At Spes Infracta [Yet My Hope is Unbroken]
Origins of the clan: Hope is a native Scottish name. However, in middle English it
means 'small valley'. Another suggestion is that it derives from 'oublon', which is French for 'hop' and could be from the
family de H'oublons of Picardy.
HISTORY: The Clan Hope was a Scottish border family and their name is among
those found on the Ragman Rolls giving the oath of fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.
16th century: The principal line can be traced back to John de Hope, who travelled
from France with Magdalen the first wife of King James V of Scotland. John settled in Edinburgh and became commissioner for Edinburgh to the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1560.
17th century: John de Hope's grandson Sir Thomas Hope was Lord Advocate as appointed by King Charles I. The family became 'Hope of Craighall'
after acquiring the estates of the same name in the parish of Ceres in Fife. Sir Thomas Hope's contribution to the Scottish
legal profession was immense and his works are still referred to by Scottish lawyers today. He saw two sons raised to the
Supreme Court Bench and was created Baron of Nova Scotia in 1638. He also drafted the National Covenant. After his death
in 1646 his eldest son took the title 'Lord Craighall'. Lord Craighall became a trusted advisor to Charles II, his advice
proved particularly useful in his dealings with Oliver Cromwell.
18th century: The younger son of the great Sir Thomas Hope founded the Hopetoun branch
of the family and settled in West Lothian. His son was lost at sea when the frigate Gloucester sank. There is a story that he died saving the Duke of York, James VII of Scotland. Sir Thomas's grandson was a young member of parliament for
Linlithgow, rising rapidly to the Privy Council and by 1703 was made a peer; Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie and Lord Hope.
Around this time the magnificent Hopetoun House, one of William Adam's best known houses, was built for the family.
In 1792 the Craighall estates were sold on by the sixth Baronet to the Earl of Hopetoun, Sir Thomas Hope.
The eighth Baronet is best known for turning former plague pits in Edinburgh into the 'Meadows' park. The Earl of Hopetoun's
estates grew rapidly in the 18th century with most of West Lothian, and parts of East Lothian and Lanarkshire.
19th century: The fourth Earl, who had a notable military career, particularly
during the Peninsular War, worked with Sir Walter Scott in welcoming George IV during his visit to Scotland in 1822. Hopetoun
House was used to host a lavish reception for the monarch.
20th century: The name John Adrian Hope is well remembered on the other side
of the world; the seventh Earl was first Governor General to the Australian Commonwealth in 1900. Two years later he was made
Marquess of Linlithgow. The second Marquess was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. The family still live at Hopetoun House.
Clan Castle: The seat of the Clan Hope is at Hopetoun House. Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun (later the Marquess of Linlithgow). It was built in 1699 and was designed by William Bruce, and extended in 1721 by William Adam. The house is located near South Queensferry to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Classical musical recitals are occasionally put on at Hopetoun House. During the summer months, the castle
is open to visitors. It can also be rented for weddings, conferences, and as a film set.
Chief: A living member of the clan, Josh Houston, has taken up the case with the Court of the Lord Lyon to be instated as the Chief of the Houston Clan. The Court
has yet to reach a decision. Until then the clan will be considered as armigerous.*
Motto: In Vicis ("In Time").
Origins of the Clan: The name is territorial in origin, derived from an old barony of the name in Lanarkshire. Hugh de Padinan, who is believed to have lived in the twelfth century, was
granted the lands of Kilpeter. By about the middle of the fourteenth century, these lands had become known as Huston. Sir
Finlay de Hustone appears on the Ragman Roll swearing fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.
The castle of the de Hustones was built on the site of an ancient Cistercian abbey. The family also acquired a substantial
barony near Whitburn, West Lothian, where Huston House, which was rebuilt in the eighteenth century,
still stands today. Sir Patrick Hustone of that Ilk, who was probably the eleventh chief, married Agnes Campbell of Ardkinglas.
16th & 17th Centuries: During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Sir Peter Huston fought with the Earl of Lennox on the right wing at Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, where he was killed. His son, Sir Patrick Huston of Huston, was a companion of James V of Scotland and Keeper of the Quarter Seal. He intrigued with Lord Lennox
against the king, and was slain at the Battle of Linlithgow. The next Sir Patrick, his grandson, was knighted by Mary, Queen of Scots, and accompanied her when she visited Lord Darnley in Glasgow.
The nineteenth chief was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles II in 1668. His son, Sir John, was falconer to Queen Mary and her husband, King William of Orange.
18th & 19th Centuries: The fifth Baronet was a prosperous merchant who had substantial interests in United States. His son, who was educated in Glasgow, made his home in Georgia (U.S. state), and he and his brother greatly increased the family’s
colonial estates. They are reputed to have owned over eight thousand slaves when the thirteen American colonies broke from
Great Britain and declared their independence. The Hustons renounced their
Scottish titles in favour of their American wealth. From this family descended General Sam Houston, born in 1793, who fought for the independence of Texas from Mexico. He was first president of Texas and later a United States
Senator. Sir Robert Houston, descended from a Renfrew branch of the family, was a prominent Victorian ship owner who was created
a baronet of the United Kingdom. He is credited with developing the theory of convoys first
used during the Boer War
Crest: A demi lion rampant Argent
Motto: Nobilis Est Ira Leonis (The Lion’s Anger is
Names associated with the clan: Englis, Ingles, Inglis, Ingalls, Ingals
The name Inglis
is believed to have come from the old English for 'Englishman'. An Early (12th century) mention of the name (Richard
Anglicus) is found in the witnessing of a charter of David I to Melrose Abbey.
In 1296, when Edward I invaded Scotland, the names of John de Inglis, Walter de Inglis
and Philip de inglis are recorded as owning a great deal of land.
During the early 14th century there was an Inglis
family living in Douglasdale, Lanarkshire, along with the Douglases. Douglasdale was at this time being frequently invaded and held by the English. The Inglises did
a great service when one of them overheard an English plot to take the castle, and sent a warning at great personal risk.
The Inglises were asked to name their reward, and were granted a part of the local church, St Brides, as their family burial
place. The Inglis coat of arms can be seen on the wall of the south transept to this day.
During the reign of
Robert the Second and Third, in 1395, Sir William Inglis duelled with Sir Thomas Struthers, killing the English champion. As a reward,
the family was given the Barony of Manner by royal charter the following year, thereafter tracing their descent from Sir William.
The family had for some time been followers of the Douglases, and now strengthened this association by adding the three Douglas stars to their own coat of arms.
The Barony was finally sold in 1707, when Chiefship
was given to Charles Inglis of Craigend, an edinburgh lawyer
who died in 1743.
A prosperous branch
of the family lived in Crammond, Edinburgh, since purchasing land from the Bishop of Dunkeld in 1624.
In 1680 John
Inglis built Crammond House near the Bishop's palace, and a short time later, in 1687, Sir James Inglis received a baronetcy.
Sir James's son later became Postmaster General of Scotland until 1725.
Motto: Be Traist (Be Faithful) Crest: A Boar's Head Plant:
The Great Bullrush Accepted spellings: Eanes, Ince, Inch, Innes, Ennis, Inness, Innis
Septs of the Clan Innes (sub clans of the Clan Innes):
MacTary, Milnes, Marnoch,
Mitchell, Maver, Oynie, Mavor, Redford, McInnes, Reidford, Middleton, Thain, Mill, Wilson, MacRob, Milne, Yunie
Origin of the Name
The clan takes its name from the lands of Innes in Moray, Scotland. It dates back to 1160 AD when King Malcolm IV conferred the Barony of Innes on one of his knights, Berowald of Flanders. The Barony
was located on the outskirts of Elgin in Morayshire. It stretched
for over 6 miles along the shore of the Moray Firth between the Spey and Lossie rivers. The
name derives from the Gaelic, Innis, which means meadow, greens or island, all descriptive of this area. The Innes' grew to
become one of the most powerful families in the province of
Moray, dominating the parishes of Urquhart, Lhanbryde and the surrounding
district. Innes House was built on the Barony by Sir Robert Innes, 20th chief of the Clan Innes, between1640 and 1653.
Sir James Innes, 22nd chief, married Lady
Margaret Ker in 1666 and as a result their great grandson, Sir James Innes, inherited the Dukedom of Roxburghe in 1805 when
the Ker family line died out. Today Sir Guy David Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe is the 30th Baron of Innes in direct descent
from Berowald of Flanders. He resides at Floors castle near Kelso in the Scottish borders.
During the latter part of the 14 century
Kinnairdy came into the ownership of the Innes family when Sir Alexander Innes married Janet, daughter of Sir David de Aberkerder,
the lineal descendant of the Thanes of Aberkerder An imposing structure overlooking the river Deveron in rural Aberdeenshire,
this ancient fortress has stood sentinel over the surrounding valleys since the 12th century, the present stone construction
replacing a wooden structure known as a Motte & Bailey, in the 14th century.
The Tower of Kinnairdy Castle, which occupies
the present site is believed to have been built by Sir Walter Innes (son of Sir Alexander Innes, 9th of that ilk) around 1420.
For the next two centuries Kinnairdy remained in the hands of subsequent Clan chiefs who took a full part in the tumultuous
history of Scotland.
The break with the Innes Clan came in 1627
when Sir Robert, the 20th chief sold the lands of Kinnairdy, in part as a result of his political activities and close association
with the Court of Charles, many lawsuits and also in order to concentrate on the original Innes lands in Morayshire which
was the home territory of Sir Roberts wife, she being Lady Grizel Stewart, 3rd daughter of the "Bonny Earl of Moray".
In 1923 Kinnairdy was again restored to
the Innes family when it was purchased by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms 1945 - 1969. The author of many
learned papers on Scots Peerage Law, Heraldry and Ceremonial, he was deeply interested in the family history. He set about
restoring Kinnairdy with the help of his sister Miss Helen C. Innes of Crommy, a very able and astute lady who assisted with
many of the more mundane tasks and who's advice was invaluable during restoration of the interior.
Following on from Sir Thomas' work, his
son Sir Malcolm Innes, (Lord Lyon King of Arms, now retired) continued to restore the building which is now nearing completion
under the guidance of the present owner, Mr Colin Innes.
Chief: Sir Alexander Maule Jardine of Applegarth, 12th Baronet and Chief of the Name and Arms of Jardine.
Chief's crest: A spur rowel of six points Proper
motto: Cave adsum (Latin: Beware I am
badge: Apple blossom
Septs Associated with Clan Jardine: Jardine,
Jardines, Gardino, Gardin, Gardinus, Garden, Jardin, Jardane, Jerdane, Jerden, Jerdone, Jarden, Jardyne, Jarding, Jardyn,
Gerden, Gerdain, Gairdner, Gardynnyr, Gardynsr, Gardnsrd, Gardinare, Gardinar, Gardenar, Gardenare, Gardnare, Gardener, Gardennar,
Gardnar, Gardiner, Gardner.
of the clan: The Clan Jardine is believed to be of French
origin. The French word jardin means garden or orchard and it is presumed that the Jardine family originally
came from France. Members of the Jardine family travelled with William during the Norman conquest of England in 1066. However records of the name Jardine do not appear in Scotland until 1153 with the name Wmfredus de Jardine appearing on several charters.
The first mention of the name Jardine is contained
Chronicles of England as one of the Normandic knights that fought for William at the Battle
of Hastings (AD 1066). There is also evidence that may suggest that the Jardines were of
Norse extraction that migrated to Normandy with a warrior named Rollo prior to 1066.
At some point in time the name or its meaning
appears to have been translated into English. Patrick de Gardinus was chaplain to the Bishop
of Glasgow and there is a signature on a document from 1245 of Sir Humphrey de Gardino.
To add to the confusion Jorden del Orchard's signature appears on the Ragman
Rolls of 1296. Later Humphery de Jardine's name appears on a charter drawn up by Robert
of Scottish Independence: Unlike many Scottish clans during the
Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Jardine are said to have fought against William Wallace and in support of the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 and the Battle of Falkirk (1298). However the Clan Jardine supported King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1311 where they helped the Scottish King defeat the English.
During the 14th century the Clan Jardine settled
in Applegirth in Dumfriesshire. There they built Spedlins
Tower which was the family's seat until the 17th century when Jardine
Hall was built on the opposite banks of the River
16th century and
Anglo Scottish Wars: The
border region between England and Scotland
was a difficult place to live. There were constant raids and incursions by both sides. Chief Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegirth
led the clan when they met an advancing force of English near Carlisle in 1524 where they took hundreds of English prisoners during the Anglo-Scottish Wars.
In 1547 the tables were turned when Alexander's
son, the next chief, had to deal with over 5,000 English who overran the area, sacking the Jardine lands and forcing John
Jardine of Applegirth to yield. John later sought assistance from the French and along with the Clan Jardine fell on their
English oppressors taking many lives.
The Clan Jardine also supported the cause of Mary,
Queen of Scots, however her scandalous marriage to Bothwell after the suspicious murder
of Lord Darnley turned the Jardines along with many other Scots to support her infant son James's claim to the throne.
In 1573 the King confirmed the grant of
lands to Sir Alexander Jardine of Jardinefield in Berwickshire; Applegirth and Sibbaldbie in Dumfrieshire; Hartside and Wandel
in Lanarkshire; and Kirkandrews in Kirkcudbright. It is recorded that he had to muster 242 men to fight for the King if required.
It was these retainers who then had no surnames who became known as "Jardine Men" and adopted Jardine as their surname
century: A later Sir Alexander Jardine forged a link to the powerful
Clan Douglas through marriage to Lady Margaret Douglas, sister of the first Duke of Queensberry. They had a son, Alexander, in 1645, who was later created a Baronet of Nova Scotia.
The chief of the Clan Jardine and his family were
reportedly forced to move from their seat at Spedlins
Tower to Jardine
Hall because of a grisly family secret; A miller had been left to starve to
death in the dungeon of the tower and his ghost had driven the family from their home.
century: The fourth Baronet was a Knight of the Sovereign Order
of Malta, taking a vow of celibacy. When he died in 1790 the title passed to his brother, Sir William. Jardines also made
their mark on the literary world. Reverend John Jardine, born in 1716 mixed in the intellectual heart of Edinburgh during
the Scottish Enlightenment had the good fortune to be part of a society that included great Scots such as economist and writer
Adam Smith, philosopher David Hume, and the painter Allan Ramsay. He was one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review. His son, Sir Henry Jardine, was one of those present when the Honours of Scotland were re-discovered in 1818. He was knighted in 1825 and later made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Clan seat: The seat of the Chief of Clan Jardine was at Spedlins Tower. Spedlins Tower
is situated by the River Annan, 4 miles (6.5 km) northwest of Lockerbie. It is a 15th century fortalice which was abandoned by the Clan Chief when he built a new mansion nearby. The tower fell
into ruin. In the second half of the 20th century its ownership changed hands three times. The present owner bought Spedlins Tower in
1988 from her predecessor who had restored it.
Motto: This I'll Defend Origin
of Name: the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’
Clan Chief: Madam Arabella Kincaid of Kincaid
The name Kincaid, it is supposed, is territorial in origin, or possibly
from ‘ceann cadha’, the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’ but could also be ‘of the head of
the rock’, or even ‘the head of the battle.’ The lands of Kincade were granted to Maldouen, third Earl of
Lennox by Alexander III in 1238 the Earl then passed these lands to Sir William Galbraith, the fourth chief. The direct male line ended in three sisters which resulted in the partitioning of the estate.
One sister married a Logan and were confirmed lands of Kyncade by the fourth Earl of Lennox. The family took their surname from the area which was around 30,000 acres
Kincaids were present during Scotland's wars of independence; one family member fighting against Edward I and recapturing
Edinburgh castle in 1296. A Kincaid was made constable of
the castle and Robert the Bruce granted that the castle to be added to their arms as a recognition of their achievements.
The family estates grew in the sixteenth century, through marriage they gained the estate of Craiglockhart near Edinburgh, the estate of Bantaskin by Falkirk, Blackness Castle and the fields of Warriston, now in Edinburgh.
Malcolm Kincaid was involved in a battle against the Stirlings of Craigbarnet in 1563 were he lost his arm, he was also fighting with the Lennoxes of Woodhead in the 1570
before finally being dispatched by a Stirling of Glovat in 1581.
in 1600 John Kincaid of Warriston was murdered. His wife and one of his own grooms were implicated.
both were put to death for their crimes, the wife beheaded and the groom 'broken on the wheel' a particularly grizzly punishment.
Kincaids supported the royalists during the civil war and suffered for this during the 'protectorate', prior to the
restoration of the monarchy with many of the clan emigrating to America.
They also supported the later Stewart cause, also costing them dear both during the 1715 and '45 rebellions with several Kincaids escaping to Virginia.
Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Kincaids became closely linked to the Lennoxes through marriage. The
two families grew close, in complete contrast to the situation that had existed between them 200 years earlier.
Madam Heather Kincaid of Kincaid was the first chief of the name to sit on the Council of Chiefs and was succeeded
in 2001 by her granddaughter Arabella.
For more information - especially in Ohio - you may contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Crest: Saltire shaped by two anchors.
Motto: I LIVE IN
Chief: The Clan, although not ruled by a Chief, has a senior male in the way of Malcolm MacIntyre Kinnear. It may be considered as Armigerous.*
Names Associated with Clan Kinnear: Kinneir, Ceanniar, Kyner
In the reign of Malcolm IV (1153-65) a family of Norman
origin was established in the north of Fife as vassals of the priory of St Andrews. Symon, son of Michael, gave land from his holdings at Cathelai to the church of St Andrews
earlier than 1164. His descendants took their family name from the rest of the
holdings. The head of the family took his surname from the lands
of Kinnear (probably Gaelic ceann iar - 'west headland') now represented on the map only by a farm name. It is located near Wormit, in Fife.
By 1296 Sir John de Kyner was important enough to have his
name included in the Ragman Roll. He was listed as “submissive to Edward I.”
Henry Kinnear of that Ilk was appointed commendator of Balmerino
Abbey in 1574, while John Kinneir was appointed its baillie . By this time
the family had the lucrative monopoly of ferry crossings of the Tay at what is now Newport.
George Kinnear was an Edinburgh
banker at the end of the 18th century, into the early 19th century. His
lovely wife was painted by Raeburn. His son, James, began a family legal tradition which carried into the twentieth century.
The name, now found all over Scotland, may tend to be confused with Kinnaird.
Motto: Bono Vince
Malum [Overcome evil with good. ]
Associated with the clan: Kettle, Ketley, Kettles, Ketill, and others.
The family is first found in Perthshire,
where they were seated from very ancient times. Some say this family was there
well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066.
The descendents of Viking settlers in Ancient
Scotland were the first to use the name Kittle. It was derived from the old Norse
personal name of Ketill, or from the Danish personal name of Ketil.
Some of the first settlers in America by this name were:
Peter Kettell settled in Boston in 1635
Edith Kettle settled in Nevis
in 1653 along with William Kettle
Ralph Kettle settled in Virginia in 1698
Margarita, Sarah and Wennell Kettle arrived
in Philadephia in 1733.
Peter Kittle who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1755
George Kittle who arrived in Washington
County Pennsylvania in 1854
*Septs or branches of a clan. When a smaller clan or family group declared allegiance to the chief of a more powerful or prominent clan they became a sept or branch of that clan. Clans also had many associated families through marriage. During
difficult times, it was often advantageous for smaller clan or family group to ally with a larger clan for protection from
enemies and/or other feuding clans. This practice which often included paying
homage to the Clan Chief at important events was effective in building respect, devotion, and familiarity between different
families within the same clan.
Motto: Stabo (I shall stand)
Crest: An oak tree Vert
associated with Clan Kinnimont: Kinninmont,
Kinnimonth, Kinnimund, Kinnimmund, Kynemuthe, Kynninmond, Quinemont
The name Kinnimont has
a regional origin, with the name deriving from the lands of Kinninmonth in Fife. William I of Scotland granted a charter for those lands to Odo, a seneschal to the Bishop of St. Andrews, between the years 1189 and
An 1841 publication tells us that on the original charter, it is the first time that we see the family
name in the form of S'Iohannis de Kinimmund. Elias
de Kynninmond is recorded as a witness to a Fife charter in 1228 and Helya de Kynninmond
witnessed a charter of lands to Johanni Lambini in 1290. Names were recorded in these ancient documents
to make it easier for their overlords to collect taxes and to keep records of the population at any given time. When the overlords
acquired land by either force or gifts from their rulers, they created charters of ownership for themselves and their vassals.
On the 1296 Ragman Roll, William de Kynemuthe's name is present, along with many other Scottish nobles, declaring allegiance to
Edward I of England.
Other examples of this name were found in the person of Alexander
de Kinnemunt who appears as Canon of Brechin in 1322 and Archdeacon of Lothian in 1327.
In 1329 an Alexander de Kininmund
became the Bishop of Aberdeen, whilst in 1352, a different Alexander de Kininmund became the Archdeacon of Aberdeen, and later
on, in either late 1354 or early 1355, he too, became the Bishop of Aberdeen. Jamys of Kyninmond asserted his right to the office of bailie, steward, and marischel
under the prior of St. Andrew in 1438.
With no male heirs
left to carry on the direct line of Kininmonts of that Ilk, the chief line came to an end with the sole heiress marrying Murray
A more recent notable Kinninmont was the late Sir William Kininmonth (1904-1988), a well known Scottish
Motto: Touch And I Pierce (First used by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick during the Wallace Campaigns); I Mak Sikkar (the
current motto bestowed by King Robert Bruce for Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's support of Robert Bruce's claim to the crown, secured
by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's action at the Grey Friar's Church in Dumfries, Scotland.
This is an armigerous* clan, located in the lowlands.
The clan is recognized by the Lord Lyon, but doesn't currently have a recognized chief. It takes it's name from the
church of St. Patrick which is located in the parish of Closeburn in Dumfriesshire.
The first record of the clan is in the 12th century, when Ivone de Kirkpatrick
was listed as a witness in a Bruce Family charter. Alexander the second confirmed by charter the lands of the same Ivone.
Roger Kirkpatrick was attendant to Robert the Bruce during the time when Bruce brutally murdered the Red Comyn. Clan
Kirkpatrick legend has it that their motto is derived from Bruce's killing of Comyn.
Bruce fled from the church to his escorts and told them, "I doubt I have slain
Comyn." , Kirkpatrick drew his sword shouting, "I MAK SICCAR" ("I'll make sure"), whereupon he finished off the wounded Comyn.
Sir Roger Kirkpatrick hid with Robert Bruce for three nights to escape Comyn's family. This event is memorialized in the clan's
crest, which contains a hand holding a bloody dagger; and the shield: three pillows on a shield bearing the Saltire with the
Scotland colours, or the St Andrews Cross, reversed (i.e. Kirkpatrick wears a blue
saltire on a white ground). It is also memorialized in the Clan's motto, "I make sure".
In 1314 the Kirkpatricks were rewarded the lands of Redburgh. In 1355, Sir Roger
Kirkpatrick captured both Caerlaverock and Dalwinston Castle from the English. Two years later, in 1357, Sir Robert Kirkpatrick was murdered
by Sir James Lindsay in a private argument. The title passed from Roger to his Nephew, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, who had a charter
for the lands of Closeburn and Redburgh given to him in 1409 by Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. In1542,
Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick was captured at the Battle of Solway Moss. The estate then passed to a cousin. In 1685 Sir
Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn was named a Baronet of Nova Scotia. The Kirkpatrick estate of Closeburn was finally sold
by the 4th baronet, Sir James Kirkpatrick.
Closeburn Castle is the former stronghold and seat of the Chiefs of the clan.
It is a tower house, probably 14th century (possibly older) and is one of the oldest continually inhabited houses in Scotland.
The castle is located 1 km east of the village of Closeburn in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland.
Alexander the Second granted the lands of Closeburn to the Kirkpatrick family
in 1232. The tower house was probably built in the late 14th century, although some sources give a date as early as
1180 or as late as 1420. In the 17th century the Kirkpatricks moved out of Closeburn to an adjacent, newly built manor house.
However, this burned down in 1748, with the castle sustaining some damage. Renovations were made to the castle, and the family
moved back in. The Kirkpatrick family finally sold Closeburn in 1783 to a local minister, Dr James Stewart-Menteith. It has
since changed hands several times, but is still occupied as a dwelling house. Today it has been bought back into the family
by Luis Kirkpatrick from Spain.
Motto: Dum spiro spero
Translation: While I
breathe I hope
Origin of the Name
Learmonth arises from lands in Berwickshire and the Learmonths of Ercildoune in the Merse were the earliest family of note.The
family established the principal line of the family in that county through marriage into the Dairsies of Fife.
Many of the ancient manuscripts of
Scotland feature this name. Examples of such are a William de Leirmonth who was a juror on an inquest held in Swinton in 1408
and Alexander Leyremonth was clerk of works of the town and castle of Berwick
in the year 1434.
1446 Sir James Learmouth of Dairsie was Master to the Household of James V and provost of St. Andrews.
The Learmonths acquired the lands of Balcomie in Fife and in 1604 Sir James Learmonth of Balcon was a commissioner appointed
to consider possible political union with England.
Other examples of this name were found
in the person of William of Learmonth who was summoned in 1479 to answer to Parliament for treason and other crimes and John
Learmont who published a volume of Poems in Edinburgh in 1791.
Learmonth was a highly succesful merchant in Edinburgh and Leith.
The Learmonths acquired the estate of Parkhall at the beginning of the nineteenth century and latterly assumed the compund
surname of Livingston-Learmonth. They still, however, use the ancient Learmonth arms.
Virtute Cresco - is the ancient motto of the Leasks, meaning “By Virtue I Grow.”
Chief: Jonathan Leask, 23rd chief of Clan Leask
Origin of the Name
There is more than one theory as to the origin of the name Leask. One
is from the Anglo-Saxon word lisse which means happy. Another is that it comes from
the Norse meaning of stirring fellow. Another is that it comes from Liscus which was the name of the chief of a tribe called the Haedui. The Haedui were a tribe of Gauls as described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Another theory concerns the Castle of Boulogne, once the possession of Charlemagne, at one time belonged to a family called de Lesque. William de Laskereske's
signature appears on the Ragman Roll of 1296.
Later William Leask was granted the lands of Leskgoroune by King David II of Scotland, son of Robert the Bruce. William was also the first known chief of the Clan Leask. The second chief was baillie of the barony of Findon.
He inherited lands from Henry de Brogan, Lord of Achlowne, in 1390, later in the 1400s another branch of the family sprung
up on Orkney after Jamis of Lask, younger son of Thomas de Lask of that Ilk settled there.
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the clan suffered when they fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Both William, the fifth chief of the clan and his eldest son Alexander were killed. William's younger
son also called William became the 6th chief of the clan. William Lesk of that Ilk, the seventh chief supported the infant
King James VI of Scotland in opposition to his mother Mary, Queen of Scots after the murder of Lord Darnley and her scandalous marriage to Bothwell.
Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some
sort between the Leasks and the neighbouring Clan Gordon. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird
of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask
of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men.
Also in the seventeenth century the Leasks suffered terribly by investing
heavily in the Darién scheme. The venture was a disaster with a vast amount of Scotland's wealth being lost which in some part led to the union of Scotland and England Alexander Leask of that Ilk, the thirteenth
chief was forced to give up his estates which were taken over by Robert Cumming.
The clan today
In 1963, a descendant managed to buy back a portion of the family lands
and established the Leask Society with the support of other prominent Leasks such as Lieutenant General Sir Henry Leask, sometime
governor of Edinburgh Castle and General Officer commanding the Army in Scotland.
In 1968 Moira Anne Helgesen was granted the chiefship of the clan by the Lord Lyon, where upon she changed her name and became:
Madam Anne Leask of Leask. She died in April 2008 and was succeeded in the chiefship of the clan by Jonathan Leask, the 23rd
chief of Clan Leask
Chief: Edward Lennox of that Ilk and Woodhead, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lennox.
Arms: Argent, a saltire between four roses Gules.
Crest: Two broadswords in saltire behind a swan's head and neck all Proper.
Motto: I'll defend.
Badge: A rose slipped Gules.
Names associated with the clan: Levenax, Levinax, Levynnax, MacCorc, MacGurkich, MacGurgh, MacGurk,
MacKork, Lenox, Lennox, MacCork
Origins of the name : The name Lennox in gaelic comes from the place of the same name. The clan name
comes from the title of Earl of Lennox which commanded the vale of Leven between the 12th and 15th centuries.
15th century: In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colquhoun of
Luss of Clan Colquhoun took advatage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox.
Sir John Stuart
of Darnley was created 1st Earl of Lennox of the new line by King James III of Scotland in 1473.
Malcolm the fifth
Earl of Lennox led Clan Lennox into England and besieged Carlisle Castle.
16th century: A clan battle took place between the Clan Kincaid and the Clan Lennox of Woodhead in 1570.
Henry Stuart (1545-1567)
Lord Darnley and the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was also the father of King James VI of Scotland. The King promoted the 8th Earl of Lennox to Duke of Lennox in 1581.
Gaelic Name: Mac an Fheisdeir
Motto: Grip fast
Chief: The Hon. Alexander Leslie
Names associated with
Lesslie, Leslie, Lesly, Lesli, Leslei, Lessley, Lessely, Lesley, Achindachy, Achyndachy, Bartill, Abbernetti, Aburnethe, Abrenythie, Abirnythy, Abirnethy, Abirnethny, Abirnethie,
Abernethy, Abernethny, Abernethie, Abernethi, Aberneathy, Abernythe, Abernathy, Abernathie, Habernethi, Bartelmew, Bartholomew, Bartilmew, Bartholomew, Bertholmew, Bartilmew, Bertholomei, Bertillmew, Abernyte,
The family name comes
from the Leslie lands of Aberdeenshire and was to become famous in Germany, Poland, France and Russia.
A Flemish noble named Bartholf settled in this area and in the 12th century one of his sons obtained a charter for the Barony
of Lesly from William the Lion.
15th Century &
Sir Andrew de Lesly
was one of the signatories when the Declaration of Arbroath was sent to the Pope in 1320 asserting Scotland’s independence.
Century Clan Conflicts & Anglo-Scottish Wars
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars George de Lesly was the Leslys'
first Earl. His grandson, the 2nd Earl was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the third Earl, also George,
carried out a private family vendetta on the life of David Beaton, cardinal Archbishop of St Andrews.
One of the most highly
respected Leslies is said to be John Leslie, the Bishop of Ross, who was born in 1526. He was the most loyal of Mary Queen
of Scots supporters during the turbulent times of 1562. It was John Leslie who wrote for her the famous ‘History of
In 1571 the Clan Leslie joined forces with the Clan Gordon against their bitter enemies the Clan Forbes.
The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of
Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone.
17th Century & Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years' War General Alexander Leslie of Balgonie fought for Gustavus Adolphus, the King
of Sweden. He achieved great fame across Europe for his skills in war and returned to Scotland a Field Marshal.
17th Century & Civil War
the Covenanters Alexander Leslie captured Edinburgh Castle with a thousand men.
With the Scots Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went
into England in 1640 and defeated the
King’s soldiers at the Battle of Newburn. For this he was created Earl of Lewis by King Charles I. In 1642 Alexander
Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went to Ireland
and held command alongside Robert Munro (d. 1680) of the Scottish Army. They were sent to put down a rebellion of Irishmen
who had killed Scotts in Ulster.
In 1644, Alexander
Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven commanded Scottish Covenanter forces to victory over English Royalists at the Battle of Marston
Moor in 1644. This battle was the largest battle of the English and Scottish Civil War, and one of the most decisive. It resulted
in a Parliamentarian victory, which meant that the north of England
was effectively lost to King Charles for the rest of the war.
During the Civil War General David Leslie is victorious
commanding his Scottish Covenanters force against a Scottish Royalist force at the Battle of Philiphaugh in 1645. The Royalist
army of James Graham, the 1st Marquess of Montrose was destroyed by the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the
power of the Committee of Estates.
18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings
the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Leslie supported the British government. The 9th Earl of Rothes now the Duke of Rothes was
Vice Admiral of Scotland and governor of Stirling Castle. He commanded a British regiment of cavalry at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715
where he helped defeat the Jacobites.
Castles & Clan Seat
Clan Leslie held several castles including Balgonie Castle
in Fife, and Fetternear Palace in Aberdeenshire,
as well as Leslie House in Fife until 1919, and Balquhain Castle, Aberdeenshire.
The Irish Leslies still reside at County Monaghen Ulster in their 17th-century
family home Castle Leslie and it's surrounding 1000 acre estate. The Castle is no longer private, and is now open guests.
While visiting they enjoy beautiful vistas, great food and mild ecentricity. The Castle is also used for functions, weddings
and now boasts a brand new Cookery School
and Day Spa.
Earl of Rothes
From 1457 the Clan Chief of Clan Leslie also held the position of Earl of
Rothes. It is currently held by James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes (b. 1958).
speaking, as the Clan Little has had no chief since the 17th. century and is therefore a 'heidless' clan, it cannot have a
clan crest badge, as these were handed out to his followers by their chief. It
is, therefore, armigerous.*
As a compromise, the black demi-lion of David Little within a buckled
strap bearing the motto 'Concedo Nulli' is being used as the Littles' clan crest badge until such time as a chief shall be
recognized. The clan crest badge may be worn on the person of members, but must
not be used in any other way (for example on stationery, banners, etc).
Motto: Concedo Nulli (no surrender, no retreat, yield no ground)
Alternative Mottos: “Fidei Coticula Crux" (The Cross is the Test of Truth) or “Magnum
in Parvo” (Great in Little) or “Multum in Parvo” (Much in Little)
Names associated with the clan: Litel,
Litil, Litill, Litle, Littell, Littil, Littill, Little, Littyll, Lityl, Lytil, Lytle, Lyttle, Lyttille
Origin of the Name
The first appearance of the surname
Little (Lytle, or le Little) is in the period following the Norman Conquest, Richard Lytle being in line of descent from Robert
FitzHugh, Lord of the Barony of Malpas in Cheshire, mentioned in the Domesday Book. (FitzHugh was related to a nephew of William
the Conqueror.) A descendant of Richard Lytle came north to Scotland from Cheshire
some 750 years ago.
1296/7 Edward Little, one of the descendants
of Richard Lytle, and a nephew of William Wallace, assists his famous uncle in guerrilla warfare against Edward I of England,
so-called 'Hammer of the Scots'.
1398 Nicol Little is one of the knights
and 'squires' entrusted with the repatriation of English prisoners across the Border. He is one of the 'Conservators of the
Peace for Lochmabenston' (the Lochmaben Stone, which still exists), the meeting place during the Border Wars for opposing
forces to gather and negotiate.
1426 James I, King of the Scots, grants
to Simon Litil, chief of the clan, his 'beloved Simon', tenure of the lands of Meikledale, Kirkton and Sorbie in Ewesdale.
Simon thus becomes the first Laird of Meikledale.
16th. Century Clement Litil the 2nd. of Liberton (died in 1580)
founds the Library of the University of Edinburgh.
1530 James V, King of the Scots, alarmed
at the increasing power of the Border Clans - Armstrongs, Elliots, Littles , Irvins and others - invites 32 of their most
important members to a parley. It is a trap~ they are seized and summarily hanged. Henceforth, the Littles and other Border
clans, formerly loyal to the monarchy, abandon patriotism and concentrate on self-preservation.
1569 A force of over a hundred men
of Clan Little joins with the Earl of Morton in a raid on Stirling.
1585 The Littles, and other clans
involved in the Stirling Raid, are pardoned by James VI, King of the Scots. (This event is commemorated by a memorial window
in the kirk of Bentpath in Dumfriesshire.)
1672 David Little, the Clan's last
chief, and the last Laird of Meikledale, registers his coat of arms. With his death, Clan Little becomes 'heidless'.
Matthew Little, last surviving descendant of David Little the last chief, goes to sea and is heard of no more.
1991 Dr J.C. Little of Morton Rig,
having researched the history of the Littles in Scotland, founds the Clan
Little Society (UK and Worldwide) on St.
Andrew' s Day.
1994 Foundation of the Clan Little Society of North America.
Clan Crest: A demi savage, wreathed on the head and body, holding a club on the dexter shoulder and a serpent in the sinister
Clan Motto: Si Je Puis (If I can).
Livingston(e) Clan History
Legend has it that
a Saxon of the name of Leving acquired lands in West Lothian in the 12th century under David
I and representatives of the name Leving appear in documents of that period. Sir Archibald de Levingestoune rendered homage
to Edward I of England in 1296.
Sir Archibald's son
James was taken prisoner alongside David II at the Battle of Durham in 1346, but was later released. As a Commissioner
for the King's release from English captivity, he was given the Barony of Callendar, and in the following centuries the Livingston
Family held the earldoms of Callendar, Linlithgow and Newburgh.
Sir Alexander Livingston
of Callendar was appointed a guardian of James II and his son, Sir James, became Captain of Stirling Castle and Lord Chamberlain
of Scotland under the title of Lord Livingston.
Alexander, 5th Lord Livingstone accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to France,
where he died. In 1599, Alexander, 7th Lord Livingston, was created Earl of Linlithgow.
younger son of Alexander, 1st Earl of Linlithgow, was created Earl of Callendar by Charles I. The titles later merged, but
following the Livingston's support of the Jacobite Cause during the 1715 Uprising, the titles
The small Highland
Clan of Livingston originally bore a Gaelic name spelt in different ways – MacDunsleibh, Mac-an-Leigh or MacLea. The
amalgamation came about when Sir William Livingston of Skirling, Keeper of the Privy Seal for Charles I, was given a 57-year
lease on Achanduin Castle, on the island of Lismore, locally known as the 'Bishop's Castle.' The clansfolk of Lismore had
hitherto tried to avoid becoming involved with the surrounding clans – the Stewarts of Appin, the Macleans and the Macdougalls
- so rallied around Livingston of Skirling.
The Chief's Charter
for lands dates from 1544 and confirms him as the Hereditary Keeper of the Pastoral Staff of St Moluag, an Irish missionary
born around 520. On his death, the staff was entrusted to the family who had become almoners to Lismore Cathedral and subsequently
Barons of Bachuil. In 1950, a Lyon Court judgement
declared that the Custodian of the Staff is the Co-Arb of Saint Moluag and a Baron in the Baronage of Argyll and the Isles.
(1813-73) was born in Blantyre and joined the London Missionary
Society. He carried out explorations from Cape of Good Hope to Zambesi, then northwards into Central
Africa. Charles Livingstone (1821-73), brother of David Livingstone, joined his brother on African expedition
(1821-63) and emigrated to America.
Places of Interest:
West Lothian. Lands held by Livingstons from the 14th century.
A 15th century tower house remains part of the mansion house of a later date and gave its name to the Livingston earldom,
although it is spelled differently.
Livingston, West Lothian. Almshouses were founded here by Henry Livingston in 1496. This is now the site of Livingston
Achandon, Isle of
Lismore. 13th century Livingston stronghold. Now a ruin.
Bachuil, Isle of
Lismore. Home of the Livingstons of Bachuil. St Moluag's Staff (also known as the Bachuill
Buidhe), which ranks among the oldest ecclesiastical relics on record, is held here.
David Livingstone (1813-73), the great explorer, was born here. There is a National Memorial open the year round.
Motto: Corda Serrata Pando (I open locked hearts)
A boar's head erased argent, langued gules
Names associated with the clan: Lockhert, Lokhartt,Lockhartt, Lokkard, Lokert, Lokarte, Lockheart, Lockhart, Lokart, Lockhead
Chief: Chief: Angus
Hew Lockhart of the Lee, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lockhart
of the Name
In early times this name was spelt 'Locard' or 'Lokart'. Like so many Scottish families, the
Locards came from England where they were among those dispossessed of lands by william the conqueror.
There were lands of Lockards near penrith in the 12th century and later in Annandale,
where the town of lockerbie is said to be named after them. The family finally settled in Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, where
they have held land for over 700 years.
The earliest paper in the family archives is a charter of 1323. By this Sir
Symon Locard bound himself and his heirs to pay out of the lands of Lee and Cartland an annual rent of £10. Stephen Locard,
grandfather of Sir Symon, founded the village of Stevenston in Ayrshire. His son, Symon, acquired lands in Lanarkshire and, like his
father, called a village which he founded , Symons toun(today Symington) after himself. Symon, the 2nd of Lee, won fame for
himself and his family fighting alongside Robert the Bruce in the struggle for Scottish Independence. He was knighted for
his loyal service. Sir Symon was among the knights, led by Sir James Douglas, who took Bruces heart on crusade in 1329 to
atone for his murder of John Comyn in the church of Grefriars in 1306. The crusade was ended prematurely when Douglas was killed fighting
the Moors in Spain, but to commemorate
the adventure and the honour done to the family, their name was changed from Locard to Lockheart, which afterwards became
Lochhart. The heart within the fetterlock was from then on included in the arms of the family, and the dead is also commemorated
in the motto.
As well as a new name, the family gained a precious heirloom on the Crusade: the
mysterious charm known as the Lee Penny. Sir Walter Scott used the story of its acquisition by the family as a basis for his
novel, The talisman. Sir Symon captured a moorish amir in battle in Spain,
and received from the mans mother as part of his ransom, and amulet or stone with healing powers. The amirs mother told Sir
Symon that the stone was a remedy against bleeding, fever, the bites of mad dogs and the sicknesses of horses and cattle.
The amulet was later set in a silver coin which has been identified as a fourpenny piece of the reign of Edward IV.
The coin is kept in a gold snuffbox which was a gift from Maria Theresa,
Empress of Austria, to her general, Count James Lockhart. Such was the belief in the amulets powers that a descendant of Sir
Symon, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, was charged with sorcery, an offense which could carry the death penalty.
After examining the accused the Synod of the Church of Scotland dismissed the case, because '
the custom is only to cast a stone in some water and give deseasit cattle thereof to drink and the same is done without using
any words such as charmers use in their unlawful practices and considering that in nature there are many things seem to work
strange effects whereof no human wit can give reason it having pleast God to give the stones and herbs a special virtue for
healing of many infirmities in man and beast'.
Alan Lockhart of Lee was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. Sir James Lockhart of Lee, born
in 1596, was appointed a gentleman of the Privy Chamber by Charles I and was knighted. In 1646 he was appointed to the Supreme
Court Bench, taking the title of 'Lord Lee'. A zealous royalist, he was captured at Alyth in 1651 and conveyed to the Tower of London.
His son, Sir William, was a distinguished soldier who fought on the royalist side at the Battle
of Worcester in 1651. He then campaigned on the continent, where he achieved such prominence that Cardinal Mazarin, successor
to Cardinal Richelieu, offered to make him a mareschal of France.
He died in the Netherlands in 1675.
James Lockhart, who inherited the estates in 1777, also saw service on the Continent
where he rose to be a count of the Holy Roman Empire, a Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa and a general of that empresses
imperial forces. The title of Count became extinct when James's only son, Charles, died without issue. Although the family
seat, Lee Castle, has been sold, the estates are still owned and managed by the present head of the family, Angus Lockhart
of the Lee.
Marjorum Virtus" which means "This is the valour of my ancestors".
The following is a partial list of names associated with Clan Logan:
Lagan, Laggan, Leonerd, Loban, Lobban,
Loben.Logane, Logen, Loggan, Loggane, Loggans, Loghane, Loghyn, Login, Logyn, Lopan, Lowgan, Lyndon, MacLennan.
in the Highlands are often linked to the MacLennans due to a colourful (but unreliable) legend about a chief of the Logans in Easter Ross who was killed in a feud with the Frasers. His
wife gave birth to a child a few months later who later became a priest. His son was named Gillie Fhinnein (disciple of St
Finnan) and MacLennan is the anglicised version of this name.
All the Logan/Logie names are probably derived from the
Gaelic word "lagan" (little hollow) which became parts of place names in various parts of Scotland. One of the most important sources of the name was Logan in Ayrshire but there are examples of the name in Dryburgh in the Borders in 1204,
Adam de Logan in Gowrie in 1226 and Thurbrand de Logan in Cunningham, Ayrshire. There were four landowners of that name who
signed the "Ragman Roll" of King Edward I in 1296.
Two knights named Logan accompanied Sir James Douglas on his journey
to take Robert the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. They died with Douglas fighting the Moors in Spain in 1329.
There was a landed family of Logans in Forfar, Angus for hundreds of years until the last of the
lairds died without issue in 1802. Other Logans were established
in lands in West Linton (south of the Pentland Hills in the Scottish Borders).
Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig
in Edinburgh married a daughter of King Robert II and was
Admiral of Scotland in 1406. The family owned Fast Castle in Berwickshire but they fell from favour and the last Logan of Restalrig died
an outlaw and the castle was taken over by the Homes.
Logie/Loggie were located in different parts of the country from
Logan. Wauter de Logie also signed the Ragman Roll and Sir
John of Logy is reputed to have been one of the nobles who conspired with King Edward II of England and the Earl of Warenne when they attempted
an invasion of Scotland in 1320. A coat
of arms was granted to Logie of that Ilk (signifying a clan chief) but they were never subsequently recorded in the registers
of the Lyon Court.
"The Scottish Gael" was
the first work in English to try to give a history of Highland dress and it was written by
James Logan in 1831. In modern times, Jimmy Logan is the most famous of a large theatrical family.
Motto: Amor patitur moras (Love Endures Delays)
Names Associated with the Clan: Lumesten, Lumisdayn, Lumisdane, Lumsdean,
Lumisdeyn, Lumsdaine, Lummisdane, Lummdane, Lummisden, Lummesdene, Lumisden,
Lumisdeane, Lumysden, Lumsden, Lummysden, Lommestone, Blanerne.
Origins of the clan: The name Lumsden derives from the old manor of Lumsden in the parish of
Coldingham in Berwickshire. The earliest known recordings of the name appear between 1166 and 1182 when the brothers Gillem
(William) and Cren de Lumsden witnessed a charter by Waldeve Earl of Dunbar to Coldingham Priory. The lands of Lumsden are first mentioned in a charter dated 1098 of King Edgar of Scotland and his son Malcolm Canmore. Gillem and his brother Cren are the first recorded owners of the land.
Adam Lumsden and Roger de Lumsden were among the Scottish clan leaders who were forced to do homage to King Edward I of England with both of their names appearing on the Ragman Rolls.
Around 1328 Gillbert de Lumsden married an heiress of Blanerne and by 1329 had received a charter for the Blanerne
lands by the Earl of Angus. By the mid fourteenth century offshoots of the
Lumsden clan had charters and lands confirmed to them in Conlan in Fife and Medlar and Cushnie in Aberdeenshire.
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY -
Thirty Years' War and Civil War
Thirty Years' War
In the early seventeenth century during the Thirty Years' War the Clan Lumsden fought for the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in a famous unit called "Lumsden's Musketeers".
The Civil War
One of the Lumsden brothers, James Lumsden returned from the
war in Europe with his men to fight in the Civil War which was taking place in England, Ireland
and Scotland to support the Covenanters. They fought at the Battle of Marston
Moor in 1644 where King Charles I was defeated. They also fought at
the Battle of Dunbar
(1650) under David
Leslie where the Covenanters were defeated by the Parliamentarians.
brother Robert defended Dundee against General Monck but he was killed on its surrender.
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and Jacobite
During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Chief of Clan
Lumsden was Prince Charles Edward
Stuart's secretary. After the Battle of Culloden the chief fled to Rome. He returned to Scotland in 1773 and was pardoned by the British government.
His tartan waistcoat is preserved at Pitcaple
and clan seat
- Blanerne Castle in Berwickshire, was acquired in the fourteenth century and was
the main clan seat.
cock Or, crested and barbed Gules.
Origin of the Name
This name is Norman in origin
deriving from D’Lisle meaning in Latin “of the island”. The
name Lyle is part of the same stock as the Northumberland family of 'de Insula'
(as it is in Latin) 'Lisle' (de Lisle, Delisle in French).
de Insula, or Radulphus, is the first of this name to appear in Scotland. A
follower of the Steward, around 1170, he witnessed the church of Innerkyp being
gifted by Baldwin de Birge, the sheriff of Lanharc (Lanark), to the monks of
Paisley. Around the same time, de Insula also witnessed the giving of ferms of
his mill at Paisley by Walter Fitz-Alan for the soul of Sir Robert de
Brus. He witnessed, at some point prior to 1177, the church of Cragyn
(Craigie in Kyle) being given to the monks of Paisley by Walter Hose.
As early as the start of the 1200s a
family of Lyles were barons of Duchal in Refrewshire.
de Lile witnessed a charter
to lands in 1222 and 1233. Alan de Insula witnessed many charters of Alexander,
son of Walter the High Steward, prior to 1252.
Both John de Lille of Berwickshire
and Richard del Isle of Edinburgh plead fealty to Edward I of England in the
Ragman Roll of 1296.
They acquired the barony of Duchal
in Renfrewshire, and extended their lands during the reign of David II,
receiving a charter to the barony of Buchquhan in Stirlingshire.
Sir Robert Lyle was raised to the
peerage as Lord Lyle by James II. The 2nd Lord Lyle was sent as ambassador to
England in 1472. He is said to have been
present at the murder of James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488.
However, he appears to have been appalled at the actual murder of the king and
joined the Earl of Lennox and other nobles to take up arms to avenge the kings
death. However, this was not successful, and
the title of Lord Lyle was forfeited the following year, 1489.
The estates were restored shortly
after and Lyle enjoyed high status for the rest of his life. This title is now
Another family of Lyells received
lands in Forfarshire around 1375.
This family produced a
number of distinguished soldiers, Including Hercules Lyle who fought in the
rising of 1745 and was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.
A Hercules Lyle fought
in the 1745 rising, but died at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.
Motto: In Te Domine Speravi (In Thee O Lord Have I Put My Trust)
Clan Chief: The current Chief of Clan Lyon is Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl
of Strathmore and Kinghorne.
Gaelic Name: Liobhunn
Lion(s), Lyons, Lehane or Lehan
Origin of the name
Although Sir Iain Moncreiffe, perhaps
the greatest herald genealogist, believed his family were of Celtic origin and descended from a younger son of the Lamonts, the generally
accepted view is that they descended from a French family called de Leon, who came north with Edgar, son of Malcolm
III, at the
end of the eleventh century to fight against his uncle, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. Edgar was triumphant, and
de Leon received lands in Perthshire which were
later called Glen Lyon. Roger
de Leonne witnessed a charter of Edgar to the Abbey at Dunfermline in
In 1372 Robert II granted
to Sir John
the White Lyon because of his fair complexion) the thanage of Glamis. Five years
later, he became Chamberlain of Scotland, and his prominence was such he was considered fit to marry the king¹s daughter,
Princess Joanna, who brought with her not only illustrious lineage, but also the lands of Tannadice on the
River Esk. He was
later also granted the barony of Kinghorne.
He was killed during a quarrel with Sir James Lindsay of Crawford near Menmuir in Angus.
The family have descended in
a direct line from the White Lion and Princess Joanna to the present day, and their crest alludes to this. His only son, another
John, was his successor, and he strengthened the royal ties by marrying a granddaughter of Robert II.
Sir John¹s son, Patrick, was created Lord Glamis in 1445 and thereafter became a Privy Councillor and Master of the Royal
John, sixth Lord Glamis, was, according
to a tradition, a quarrelsome man with a quick temper. He married Janet Douglas, granddaughter
of the famous Earl Angus (also called
Cat), and after
his death she suffered terribly for the hatred which James V bore all
of her name. Lady Glamis was accused
on trumped-up charges of witchcraft and,
despite speaking boldly in her own defence, her doom was preordained. She was burned at the stake on the castle hill at Edinburgh on 3 December 1540.
The eighth Lord Glamis renounced his allegiance to Mary, Queen
of Scots, and served
under the Regents Moray and Lennox. He was made Chancellor
of Scotland and Keeper
of the Great Seal for life, and his son, the ninth Lord, was captain of the Royal Guard and one of James VIs Privy
17th Century & Civil War:
In 1606 he was created Earl of Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon and Baron Glamis. His son, the second Earl, was a close personal
friend of James Graham the Marquess
of Montrose and was
with him when he subscribed to the National
Covenant in 1638.
He accompanied Montrose on his early campaigns in defence of the Covenant , but despite
his great affection for the Marquess, he could not support him when he broke with the Scots Parliament to fight for Charles
Lyon almost ruined his estates in supporting the Army of the Covenant against his friend.
In 1677, the third Earl of Kinghorne obtained a new patent of nobility, being styled thereafter Earl of
Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount
Lyon, Baron Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie. He paid off the debts he inherited from his father by skillful management
of the estates and was later able to alter and enlarge Castle Glamis. John,
his son, although a member of the Privy Council, opposed
the Treaty of
Union of 1707.
18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings:
His son was a Jacobite
who fought in the rising of 1715 at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Tullibardine¹s regiment. He died defending his regiment¹s
colours. In 1716 James, the Old Pretender. son of James VII, was entertained at Glamis. Thirty years later another king¹s
son, but a much less welcome one, the Duke of Cumberland, stopped at the castle on his march north to Culloden. It is said
that after he left the bed which he had used was dismantled.
Among the Jacobite relics
now preserved at Glamis are a sword and watch belonging to James VIII, the Old Pretender, and an intriguing tartan coat worn
by him. The youngest daughter of the fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne was the Queen Mother.
Likely came from the LYON charge from the coat-of-arms of Sir John de Lyon (Argent,
Lion Rampant Azure, Riband Gules).
Clan Castle: The seat of the Chief of Clan Lyon is at
Glamis Castle in Angus, Scotland.
Fortiter - "Boldly".
Chief: St John Somerville McAlester of
Loup and Kennox
Septs of the Clan: Alastair, Alexander, Alison, Alistair,Allison, Alister, MacAlasdair,
MacAlaster, MacAlester,MacAlister, MacAllister, MacAllister, McAlister, McAlester,
McAllister, McCallister, McCollister, McLister, Sanders, Saunders.
of the Name:
The Clan Alasdair descends from Somerled, 12th
century Lord of Argyll, through his grandson Donald, who founded the mighty Clan Donald. Until
the 15th century, they were, in fact, the senior cadet branch of the Clan Donald rather than an
independent clan. Clan Alasdair was, and is, a West
Highland clan, centered on the Kintyre peninsula and surrounding islands.
traces its descent from Alasdair Mor, son of Domhnall mac
Raghnaill who was grandson of Somerled. Somerled is claimed as the ancestor of the MacAlisters,
MacDonalds and MacDougalls. Gaelic tradition gave Somerled a Celtic descent in the male line, though
a recent DNA study has shown that Somerled may have been of Norse descent. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, and their
variants it was found that roughly a quarter of MacDonalds, a third of MacDougalls, and forty percent of MacAlisters tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct
paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome found in Scotland has been
regarded as showing Norse descent in the British
of a clan
After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles
in 1493, the MacAlisters seem to have formed into an independent clan of their own, and their chief,
Iain Dubh (Anglicisation: Black John), lived at Ardpatrick (Ard Phadriue) in South Knapdale. Later chiefs have styled themselves as Mac Iain Duibh, (sons of Black
John) in reference to him.
The clan's lands were never very extensive, were located mostly in Kintyre.
As early as 1481 a Charles Macallestar was made Steward of Kintyre. Later many
MacAlisters were found in Bute and Arran. The principal
family of the clan were the MacAlisters of Loup, and up to twenty years after the first record
of Iain Dubh, Angus Macallaster of the Loupe who is called "John Dubh's son" is mentioned.
After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, the MacAlisters of Loup attached themselves
for about one hundred years to the more powerful Clan Iain Vor. The "Laird of
Lowip", the chief of the clan, appears in the General Band of 1587, in which
Highland chiefs were held accountable by the Government
for their tenants. In 1618 the Laird of Loup was one of the twenty barons who were made responsible
for the good rule of Argyll during the absence of the Earl of Argyll.
Alexander MacAlister of
Loup fought at the Battle of
Killiecrankie, supporting the cause of the deposed James VII of
Scotland, and also at the Battle of the
Boyne. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Hector, though he died without issue and was in turn succeeded
by Alexander's brother, Charles. Charles married the daughter of Lamont of that Ilk.
of Loup, married Janet Somerville, heiress of Kennox, in 1792. In 1805 Charles assumed the name
and Arms of Somerville along with his own, and from then on this family has been known as Somerville
McAlester of Loup and Kennox.
In 1846 Charles MacAlester of Loup and Kennox, was granted the right to take up
Arms as Chief of the clan, by Lyon
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Godfrey Somerville MacAlester
of the Loup and Kennox, succeeded him as Chief of Clan MacAlister is 1903.
His seat was Kennox in Ayrshire, though the seat of the clan as since been sold, and the current chief, William
St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox, lives in England.
Clan Chief: There is no question that, in 843AD, King Kenneth
MacAlpin was our 1st Chief. He is the individual from whom our Clan
subsequently took its name. However, ancient records are very few and almost nothing is known
about persons living between then and about 1100 AD. Although we can probably presume that Kenneth's
direct male line, which ruled Scotland for 200 years, represented the initial chiefly succession
for our Clan, there is no clear picture of the succession following that time. By
some point in time, probably by 1300 AD, Clan MacAlpine had become landless and
the line of our Chief was lost; that is, we had become a "Broken Clan." Thus, our Clan has not
had a Chief for more than 700 hundred years and it does not have one now.
In early times, a Clan Chief picked his successor in accordance with the Gaelic
practice of "Tanistry." The Chief would select the most able candidate within the "derbhfine"
(an extended kinship group normally consisting of the male descendants of a common great-grandfather)
but, usually a close relative, such as a brother, son, cousin, nephew, etc.
Today, Tanistry has given way to the practice of passing the title directly from father
to eldest son, and so on. In addition, today, any person claiming to be Chief of a Scottish Clan
must petition the Lord Lyon in Scotland for a Coat of Arms and legally prove in Lyon Court they are entitled to be recognized as Chief. In cases
where the Chiefly bloodline has been lost, such as with Clan MacAlpine, Lord
Lyon has established guidelines and procedures that can be followed to form an "Ad
Hoc Derbhfine" and find a new Clan Leader (called a “Commander”) who might ultimately
be recognized as Chief, thereby establishing a new Chiefly bloodline.
Given our Clan’s ancient and unrecorded history, it is not expected that any
individual can prove to Lord Lyon's stringent requirements direct descent from our former Chiefs.
Thus, we must follow Lyon Court's guidelines and procedures to form an Ad Hoc Derbhfine for the
purpose of finding a new Clan Leader, a Commander, who might ultimately become our new Clan Chief.
Variant Spellings: Albain, Albanach, Albin, Ailpein, Allphin, Alpin, Alpine, Alpyn, Alpynsone,
Calpin, Calpine, Culpen, Elphin, Galpin, Galpine, Gilpin, Halpin, Halpine, MacAilpein, MacAlipine,
MacAlpan, MacAlpane, MacAlpeine, MacAlpeinne, MacAlpen, MacAlphine, MacAlpin, MacAlpie,
MacAlpy, MacAlpye, MacAlpyn, MacAlpyne, MacApline, MacCalpin, MacCalpine,
MacCapie, MacCappie, MacCappin, MacCappine, MacCappy, MacCapy, MacCarpin, MacColpin, MacColpine,
MacCoplan, MacCoplin, MacCoppin, MacCoppine, MacCorpin, MacCorpine, Mackalpe, MacKalpin, Makalpe,
Makcalpy, Makcalpyn, Malcalpyn, M’Alpen, M’Alpin, M’Alpine, M’Alpyn, McAlpain,
McAlpan, McAlpane, McAlpe, McAlpen, McAlphin, McAlphine, McAlpie, McAlpien, McAlpil, McAlpin,
McAlpine, McAlpion, McAlpon, McAlpy, McAlpyn, M’Calpin, M’Calppin, M’Calpy,
M’Calpyne, M’Cappe, M’Cavpy, McCalpie, McCalpin, McCalpy, McCapen, McCawpyn,
McCulpen, McKelpin, M’Kalpie, MkKalpy.
History of Clan MacAlpine:
The history of the Royal Clan MacAlpine is ancient. In fact, our Clan claims the
distinction of being the most ancient and the most purely Celtic of the
Highland clans. The Clan reached its peak of power and influence at a time when no written record
was kept, leaving only the vague history of tradition. This has led some to conclude, erroneously,
that the Clan MacAlpine never existed. Yet, the voices of the bards (ancient oral historians)
cannot be silenced and evidence of the Clan’s existence and significance abounds.
Kenneth MacAlpin became the first King of Scotland in AD 843 when he united
the Scots and the Picts. He was the son of King Alpin and the descendant of a long line
of Dalriadic Kings. His direct male descendants ruled Scotland for the next 200 years and every
Sovereign of Scotland since, including Queen Elizabeth II, today, has had his Royal blood coursing
through their veins. It is from him that our Clan takes its name, and, thus, he is considered
our first Chief. Of course, as King he was Chief of Chiefs and this is reflected
in the name of our Society newsletter. But, certainly, he was the Chief of his
own family branch, his “Clan.” From King Alpin and King Kenneth, several powerful
branches emerged, eventually becoming formidable Clans in their own right. This group or family
of related clans, of which Clan MacAlpine is certainly a part, is known as Siol Alpine.
The history of Clan MacAlpine is shrouded in Scotland's distant past; it is
debated by scholars and will likely never be clear. The written history of the Clan
is currently a work in-progress of the Society. In the mean time, we offer the following for your
Perhaps it was that King Kenneth’s brother, Donald, was the next
Chief, to be followed by the succeeding Scottish monarchs of the MacAlpin dynasty through
Malcolm II (1034 AD.) The line might then have vested with a distant male
cousin that history has left unrecorded. Did they continue to exist as a family of power for
a period of time? If so, there was no trace left by 1300 AD.
King Kenneth undoubtedly
brought many of his family advisors and Clansmen with him when he moved his capital from Argyllshire,
the traditional seat of the Clan, to Scone, in Perthshire, leaving behind others to look after
the interests in Argyll. Perhaps thusly was ultimately created a Chiefship of
Clan MacAlpine separate from the Kingship of Scotland. The Clan seat in Argyll may
have become an outpost on the old frontier of a New Kingdom.
Perhaps potential successors
to the throne were sent to Argyll as a Clan Chief, in order to sharpen their skills by managing
the family interests there, before taking their successive turns as King. If so, it may have been
that many were involved in the assassinations of sitting Kings, or the
revenge thereof, as the history of MacAlpin descendants is littered with murder after murder,
by one family member against another, in order to secure the throne. It may have been that several
of these plots were launched from Argyll. Perhaps, after one such exchange, the Argyll Chief and
his supporting clansmen were decimated in battle by a relative from Scone who sought to
ensure that the Clan would be unable to pose a future threat but, also leaving
Or, perhaps disenfranchised potential successors were sent to Argyll by the
sitting King to keep them at a safe distance, busy defending against Viking
raiders with little support from the Palace in Scone, in an attempt to minimize threats from
his competitors. The position of Chief of the Clan MacAlpine seat in Argyll may have come to be
known as an undesirable assignment. As such, the powers in Scone may have viewed the Clan’s
holdings there merely as a source from which to repay local clan Chiefs for political
favors. With the lands exhausted and the Chiefship unwanted, the MacAlpine
clansmen and their families would have had no choice but to offer allegiance to other local clan
Or, it might be that the Argyll Clan became broken as, at the urging of the
MacAlpin King in Scone, various powerful family branches separated from the
original line to establish strategic strongholds throughout the New Kingdom, each one,
in turn, taking with it a share of clansmen. This may have been how the Siol Alpine family of
clans was formed. The MacAlpine clansmen would have had to choose which faction to follow. As
surnames were not in popular use in Scotland during ancient times, it is no surprise that it is
the given (first) names of the progenitors (first Chiefs) of the various Clan MacAlpine
branches that have survived to the present; each distinguishing a branch
among the Siol Alpine Clans. Thus, MacAlpine clansmen would have had to indicate allegiance to
one new branch or another, leaving behind his use of the predecessor name of Clan MacAlpine.
Whatever the actual use of the old Clan seat, it seems clear that with the
move of the capital to Scone, the stage was set for the ultimate breakdown of the Clan
in Argyll. As time went on, power shifted and the Clan lost its members to other, sometimes related,
more powerful clans in the region, ultimately becoming landless with no recognized Chief. This
condition has persisted for the past five hundred years, or more.
The following is a collection of some of what now makes up the written history of Clan
MacAlpine: Writings of experts and old Gaelic sayings. We present them so that you gain an understanding
of just how deeply these legends permeate Scottish history, remembering that most legends are
based on fact.
In his book, “The Scottish Tartans,”
Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms, refers to the claim that this Royal Clan
is the most ancient in the Highlands. He states that the Clan MacAlpine is Celtic and that records
indicate that, for 25 generations, the Kings of Scotland were of MacAlpine
lineage. He also states that the ancient crest was a boar’s head, the war cry being
“Cumbrich Bas Ailpein" or, "Remember the death of Alpin,” and that the traditional
home of the MacAlpines was Dunstaffnage, near Oban, Argyll. This former Lord Lyon is one of the
most respected Lyons to serve Her Majesty and, therefore, his description of the Clan, its history,
and its symbols is considered to be authoritative.
an old Gaelic saying: “Cnuic `is uillt `is Ailpeinich” (“Hills and Streams and
MacAlpine”, which signifies the origin of the MacAlpines was contemporary with the origin
of the hills and streams, that is, the earth.)
“Tradition claims MacAlpin or MacAlpine as the oldest and most
purely Celtic of the Highland Clans, of royal descent from the dynasty of Kenneth MacAlpin
who united the Picts and Scots into one kingdom from the year 850, and
transferred his capital to Perthshire from Dunn Add in Dalriada (beside Loch Crinan.)”
(From “Scots Kith & Kin,” page 49.)
MacAlpine: One of the chief branches
of the royal clan Alpin. Their seat is said to have been at Dunstaffnage in Argyll though they
are now landless and without a recognized Chief.
is a name given to a group of clans that claim descent from Kenneth MacAlpin. They are the Grants,
the MacAulays, the MacDuffs, the MacFies, the MacGregors, the MacKinnons, the MacNabs and the
Regarding the name MacAlpine, one of the earliest records of an early form
of the name appears when John MacAlpyne witnessed a charter by Malise, earl of
Stratherne, of the lands of Cultenacloche and others in Glenalmond, c. 1260 (Grandtully,
I, p. 126.) Monaghe fiz Alpyn of the county of Perth rendered forced homage to Edward I of England
in 1296. (From "The Surnames of Scotland" by George F. Black.)
Motto: Fide Et Opera ("By fidelity and labour")
John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk, who represents the
clan as a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs.
of the Name
The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros"
meaning keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name
is now known around the world as a result of the legendary King Arthur who may
have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record of the name
is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain
named his son Arthur, also in the 6th century.
The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the
legendary King Arthur, are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is
a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs and the Devil". The more
established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old
kingdom of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch
The clan was at its
peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell
lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader,
Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.
When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the 15th
century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions.
The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most
of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the end of the clan; unlike
others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands,
though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.
For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers
of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells.
Charles MacArthur, piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick
Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald of Islay.
Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century,
a number of MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous
and as a result of a skirmish on Loch Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of
Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the situation and
appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.
In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon
rose to be a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers
of MacArthurs fought on both sides during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the
'45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.
John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia
in 1790. He was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully
crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino breed from South Africa).
His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.
In more modern times,
US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from Glasgow in Scotland,
became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son,
General Douglas MacArthur, became even more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines
during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.
The last clan chief of the
MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no obvious male heir and
so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born
James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the
Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87 at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had
not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan
members. The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for
the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich. The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of
Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure (blue) background".
The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur
Chief's shield, has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to
the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical to the description given in ancient
manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated in
April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.
Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan
are limited to Arthur.
Here are the most widely
known variant spellings for MacArthur: Arthur
McArthur McArthure MacArther
McCarter McCartor Makcairter McKairtour MacArtor
MacArtair McArtair McArtan McArta
Magarta Mcharter Makkarthyre
with the clan:
MacAuley, MacAully, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, McAuley, McCallie, McCauley
Septs: Lennox Clan, MacAll, MacCall,
MacKail, MacKell, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, MacPheidran, Paterson, Patterson
has three distinct branches. They are the MacAulay's of Ardencaple, the MacAulay's of Lochbroom
and Coigach, and the MacAulay's of Lewis.
The MacAulay's of Lewis come from a Celtic and Norse mixture that used the
Celtic language and followed Celtic traditions. The earliest historical
reference was to a Donald MacAulay of Lewis in 1610. Following a tradition of Calvinist ministry,
the Reverend John MacAulay produced in his Grandson, Thomas, Lord MacAulay, one of the finest essayists
and historians in England. Lord Thomas Babington MacAulay (1800 - 1859
Macaulay) is buried at Westminster Abbey in London in the famous "poet's corner" next to Byron, Shelley,
Keates, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lord Macaulay's father, Zachary Macaulay, was a businessman in
Sierra Leon and an ardent abolitionist.
The MacAulay's of Lochbroom and Coigach were amongst the ancient inhabitants of
Kintail. They were allied to Alexander II of Scotland (1214 - 1249) who
granted them land in Lochbroom and Coigach for loyal services to the King. Their saga is closely
entwined with Clan MacKenzie of Kintail whose stronghold Eilean Donan Castle was commanded and defended by Duncan MacAulay against the attacks of William, Earl of Ross.
They also fought under King Alexander III against King Haco of Norway
who invaded Ayrshire on October 2, 1262. Alongside of them in the thick of battle
were their clansmen, the Ardencaple MacAulay's.
Aulay MacAulay of the Ardencaple MacAulay's first
appeared in documents in 1296. In 1587, Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardencaple is included in the roll
of landlords of Gaeldom, as a principal vassal of the earldom of Lennox.
In May, 1591, Sir Aulay MacAulay entered into a formal bond of friendship (alliance) with MacGregor
of Glenstrae recognizing that Clan MacAulay was a cadet clan of Clan Gregor. MacAulay folklore tells
of the times that Rob Roy (MacGregor) stayed with the MacAulay's of Ardencaple to avoid capture
by the authorities. Clan MacAulay's dress tartan is very similar to that of Clan Gregor.
Ardencaple was on a hillside near the town of Helensburgh, Scotland.
The remaining battle tower overlooks an inlet to the Firth of Clyde on one side and the
shore of Loch Lomond on the other. The immediate area of Ardencaple is
now HM Naval dependent's housing for the nearby Faslane submarine base. Loch Lomond and Helensburgh
lie about 25 km northwest of Glasgow, Scotland.
BADGE: “Touch not a catt but a targe.” (Don’t touch this cat without a shield)
PLANT BADGE: Lus nam Braoileag (vaccineum vitis idaea) Red whortleberry.
Mo Run Geal Og.
Chief: James McBain of McBain, is the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean
Septs of the Clan: Bean, MacBain, MacBeath, MacBeth, Macilvain, MacVean
Our Clan History
Clan MacBean started when Dougal Dall, 7th Chief of Clan Chattan (pronounce Hattan) gave his daughter,
Eva, heiress to his Chieftainship of Clan Chattan, in marriage to Angus MackIntosh, the 6th Chief of Clan MackIntosh in 1291.
One of our ancestors came with Eva as part of her family that moved with her when she married. It was the custom that a new
heiress would bring a following of her own kinsmen with her to her new married home. Her father was from the Royal family
of Loern of the Ancient Celtic Kingdom of Dal Riad and this was also the family that Bean Macdhomhil Mor came from. "Bean"
means lively one and "mor" means great.
When the Mackintosh granted him land, he rightly took his place as a clan chief. This is how Clan
MacBean is considered part of Clan Chattan's Federation of Clans. We carry the blood of both Clans and as the MackIntosh was
also the Chief of Clan Chattan, our families have always been close.
Eva came from Lochaber and after their marriage,they lived for some time
at Tocastle in Glenloy, but due to the enmity of Angus Og of Islay, they withdrew to Rothiemurchus.
Our Lands were located on the south side
of Loch Ness. There are several notible family groups, such as the MacBeans of Faillie, the MacBeans of Tomatin, the MacBeans
of Pittanie, and the MacBeans of Kinchyle. It is the MacBeans of Kinchyle that the Chieftainship is passed through to our
present Chief, James McBain of McBain - 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean.
In the late 1700's , after the loss at the Battle of Culloden, Donald MacBean
- 15th Chief of Clan MacBean - was in the British Army and fighting in North America. Through taxation, the lands of Kinchyle
were lost. William McBain - 16th Chief of Clan MacBean , immigrated to Canada in the early 1800's, bringing the Chieftain
lineage to North America. Many clan members came to North America during the late 1700's and early 1800's. Some through the
military, some through exploration, and some through transportation as prisoners.
In the mid-1900's Hughston McBain was interested
in his heritage and started doing research. It was discovered that the Chieftainship had been vacant for almost 200 years.
After several years of follow-up research and applications to the Lord Lyon, he became the 21st Chief of Clan MacBean. He
wrote a book, An American Chief, that tells how it all came about. He was able to buy a small piece of the old lands of Kinchyle and has established
a park that all clan members may visit. Although the original home of Kinchyle has been lost to the clan, it still exists and is
in very good shape. It is not a castle by any means, but a good sized home and can be seen by driving down the road past the
turn off to the park.
Hughston's son, James McBain of McBain , is now the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean. He is married to Peggy, Lady of McBain and his son, Richard The Younger,
is the Tanist (Next in Line).
Translation: A dragon
was believed to possess a keen sense of sight and represents the most Valiant Defender of Treasure.
Conjuncta virtuti fortuna.
Translation: Fortune joined to bravery
This clan’s ancestor
is MacBeth (1005-1057), Mormaer (High Steward) of Moray, whose mother Doada (or Donalda) was the
daughter of Scotland’s King Malcolm II and Blanaid (who was the daughter of the Irish High
King (Ard Ri) Brian Boru and his first wife Deidgre). He married Gruoch,
daughter of Boedhe who was the son of Kenneth III. So MacBeth was the grandson of King Malcolm II
and his wife was the granddaughter of King Kenneth III.
the ancient law of the Scots he had as much claim to the throne of Scotland
as King Duncan I. He was commander for Duncan I, whom he defeated and slew, thereby becoming
king. Macbeth was proclaimed king, and Scotland prospered during his reign.
He was later defeated by Malcom, the son of Duncan.
is a generally held opinion by Scotch historians that if MacBeth had not been killed
by the future King Malcolm III, Scotland would probably have remained a separate
nation until this day and might have conquered England. MacBeth was originally
from Moray and records show that he used his power for the good of his country.
MACBETH / MACBEATH: Perhaps
the best remembered is Shakespeare's arch-hero, and whose peaceful reign was far from the tale related
by the 'bard' - although he did in fact die in battle, at Lumphanan - not when Birnam Wood moved
to Dunsinane as is often believed. The name MacBeatha was also that of a family of physicians
who served the Lords of the Isles, and such are thought to have originally come
from Ireland in the train of a Macdonald bride. On the fall of the Lordship in 1493 they
migrated to various locations along the western seaboard, but mainly to
Pennycross on Mull, where they exercised their `physic' (medicine) under the Macleans.
Others duly removed to
the shires of Inverness, Sutherland & Easter Ross and the name was also found in Moray where
they had association with the Macbeans.
Angus, 'MacBeths' received a charter from David II in 1369, but this family were of
the ancestral line of the Fife Bethunes, who anciently held lands in the area. The
later history of the MacBeths, the Highland Beatons and Bethunes has become hopelessly confused
for, in the various lands with which they are associated, both forms were used, often referring
to the same family, sometimes even to the same person.
story became even more complicated when many MacBeths anglicised their name to
Beaton and became further confused with a lineage of Bethunes, who also had tradition of
`physic' and practised in Skye. These latter were also of Fife ancestry, one of whom had been enticed
north to pursue his healing arts.
former MacBeths now bear such names as `MacVeigh' (from Gaelic `Bh' = `V') - a
common form on Mull, or `Leich', (from the popular name for their occupation). No chief
has been recognized and tradition records that they held various affiliations with the Macdonalds,
Macleans or Macbeans. Specific clan association should not be assumed without genealogical
or geographical evidence, and in the absence of such the MacBeth tartan, now
over 100 years old and based on the Royal Stewart pattern with a blue background edged with yellow,
may quite appropriately be used by all of the name.
The Beatons: (a derivative
of the MacBeth Clan)
Beatons settled in Islay in the time of Angus of Islay, grandfather of
John 1st Lord of the Isles, and became physicians and senachies to the Chief of MacDonald. Thiers
was much advanced over what passed for medical science in much of Europe at the
time. By the 15th century they possesed the teachings of Avicenna, the Persian physician,
in Gaelic, well before they were translated into English.
Beatons spread thier learning to Skye, Mull and the Outer Hebrides. A
branch of the family moved to Pennyghael and became hereditary doctors for the Isle of Mull. They
were also physicians and seneachies to the MacLeans
family was renowned for their library, which contained many ancient volummes of
poetry, history and legend, as well as many Greek and Persian medical text. The manuscripts
ranged from the works of Hippocrates to ancient Irish legend to medieval French works. Among the
volummes was the earliest account of the fall of Troy translated into
any European language other than Latin. The library was last in the possession of the Episcopal
minister Rev. John Beaton who moved to Ulster rather than conform to Presbyterianism. He died in
Ulster in the 1690s or early 1700s and the library vanished with his death.
It should be noted that
the MacBeath family has no connection to King MacBeth whose name was actually Maol Bheatha. However
one renders his name it is his given name and not a surname.
Various branches of the
family have, at one time or another, been adherents of the MacLeans, MacLeods, and the MacDonalds.
Motto: ‘non sumus praeda’
– ‘We are not prey’
Chief: Currently Non Armigerous
Names associated with Clan Routledge:
Rothlek, Roulluche, Routledge, Rutledge, Mulderrig,
Clan Routledge is of Liddesdale and Roxburgh on the Scottish border. Its earliest recorded mention
is in the 14th Century before blossoming in Hawick and surrounding area
in the early 15th Century. Living under the Douglas’ on their lands it was not
long before they clashed with one of their rivals. In 1494 they sacked and burned the Scotts
Castle at Buccleuch before Branxholme was destroyed by more Routledges in 1510.
The Routledges of Liddesdale were Border Reivers
and lived in the debatable lands. They lived, fought and raided alongside the Armstrong family
often drawing attention with bold raids into Northumberland and Cumberland. In
1528 the English sent a force of 500 to try and ‘dislodge’ the Routledges from
their home, but they simple withdrew to the head of the Tarras and the English force failed.
the previous century however, Routledges of Liddesdale had been rewarded by the would be Richard
III and were granted the lands of Bewcastle and the castle in 1478. Their wealth was not to last
as when Richard was killed in 1485 they were stripped of their lands and it was given to the Musgrave
family. This meant that come the battle of Flodden in 1513 Routledges faced
each other on the battle field, no more than a generation or two apart. They fought under
Dacre of England and Douglas of Scotland.
The Border battles played a significant part of the Routledges Scottish
History and in 1543 at the battle of Solway Moss the Routledges once again would have
faced each other when an English Routledge captured the Earl of Cassillis.
The Chief of the Routledges in Liddesdale
is named in 1543 as Alane Routledge when he pledges his son Jock, but alas neither would ever be
recorded again, nor any further mention of a Chief. The Rough Wooings which broke out in
1544 and lasted for nine years destroyed the Routledge lands in Scotland and
they fled, some to Northumberland and other to Cumberland where they had once raided. Others fled
to Ireland. The Rutledges, as they became, of Ireland prospered and gained land and castles quickly,
suggesting the Chief fled there too. Those in Northumberland settled in Kilham, but those in Cumberland
initial became involved in inter family murders and strife. By 1583 a letter saw it fit
to describe the Routledges in Bewcastle as every man’s prey for they had no
allies in Scotland; this was not true.
Hardly any record of the Routledges in Scotland survive after 1550 but
despite this in 1569 they are named as outlaws and among the most notorious of Liddesdale
so it seems members did survive, albeit not on the records
Those Routledges still on the border suffered when the Reiver period
ended in 1603 and they shared a fate of forced enlistment overseas, execution or plantation
in Ulster. From Ireland the Routledges spread into the new worlds first arriving in America in 1635
and then Australia in the late 18th Century.
Today the name hardly exists in Scotland but
still thrives in Northumberland, Cumberland, Ireland and America. Without a Chief, Clan
Routledge are unable to bare a Clan Crest or Badge but they do have the Rutledge
tartan and the Motto ‘non sumus praeda’ – ‘We are not prey’.
Motto: Fortis Ceu Leo Fidus (Brave As A Faithful Lion)
Gaelic: Mac a’
Chief: Armigerous*The name MacBrayne comes from the Gaelic Mac
a' Bhriuthainn, which means 'son of the judge'.
Recorded MacBraynes include a Eugenius MacBrehin who was a student at St. Andrews in 1525. There is also an Anna MacBreynr in Gortenagor in 1672.
Mcbrain and Duncan Mcbrain were both noted rebels in Argyllshire in 1685.
An employee called
MacBraine in Mackintosh's 'secret work' in the making of cudbear, sold the secret of manufacture
to an English company around the end of the 18th century.
In 1878, a David MacBrayne became
the owner of a number of vessels which provided ferry services to parts of the Western Isles. The
company quickly expanded and became the main suppliers of both passenger and freight ferry services from the Scottish
mainland to most of the islands. The company remained in the MacBrayne family until it went bankrupt
in 1928, and ownership was spilt between a private company and a state owned company. By 1970 the
whole company was state owned, and then at the beginning of 1973 it merged with Caledonian Steam
Packet Company, and formed under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne. Today it remains a major
ferry company providing services to over 20 of the major islands in the Western Isles from the mainland.
Motto: Vivat Rex (Latin : May the King live)
with the clan: Kerkyll, MacCorqudill, Maccorquidall,
MacCorquhedell, MacCorquodill, MacCorkle, MacCorquell, MacCorkindale, MacCorquidill, MacCorquidle,
MacCorkill, MacCorkil, MacCorker, MacCorkell, MacCordadill, MacCorcadill, MacCorquodale, MacCorquydill,
MacKurkull, MacKorkitill, MacKorkyll,
Macorkill, Macorquodale, Macorquidill, Macorquidill, MacThorcadail, MacQuorquodale, MacQuorquordill,
MacQuorcadaill, MacTorquil, MacTorquedil, MacThurkill, MacThorcuill, MacQuorquhordell, Makcocadill,
Makcorquydill, Makcorquidill, Makcorcadell, Mikcorcadill, Thorcull Torquil, Corquodale,
Origins of the name: The name originates from Old Norse Thorketill (Thor's kettle), in Gaelic
MacCorcadail, and the clan held lands in Argyll in the fourteenth century. From
Ewen Mackcorquydill of Phantelan, of whom there is a record in 1434, descended
Duncan MacCorquodale of Phantillans, and from him Sir Malcolm MacCorquodale (1901-71),
1st and last Lord MacCorquodale of Newton, created in 1955.
The name is often given
as a sept of the MacLeod on no more evidence than that it is derived from 'son of Thorketill, or
Torquil', the latter name being that of the progenitor of the MacLeods of Lewis. Such name is of
Scandinavian origin meaning "Cauldron of the Thunder Spirit" and undoubtedly would have spread
wherever the maurauding Norsemen stamped their influence. The traditional
account of the MacCorquodales makes them of more ancient origin than the MacLeods, for the lands
of Fionnt Eilean comprised, at one time, the northern shore of Loch Awe from Avich to Ard-an-aiseig,
and such are said to have been granted to another Torquil, progenitor of the
MacCorquodales, by King Kenneth MacAlpin. There is no evidence that this Torquil was of Clan
Leod and the name MacCorquodale appears seldon, if ever, in the histories of that clan. It is evident
by their Argyllshire habitat and title that the MacCorquodales ARE A DISTINCT CLAN, whose chiefs
were the Barons MacCorquodale of Phantelane (The 'White Island' -
Eilean-a-Bharain on Loch Tromlee). From their island castle they held Baronial
power over the thousands of mountainuous acres which have been their domain since at least
the 13th century. In 1428 Euan MacCorquodale and the chief of the Campbells
were summoned to Court, with their charters in order that adjudication might be made in a
land dispute with Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, who held the neighbouring lands of Glassary.
Such was resolved when Euan's son, Malcolm, married the Constable's daughter in 1436. The Dean of
Lismore's book of Gaelic poetry (collected 1514-1551) contains verses by Effric nighean Thorcaidill,
poetess of the clan, and in 1542 the MacCorquodale lands were re-incorporated
by royal charter as a free barony. In 1612, younger sons of the chief were charged by the
Privy Council for consorting with proscribed MacGregors and the clan history and succession in the
rest of that century is confused by two step brothers each contested the other's claim. The
MacCorquodales supported the Campbells in the Civil Wars and 'Colkitto' MacDonald
sacked their island home in 1645. Since the death of the last Baron in
the 18th century the chiefship has been uncertain.
Motto: Vi Et Animo - By
Strength and Courage
Variations: Culloch, Gulloch, McCulloch, McCullough, MacCoulaghe, MacChullach, MacAlach, MacCullaigh, MacCullough, MacClullich, MacLullich, MacLullick, Makcullocht
The family name McCulloch is one of the oldest in Galloway. It is of ancient Celtic origin and as such, the family
can boast of a number of fanciful legends concerning its origin.
to one, the family is descended from Ulgric, the grandson of Owen Gallvus, king of the Cludienses, or Strathclyde Britons.
Ulgric was killed leading the gallant but wild and undisciplined Gallovidians (natives of Galloway) in the van of King David's
army at the Battle of the Standards in 1138. Ulgric and Douvenald were vice-sovereigns of Galloway, the McCullochs, Mackuloghs,
or Culaghs holding sway over the lands of Ulgric, and the McDowalls over the lands of Douvenald.
According to another account, the name McCulloch derives from a warrior of earlier lineage. Gwallawc or The Hawk
of Battle, a Gallovidian chieftain of the sixth century, whose battles were celebrated by the ancient bards and is reputed,
in local legend, to have be buried beneath the Standing Stones of Torhouse. His descendants thus took the name Mac-Gwallawc.
Another legend claims that the McCullochs took their name from a warrior who in the Crusades carried the device of
a wild boar (which in Gaelic is cullach) on his shield and distinguished himself in the Holy Land with his gallantry and daring.
On his return, William the Lion, in reward for Cullach's martial prowess, granted him the lands of Myrton, Glassertoun, Killasser
and Auchtnaucht. The grateful soldier adopted as his patronymic, the word cullach, his nom-de-guerre. His son Godfrey, named
after Godfrey de Bouillon, the First King of Jerusalem and Knight Templar, was naturally styled Mac-Cullach. Although this
story is the most plausible, it is probable that the king was merely confirming those lands in the name of the McCullochs
as they are mentioned as being a prominent family in the area some 400 years before.
In the book, "The Surnames of Scotland" by George Black, of the "MacCulloch name he states: Much obscurity enshrouds
the origin of this old Galwegian name, and no satisfactory pedigree of the family exists. They are said to be described in
one of their charters as having their origin "ultra memoriam hominum." The name may be MacCullaich or MacC(h)ullach, "son
of the boar". The name first appears in the Scottish records in 1296, when Thomas Maculagh del conte de Wiggetone (now Wigtown)
rendered homage to Edward I. His family later held castles at Gatehouse of Fleet in Kirkcudbrightshir, and Creetown and Port
William in Wigtownshire. Thomas Maculagh's seal bears a squirrel and S'Thome Macculi. He appears again in the same year as
a juror on inquest at Berwick along with his brother Michal and is probably the Thomas Makhulagh, sheriff of Wigtown, 1305.
Michel Maculagh and William Maculaghe also rendered homage. Sir Patrick McCoulagh and Gilbert McCoulaghe were charter witnesses
in Galloway, 1354. Sir Patrick Macologhe had an annuity of 100 marks "in recompense of his sufferings, and loss of his lands
in Scotland for his allegiance" to the king of England 1360 and in 1363 as Sir Patrick M'Owlache had restoration of his lands.
(Black goes on to describe some other MacCulloughs/MacCullochs. Here are some of the spellings of the name he brings
up) Patrick Makcowloch (1480), Patrick Mackullouch (1482), Symon McKowloch (1500), David M'Ulloch (1643), MacLulich, Makawllauch
(1414), McCoulach (1410), M'Coulaghe (1352), M'Cowlach (1476), Makcowllach (1482), M'Cullauch (1439), Maccullo (1546), M'Cullogh
(1685), M'Kowloche (1495), McColloch, McCullie, McCullo, McCulloh, McCully, McKeulloch, McKulloch, M'Alach, Mackculloch, Makculloch,
M'Hulagh, M'Kulagh, and Malrcowlach (1444).
The Argyllshire MacCullochs appear to
have been identified with the MacDougall clan. R.C. MacLagan in <>says: The lands surrounding Balamhaodan forming the
district of Benderloch are alleged to have belonged to Modan, who was the head, so runs the tradition, of the Clan MacLullich,
as recorded in the local phrase, Clann Lulich o thulaich Mhaodain, the MacLullichs from the hill of Maodan.
Lullach was the stepson of the infamous Macbeth and ruled briefly as King of the Scots until killed by Malcolm III.
He was the natural son of the Mormaer of Angus and was married to the daughter of the Mormaer of Moray. He had a son and daughter
by this marriage and his son would have been styled "Mac-Lullach".
note on the origin of the McCulloch name which indicates it could also have been linked with that of Clan Donald is contained
in a manuscript history of the MacDonalds written during the reign of Charles II (Gregory Collection). It states that Reginald
MacDonald, son of Somerled, is said to have married MacRandel's daughter, or as some say to a sister of Thomas Randel, Earl
of Murray...[Reginald] had by her Angus, of whom are descended ...the MacLullichs, who are now called in the low country Pitullichs.
In actual fact, the said Reginald MacDonald married a daughter of Angus, Earl of Moray.
The McCullochs are considered to be a Clan Sept (or Sett). A Sept is a family name that is related to a Clan or larger
family. A Sept may result from descendents of the Clan Chief through the female line who consequently bore a different surname
usually through marriage. It may also have resulted by a small family seeking protection from a larger and more powerful neighbour.
Over time, many Septs have become clans in their own right. In the political turmoil that Scotland has seen over
the centuries, many Septs also came to be related to more than one clan.
McCulloughs were also allied with a number of larger clans, primarily the MacDougalls, the Rosses, and the Munros. To a lesser
degree there were also some who allied with MacDonald of Sleat and with Gunn (MacCullie).
McCullochs are also associated with the Galloway District in Scotland. Galloway is also the location of the MacDowell
branch of Clan MacDougall. In addition, there are many McCullochs that are from Ireland, primarily from the County Antrim
and County Down areas of Ulster.
Mac means "son
of" while the term "clan" comes from the Gaelic word for children. Thus, Clan MacDougall
signifies the children of the son(s) of Dougall.
Dougal or Dugall
or Dougall derived from the Gaelic word Dubh meaning Black or Dark, the Gaelic word Gall meaning
Stranger or Foreigner. Hence Dougal would translate as "Black Foreigner" or "Black Stranger" which
was the early Gaelic nickname for a Dane, later extended to Norsemen.
By the mid 12th century the name implied that the bearer likely had Norse connections in his
ancestry. Dougall's mother and great grandmother were both of Norse descent.
Dougall's heritage from the Gael and the Norse is shown in the present arms of the MacDougall
Chiefs which quarter the lion of the ancient Scottish Kingdom of Dalriada
and the black royal galley of the Norse.
The MacDougalls of Lorn are the senior branch of the
royal house of Somerled, King of the Hebrides and Regulus of Argyll. As
a Highland clan, the MacDougalls are one of the three oldest in existence dating from 1164. In
that year Dougall, Somerled's oldest living son and the clan's patronymic forebear, inherited the
central portion of his father's kingdom upon the death of his father and step
brother in the Battle of Renfrew with the forces of the King of Scots. This inheritance
included the mainland kingdom of Lorn from Morvern to Knapdale along with
the islands of Jura, Coll, Mull, Tiree, Kerrera, Lismore, and the surrounding smaller isles.
Dougall's son Duncan and grandson, Ewan, defended their vast territories
through the construction of various castles including Dunstaffnage, Dunollie and Duntrune on
the mainland and their islands, Aros, Cairnburgh, Dunchonnel and Coeffin. From their principal seats
of Dunstaffnage and Dunollie Castles, the MacDougall Lords of Lorn and
Chiefs of the clan exerted a major influence in what is now Argyll and in the islands to the west
and were a strong sea power. This era of widespread power ended during the first years of the 14th
century when the MacDougalls chose the losing side in the struggle for the Scottish
Sir John the "Red" Comyn of Badenoch was the nephew-in-law of the
Alexander the Fourth MacDougall Chief and a contender for the crown of Scotland.
In the complex political forces at play during the time, the murder of the Red
Comyn, by Robert the Bruce during a meeting in the Greyfriars Kirk at Dumfries in February
1306 started blood feuds and civil war.
In the warring
which followed, the forces of the MacDougall Chief under the direction of Sir John of Lorn (Iain
Bachach) nearly captured Bruce at Dalrigh in Strathfillan in June 1306. He was forced to leave his
brooch in the hand of his dead attacker in order to escape. Thus the famous Brooch of Lorn along
with his cloak came into in the hands of the MacDougalls. Less than two years later,
Bruce, having consolidated his power, brought it to bear on the MacDougalls, whom
he defeated in the Pass of Brander in the late summer of 1308. This resulted
in the permanent loss of all the clan's island possessions except for part of the island
The Lordship of Lorn was temporarily lost until it was restored
to Ewan the seventh Chief of the clan some time after 1330. At the time of Ewan's death the
Lordship of Lorn was a great Lordship extending from Ballachulish and Loch Leven in the north
at least down to Kilmartin in the south. However the naval power of our seagoing
clan had been drastically reduced by the loss of our island possessions, and their galleys and fighting
Ewan was the last MacDougall Chief to use Dunstaffnage castle
as his main seat. After it and the Lordship of Lorn passed to the Stewarts through Ewan's
daughters' inheritance, Dunstaffnage remained as the main seat of the Stewart
Lordship of Lorn.
Around 1386 both of Ewan's children, daughters Janet and Isabella, married
brothers who were Stewarts of Innermeath from Perthshire. Janet and Isabella
inherited Lorn equally as females under the laws of primogeniture. Then Janet and her husband
Sir Robert Stewart traded their half of Lorn to her younger sister Isabella and her husband Sir
John Stewart in exchange for Sir John Stewart's inherited estate of Durrisdeer in Perthshire. Through
Isabella the Lordship of Lorn then passed to her Stewart husband. These Stewarts of
Innermeath became the Lords of Lorn and retained the Lordship until around 1468 when
the Lordship of Lorn transferred to the Chief of the Campbells. Ewan died around 1375. Upon Ewan's
death the Chiefship of Clan MacDougall permanently separated from the Lordship
of Lorn. Iain of Dunollie became the next and Eighth Chief with his clan duthus at Dunollie
Despite the loss of the Lordship of Lorn, the Clan continued to play an
important role in Argyll. Clan MacDougall was a consistent supporter of the Royal
House of Stewart.
The Clan suffered a large loss at Dunaverty castle in Kyntyre in 1647. It
is estimated that one hundred men or one third of the clan's fighting strength was
killed in the massacre of MacDougalls and MacDonalds and their followers, after their
surrender to the Covenenter forces. There was only one survivor amongst those who had been defending
at Dunaverty castle.
The Clan fought for the Royal House of Stewart under Viscount Dundee
"Bonnie Dundee" at Killiecrankie in 1688, and again under its fighting
22nd Chief Iain Ciar at Sherrifmuir in the Jacobite Rising of 1715, and at Glenshiel in the Jacobite
Rising of 1719.
Our 23rd Chief Alexander of Dunollie did not join the Jacobite Rising of 1745
in support of Charles Edward Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie" but his brother
Duncan fought at Prestonpans and Culloden. Twenty MacDougalls were listed as prisoners of the Government
forces after the '45 including three from the lowlands. After the 45' was over Alexander moved from
Dunollie castle and built the manor house below the castle by adding to the original "laigh
bigging" which stood there. The building is now known as Dunollie House. There
he raised a large family and it became the home of our Chiefs ever since.
Through the following
years the proud history of the clan has been reflected in the distinguished service of the MacDougall
Chiefs to their country and in the pride they have taken in their stewardship of the old clan lands.
Equal distinction has been shown by the clanspeople, many of whom left their homes to
be pioneers in far off places and to bring their spirit, faith, and abilities to
the building of new nations. But the link with Lorn and the tie to Clan and Chief have not severed.
The heritage prospers and the old belonging takes on new dimensions in the Clan MacDougall Society
of North America and our sister society in UK/Europe, and in Australia.
Our present Chief is Morag MacDougall of MacDougall, thirty-first Chief of the
Clan, whose official residence is Dunollie House, close by the castle on its high
For more information about individual clan Chiefs in Argyll or events during
their time see The Chiefs of Clan MacDougall in Argyll).
During the centuries that Clan MacDougall was a powerful
influence along the West Highland Coast, a number of
families became associated with this clan. Those of these surnames whose ancestors shared
in this connection are welcomed members of our Society.
Origin of Name: Dubh (Gaelic) (Black).
juvat (Latin) (God assists).
Lands: Fife, Lothian, Strathbran and Strathbogie
Clan MacDuff is a Scottish armigerous*
clan, which is registered with Lyon Court, though currently without a chief. Moncreiffe wrote that the Clan MacDuff was the premier clan among the Scottish Gaels. The early
chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of
Fife. Today the Earls of
Wemyss are thought to be the direct descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil,
Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs
Clan MacDuff were hereditary Abbots of the Celtic abbey of Abernethy.
The clan originates from the original Scotto-Pictish
lines who created the Kings of Scotland and the Earldom or Mormaerdom
of Fife. The direct male line of the Mormaer failed in 1353 after Edward I took Donnchadh
IV prisoner in England. His aunt, Isabella, later gave the title to Robert Stewart,
1st Duke of Albany and Regent of Scotland. In 1425 the earldom was absorbed into the crown, not withstanding the clan retained it status
as first among clans.
The title of The Fife returned with William Duff,
1st Earl Fife and Viscount
Madcap in 1759. Later Alexander
William George Duff, 6th Earl of Fife and 1st Duke of Fife, married the Princess Royal, HRH Louise (daughter of King Edward VII).
The direct line of the ancient house is in dispute and supposedly continued
in Wemyss, and moreover, in the northern territories, families of Clan Duff emerged with no
proof of royal descent. For this reason of non-proof of headship, MacDuff is still Armigerous.
Law of Clan MacDuff
Earl of Fife and the Abbot of
Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers
within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of
MacDuff near Abernethy, and could find remission by paying compensation to the victims family.
chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of
Destiny. When the Stone of Destiny was taken to England by Edward I
of England, Robert I
of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member
of clan MacDuff, the Earl of Fife's sister.
Badge: European Cranberry
Slogan: Loch Sloy (Loch Sloidh-The Loch of the Host)
Motto: This I'll Defend
Crest: A demi-savage brandishing
in his dexter a broad sword Proper and pointing with his sinister to an
Imperial Crown or standing by him on the wreath.
Arms of the Chief: Argent, a saltire engrailed between four roses
Supporters: (on a wavy compartment) Two Highlanders armed with
bows and arrows, all proper.
homeland is located in the Highlands at the heads of Loch Long and Loch Lomond. For over five centuries this area,
the feudal barony of Arrochar, was held by the chiefs of Clan MacFarlane and
before them by their ancestors the barons of Arrochar. The family is Celtic in the
male line and native to their beautiful Highland homeland of tall peaks and deep lochs
just above the waist of Scotland.
A Saxon male line ancestry was first proposed for this family in Crawfurd’s Peerage
nearly three hundred years ago, but that is incorrect. The best source is the
Complete Peerage which follows the Scots Peerage which, in turn, follows Skene’s Celtic
Scotland in giving the true Celtic descent of this family. All of these sources base their statements
on the old Celtic genealogy of Duncan, eighth Earl of Lennox, who was executed in 1425, and the
coming of age poem composed for Alwyn, last Mormaer and first Earl of Lennox in the twelfth century.
This Alwyn was the son of Murdac (son of Maldouen son of Murdac) and his wife
who was a daughter of Alwyn MacArkil (son of Arkil son of Ecgfrith in Northumbria). When
the first earl died his children were still minors so the king warded the earldom to his own brother
David, Earl of Huntingdon. By 1199 Alwyn, the second Earl of Lennox, had finally succeeded his
father. The second earl may have had as many as ten sons. Among the youngest
(maybe seventh) was Gilchrist who obtained a charter to the barony of Arrochar from his eldest
brother Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox. Along with Clan Donnachaidh, the MacFarlanes are said to
have been the earliest of the clans to hold their lands by feudal charter.
In short, the
MacFarlanes are descended from Alwyn, Celtic Earl of Lennox, whose younger son, Gilchrist, received
lands at Arrochar on the shores of Loch Long at the end of the 12th century. Gilchrist's son, Malduin,
befriended and aided Robert the Bruce during his fight for independence from the English. The
MacFarlanes are reported to have fought at Bannockburn in 1314. The clan takes its name
from Malduin's son Parlan..
The name, Parlan, has been linked to Partholon, "Spirit of the Sea Waves", in
Irish myths and legend. More usually, it is considered the Gaelic equvalent of
Bartholomew. Gaelic grammar requires changes within a word to indicate possession. A "P" is softened
to a "Ph", and an "i" is added to the last syllable. In this way, "son of
Parlan" becomes Mac (son) Pharlain (of Parlan).
The lands of Arrochar were first given
by charter to Gilchrist circa 1225. Iain MacPharlain received a royal confirmation to Arrochar in
1420. Duncan, the last Celtic Earl of Lennox was executed by James I.
the MacFarlanes had a valid claim to the earldom, the title was given by the
Crown to John Stewart, Lord Darnley. The MacFarlanes sought to oppose the Stewarts, but they
proved too powerful and Andrew MacFarlane the 10th Chief, married a younger daughter of Lord Darnley,
forging a new alliance. Thereafter the MacFarlanes followed the new earls of Lennox
in most of the major conflicts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
The 11th Chief
and many of his clansmen fell at Flodden in 1513. The MacFarlanes later opposed the English at the
Battle of Pinkie in 1547 where Duncan the 13th Chief and his uncle were
killed along with many others. After the murder of Henry Darnley, Mary Queen of Scots' second husband,
the MacFarlanes opposed the Queen and were noted for their gallantry at the Battle of Langside
Andrew, 14th Chief, is said to have captured no less than 3 of Mary's standards. The
valour of Andrew and his men was rewarded by the Regent, James, Earl of Moray,
with the Clan's original crest and motto. The crest and motto alludes to the defense of the
Crown and Kingdom. Since Mary had abdicated previously in favour of her infant son, she was in rebellion
against the Crown, Moray, and James VI during these times.
For much of their
history, the MacFarlanes were a very turbulent lot. Their rallying cry, "Loch Sloy", signalled many
a night raid to "collect" cattle from their richer neighbors to the south and east. Their
march-piobaireachd " Thogail nam Bo theid sinn" (To Lift the Cows We Shall Go) gives ample notice of intent. They were so competent that
the full moon was known as "MacFarlane's Lantern".
In 1592, the
clan was accused of slaying the Colquhoun of Luss and were outlawed. Later chiefs were quieter.They
established homes on the islands of Inveruglas and Eilean a' Bhuth (now called Island IVow). This
last was burned out twice during the Cromwellian invasions in the 17th century.
Walter, the 20th
Chief, (mid-18th Cent.) was a renowned scholar and antiquarian. At the site of his home now stands
the Landmark Cobbler Hotel which contains an inscribed stone taken from the original house over
the main doorway. The clan lands at Arrochar were sold off for debt after Walter's death in 1767,
and the direct male line of the chiefs failed in 1886.
At present, the Clan Chiefship is dormant.
Clan Macfie Motto: "Pro
Rege" ("For The King")
Our Badge (Plant): Scots Pine (Giuthas), Darag (Oak) or Dearca Fithich
Clan Macfie is one of
the oldest Scottish Clans with a history going back before records were kept. The ancient name for
our Clan is Macdubhsith. While literally meaning “dark man of peace”, sithe is also
the term used for supernatural beings that populated the islands and the highlands and the term
dubh or dark also had mystical and supernatural connotations. The ancestral
homeland for the Macfies is the islands of Colonsay and Oronsay in the Western Isles of Scotland.
In 1623, Malcolm, the last Chief of the Clan Macfie, was captured by the
infamous Colla Ciotach MacDonald. He was tied to a Standing Stone, known as Carraig Mhic a’
Phi at Balaruminmore, on our ancestral island of Colonsay, and summarily shot. The Clan Macfie was
dispossessed of its lands and dispersed as a “broken” Clan.
That is, until 27th May 1981, when the Clan was reactivated and again formally recognised
as an “active” Clan by the Lord Lyon. Macfies all over the world celebrate that date
as Clan Macfie Day - new ‘birthday’ for the Clan Macfie. As no hereditary Chief has
been traced, a Ceann-Cath, or Clan Commander, was appointed to head the Clan. The current Clan Commander
is Alexander (Sandy) C. McPhie who resides in Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
Clan Commander recognises the historical links Clan Macfie had with the Macdonald Lords of
the Isles, Clan Cameron in Lochaber and a branch of the MacNicol family in Glenorchy. More recently,
the close links established with Clan Macfie by the Thorburn family in Sweden and the Brew family
in New Zealand are also acknowledged by the Clan Commander.
Motto: Peritia Et Honore. (Skill
Anciently: In Gaelic the name was Mag Eachaidh (son of Eachaidh).
on the Name: MacGeachie, MacGeachy, MacKeachie.
From Ir. Mag Eachaidh, an Ulster variant of Mag Eochadha. M'Gachie in Bordland, 1684. Neil M'Gechie in Portadow,
Kilchenzie parish, 1686 (Argyll). Robert M'Keachie in Darnow 1711 (Wigtown). MacKeachie, MacEachaidh. Robert M'Keachie in Darnow, 1711 (Wigtown). In 1684
the name appears as McCeachie, McCheachie, McKeachie, McKeachy (and without Mac as Keachy,
Cachie, Ceachie, Kaachie, Kachie, Kechie).
Irish name Eachaid or Eachadha is also derived from a Gaelic word for horse, and is often used interchangeably in the annals for Eochaid or Eochadha. As Eochaid
became anglicized as Oghy, Eachaid became anglicised as Aghy and in Edward
MacLysaght's write up of MacGahey, he says: “Mac Eachaidh. The personal name Eachaidh, anglicized as
Aghey, is a variant of the older Eochaidh—Oghy. McGahey is an Ulster
name akin to MacCaughey.”
Patrick Woulfe, McGahey (with its variant MacGaughy etc.) is Mag Eachaidh in Irish,
this being another form of Mag Eochadha McGahey is definitely an Ulster name.
Other surnames that, according to Woulfe, stem from Each are MacGagh (mag eacaro), MacGaugh
(mag eacada), MacGeagh (mag eacada).
McCaughan an Anglicized
form of the Old Gaelic MacEachain, son of Eachain. An Ulster surname,
recorded in the Counties of Antrim, Down, Londonderry and Tyrone. Some families of Mc Caughen changed their name to MacCaughey, itself an
Anglicized form of the Ulster name Mac Eachaidh, son of the Horseman or Horse Lord.
The Scots names MacGeachie and MacGeachy are also derived from Mag Eochaidh.
was a M'Gachie recorded in Bordland in 1684, and a Neil M'Gechie in 1686,
in Portadow, part of the Kilchenzie parish in Argyll. There is also a Robert M'Keachie recorded
in Darnow, Wigtown, in 1711.
McGachy, McGeachy. An anglicized version of the
Gaelic 'Mac Eochaidh'. A surname in both Ulster and Scotland. William McGaheye settled
in York, Virginia, in 1653, and Alexander McGeachy, from Argyll, emigrated to America
MacGeachie, McGachen a version of MacEachan, they
derive from the Gaelic MacEachann - "son of Hector". traditionally from Hector, second son of Roderick,
3rd of Macdonald of Clanranald .
Roland MacGahen (del counte de Wiggeton)
Wigtown signed the Ragman Rolls of 1296 & 1291 swearing allegiance to King Edward I of England.
of Dalquhat or Dalwhat - Alexander McQuuichin of Dalquhat was outlawed in 1528. Pont's Manuscript
of 1624 gives arms for McGachen of Dalquhat as Or a Dexter hand, Gules. Sir James Balfour, 1st Baronet - Lord Lyon King of Arms (1630–1658), McGahan of Dalqwhat Or, a Hand, Gules. Alexander McGeachie of Dalwhat is mentioned in 1694 kirk
session records for Glencairn Dumfriesshire. According to John Corrie, "the third rivulet on the
north side is Dalwhat Water where stands the dwelling place of a linage of the name
M'Gachen descendant of one M' Gachen, a private standard-bearer in the Bruce wars,
and doth yet continue the name
Motto: "Dominus provedebit" which means "God will provide".
The de Boyvilles were Anglo-Norman knights from Beauville, near Caen, who came to Scotland after the
Norman conquest of England in 1066 - there
is a record of a David de Boivil witnessing a charter as early as 1164. Henry de Boyville was the keeper of the castles of
Dumfries and Galloway in 1291 (taking over from another, earlier, Boyville) and three de
Boyvils signed King Edward's Ragman Roll in 1296.
For some time the name was confined to the south-west of Scotland
where it was pronounced as "bowl". Gradually, pronunciation and spelling became one syllable, Boyll in 1367 and Boyle in 1482,
although as with so many names, there were many other variants.
The family spread into Ayrshire and Largs and Kelburn Castle became the seat of the major line. John Boyle was a supporter of King James III and was killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. The family lands were forfeited but John's son managed to
have them restored by King James IV. Support for Mary Queen of Scots and later, King Charles I, did not help the family fortunes. But during the 17th century the Boyle's grew rich
through shipping and shipbuilding. John, the 3rd Earl
of Glasgow, followed a military career in Europe and lost a hand in the Battle of Fontenoy
in 1745 and was wounded twice at the Battle of Lauffeldt in 1747. He later became Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly
of the Church of Scotland. His widow built a monument to the Earl in the grounds of Kelburn
Castle, which has survived to this day.
1869, the 6th Earl of Glasgow inherited Kelburn and land in Dalry, Stewarton, Corshill and Fenwick and the estate at Hawkeshead
outside Paisley, plus estates in Dunbartonshire, Fife, Northumberland and the greater part
of Cumbrae. However, he ran into debt building Episcopal churches all over Scotland,
including a Cathedral in Perth and one in Cumbrae. By 1888
he was one million pounds in debt. His cousin, David Boyle of Stewarton, later Seventh Earl of Glasgow, sold his own lands
to buy back the Kelburn Estate at auction. All the rest was lost to the family. The 7th Earl was a naval officer and became
Governor of New Zealand from 1892 to 1897.
branch of the Boyles from Kelburn became established in Ireland
and eventually became the Earls of Cork The 10th Earl of Glasgow still lives at Kelburn Castle, land held by the family since
the 13th century and Boyles from all over the world visit the estate, which is now a country park.
Badge: A hand holding a sheaf of arrows
In 1550 Chief Alexander Brodie, the rebel,
and 100 others were denounced for attacking the Clan Cumming of Altyre. In 1562 Brodie joined the Earl of Huntly who raised
the flag of rebellion. They attacked Mary Queen of Scots but were routed at Corrichie. Huntly was killed and Brodie, escaping,
became an outlaw.
During the Civil Wars of the 17th century
Alexander Brodie of Brodie was responsible for the destruction of Elgin Cathedral in 1640.
In 1643 Alexander Brodie of
Brodie became a Member of Parliment for Moray and an Elder of the Forres Presbytety to the General Assembly of the Church
In 1645 Brodie Castle was burnt down by Lewis Gordon
3rd Earl of Huntly and chief of Clan Gordon. This was part of the Covenanting conflict during the Civil War, as a result there
are few surviving documents and little is known about the Clan Brodie.
Alexander Brodie was one of the six commissioners
that were sent to The Hague to negotiate with Charles Stuart.
They were there to persuade Charles II to sign the National Covenant and resume the Scottish Crown. On his return to Parliment
he was made a Lord of Session (a senior justice).
Alexander Brodie's diplomatic career also included a summons by Cromwell
to London in 1651 to consider a Scottish union with England. He resisted attempts to appoint him to judicial office, though Cromwell's
death in 1658 forced the issue for him, and he was appointed Justice of the Peace. The consequence was royal disfavour following
the Restoration, Charles II finding it hard to forgive men who had tried to force their Presbyerian beliefs upon him as the
price of their allegiance. The Good Laird Brodie died May 5th, 1680.
While it is inferred that there were Clan
Brodie Members on both sides of the 1715, 1719 and 1745-46 Jacobite conflicts, The Lairds of Brodie did not support the Stuarts
or the Jacobites.
In 1720 Alexander Brodie became 19th Laird Brodie of Brodie. That same year he became Member of Parliment
In 1724 General George Wade (British Army) reports
the Clan Brodie to be "well affected" to His Majesty's Government.
Alexander Brodie was appointed Lord Lyon, King of Arms
In 1736 David Brodie of Muiresk became a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. He was Promoted to 'Master and Commander"
During the Rising of 1745 The Brodie is reported to have spent time on board the Royal Navy Sloop Vulture patrolling
the Moray Firth.
After the Battle of Culloden, Alexander spoke in Parliament to oppose
the ban on wearing of the Kilt. Alexander died in 1754. Hs wife, Mary Sleigh, is credited with starting the flax industry
There are still Brodies
present to this day in Scotland, England
(lower Scotland), Europe, Canada,
United States, Africa, Australia,
New Zealand, China,
Polynisia, and many other Countries. Clan Brodie is a World-Wide presence.
Names associated with the
clan: BERNIS BERNES BERNYS BURNS BURNIS BURNICE BURNESS BURNES
BURNACE BURNASSE BURNS
surname of Burns comes from "Burnhouse" a dwelling near a burn or a stream. Although "burn" is a common word in Scotland
for a stream, the word originated in Old English. The singular form "Burn" is found in Dumfries and Galloway in the 13th and 14th century.
poet Robert Burns' father came from Kincardineshire on the east coast of Scotland
and spelt his name Burness. Robert and his brother adopted the spelling "Burns" a form which first appeared in written records
only in the 17th century.
1759 - Robert Burns Born Robert Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire on 25 January 1759.
father was a gardener and tenant farmer, and the life he was brought up in made him acutely aware of society’s unfairness
as he laboured hard yet lived in poverty.
1786 he published 612 copies of Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, the preface of which explains his early need to write
to find ’some kind of counterpoise’ in his unhappy life. The book’s success changed that life.
moved to Edinburgh and was welcomed into the literary circles.
With the earnings from an expanded volume of his book, Burns began to travel around his country, drawing inspiration from
the environments and people. As important to him as his own writing was the collecting of traditional works he came across.
time he returned home to farming and trained to become a full-time excise officer in Dumfries.
As well as editing volumes of James Johnson’s Scots Musical
Museum from 1788 until his death on 21 July 1796, he wrote copiously
and collected works with almost all his spare time.
what remained of his spare time he socialised. Whether the women in his life brought to him his romantic words or vice versa,
he wrote often of love and loved many women. His tolerant wife was Jean Armour.
his eloquent identification of the injustices of society and his ability to describe the little sensations that make life
bearable, such as the pleasure of drinking, the ‘Heaven-sent ploughman’ is held as a poet who belongs to the workers
before the intellectuals, and his work still speaks for people all over the world today.
"Floreat majestas" which means "Let majesty flourish".
Branches: Broun of Colstoun
associated with the clan: BRON BROWNE BROWYN BROWN BRWNE BRAUN BRUN BRUNE BROUIN BROUNE BROUN
Brown is the second most
common name in Scotland
and is also found frequently in England and the USA as well as other parts of the world. It might be thought that a name such as
this, which was spread so widely, would not have a specifically Scottish pedigree. But the Broun family (spelt thus) has a
crest recognised by the Lord Lyon King at Arms and is included in the list of clans and families maintained by the Standing
Council of Scottish Chiefs. They also have a recognised tartan.
The French "Le Brun" appeared
early in England (around 970) but did not arise in Scotland until the 12th century. Walterus Brown was involved
with the church in Glasgow in 1116 and Richard de Broun and others with the same surname signed the Ragman Roll in 1296 when all the nobles and landowners were forced to swear allegiance to King Edward I of England.
A long line of Browns, which
can be traced for 850 years, is the Brouns of Colstoun in East Lothian. The first of the
line may have been Sir David le Brun who gave the land and witnessed the charter founding the Abbey of Holyroodhouse in 1128.
These Brouns claimed that they were originally descended from the royal house of France
- their arms bore the three gold lilies of France.
The Broun arms registered with the Lord Lyon has a lion rampant holding a French "fleur de lis".
Sir John Brune was High Sheriff
of Aberdeenshire in 1368. Patrick Broun of Colstoun was created a baronet of Nova
Scotia in 1686. The 13th Baronet is Sir William Windsor Broun who lives in New
South Wales, Australia.
Robert Brown, who was born
in Montrose in 1773 was a botanist who worked in Australia.
His experiments on powder suspended in water resulted in a phenomenon known as the "Brownian Motion".
Agnes Broun was the mother
of the poet Robert Burns and the name occurs frequently in Ayrshire. James Brown of Lochton was the provost (roughly the mayor) of Dundee in 1844-47.
George Brown of Edinburgh emigrated to Canada in 1843 and was influential
in the purchase of the Northwest Territories by Canada. The name Brown was adopted by a fair number of Highland
clansmen when they wanted to get rid of their cumbersome (or at times politically incorrect) Gaelic names. John Brown, Queen
Victoria's famous gillie may have been in this category.
Additionally, it has been suggested by some researchers that at least some of Celtic origins may have been named after local
judges who were called "brehons". Browns are sometimes regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the Lamont or MacMillan
Motto: "Aonaibh Ri Cheile" (Unite)
sheaf of five arrows
The clan, settled in Lochaber since at
least Bruce's time, later became an important branch of the Clan Chattan confederacy and their name, taken as Cam--shorn
('s' silent) "hook-nose", is reported to have fitted many Highland Camerons. But
Camerons also, from the Norman name Cambron, had for a century before Bruce been spreading widely from their Fife headquarters of the
same name. If the name in common is more coincidence, it is not the only one.
Among several branches of the Highland clan, hat of the Chief acquired their Lochiel property by marriage and made that name, with
their motto "For King and Country" resound in the Stewart causes. Then in 1793
under Cameron of Erracht they founded the 79th or Cameron Highlanders to serve with no less distinction.
The southern Camerons of the 17th century
directed their zeal rather differently. The scholarly John Cameron founded a
protestant group in France called Cameronites;
Richard Cameron, killed at Airdsmoss, 1680, a militant Covenanter, gave his name to the Cameronian sect and a later Lowland
Chalmers, Chambers, Clark, Clarke, Clarkson, Cleary, Clerk, Dowie,
Gibbon, Gilbertson, Kennedy, Leary, Lonie, MacAldowie, MacAlonie, MacChlery, MacClair, MacLeary, MacGillery, MacGillonie,
MacIldowie, MacKail, MacKell, MacLear, MacCleary, MacLerie, MacMarti, Maconie, Macostrich, MacPhail, MacSorley, MacUlrig,
MacVail, MacWalrick, Martin, Paul, Sorley, Sorlie, Taylor.
Motto: Feros ferio - "I am fierce with the fierce"
Badge: A hand holding aloft a
boar's head on the point of a dagger.
Names associated with the clan: CHESOLME
CHEISHAME CHESOM CHEISHOLME CHESOME CHESEHELME CHESSAM CHESEIM CHESSAME CHESHELME CHESSEHOLME CHESHOLME CHISHOLM CHESIM CHISHOLME
CHEISHELM CHISM CHESEHOLM CHISOLM CHESHOLM CHESOLM CHESAME CHESHELM CHESHOM CHISOLME CHISOMME CHISSEM CHISSIM CHISSOLME SHESHELM
SCHISOLME SCHISHOLME SCHISHOME SHISHOLME SCHISOME
Origins of the Clan
Scottish Chisholms were not to be found in the Highlands, but owned land near the English border. In 1296, in the Ragman Rolls, John de Chesolm (Chesehelm) was described as "of the county of Berwick" and Richard de Chesolm (Chesehelm) as "of the county of Roxburgh", while in 1335 Alexander de Chesholme was called "Lord of Chesholme in Roxburgh and Paxtoun in Berwickshire."
In Scottish Gaelic, the name is rendered "Sìosal" or Sìosalach".
Wars of Scottish Independence
fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, was taken prisoner with King David II and probably not released until eleven years later when his royal master returned to Scotland. In 1359 Robert Chisholm succeeded his grandfather as Constable of Urquhart Castle, and later became Sheriff of Inverness and Justiciar of the North. This Robert was the last Chisholm to hold lands in both the North and South of Scotland. He divided his estates among his younger children.
John o' Groats; Hugh Freskin Sutherland is said to have strengthened the family's royal favor by ridding the north of a ferocious band of robbers lead
by Harold Chisholm. Among the crimes, a number of Sutherland churchmen were tortured by nailing horseshoes to their feet and
making them dance to entertain the followers before putting them savagely to death. On hearing of this outrage, King William
the Lion ordered Hugh of Sutherland to pursue Chisolm to the death and a great fight ensued near John o' Groats. All of the
robbers were either killed or captured. Harold Chisolm and the other leaders were given a punishment to fit the crime, horse
shoeing and hanging. The rest were gelded to prevent any offspring from men who were so detestable. This seems to have been
a frequent punishment of the time. The Chisholms became well known for cattle raiding. In 1498 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and
others carried off 56 oxen, 60 cows, 300 sheep, 80 swine and 15 horses belonging to Hugh Rose of the Clan Rose. Later in 1513 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and Sir Alexander MacDonald of Glengarry were with Sir Donald MacDonald of Lochalsh on his return from the Battle of Flodden Field when he decided to invade the Clan Urquhart. Some sources say that Macdonald occupied Urquhart Castle for three years despite the efforts of Clan Grant to dislodge them.
Alexander Chisholm was appointed to the committee which arranged the defence of Inverness on behalf of the Covenanters against the Royalists. In 1653 the Chisholms stole cattle from the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser, they were however captured and brought to court where they were ordered to return all they had stolen and pay
the Chief Munro of Foulis and Chief of Clan Fraser £1000 interest each.
Stuart restoration in 1660, Alexander followed his father as a Justice of the Peace, and in 1674 was appointed Sheriff Depute
for Inverness. Once again his duties brought him up against the MacDonalds, for in 1679 he was ordered to lead a thousand men of the county to quell a disturbance created by some members
of the clan, and in 1681 he was given a commission of fire and sword against them.
Jacobite uprisings the Chisholms sided with their old enemies the Clan MacDonald in support of the Jacobites against the British Government. The Clan Chisholm took part in the Battle of Culloden in 1746.Another portion of the Clan was on the Government side at Culloden. After the battle, the officer leading
the Government Chisholms was declared The Chisholm, the head of the Clan.
Chief is Andrew Francis Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm, Thirty-third Chief of Clan Chisholm
Names associated with the clan: CLAERK
LEARY MACALEERIE MACCLERICHE MACCLERIE MACCHLERICH MACCLERICH MACCLURICH MACCLERY MACCLEARY MACCLEAREY MACCLIRIE MACCHLERY
MACELEARY MACINCLERYCHT MACINCLERIE MACINCLERICH MACLERIE MACLEARY MACLERICH MACLEAR MACKLEIRY MAKLEARIE MACLEERIE CLERK CLERC
CLEARY CLERKSOUN CLERKSONE CLERCSONE CLERKE CLEARKSON CLARKSON CLERKSSON CLARKSONE CLERKSON CLARKE CLARK CLERCK CLERACH CLERIE
The term "clericus"
was originally applied to someone in a religious order but it was later applied to anyone who was a secretary, scribe, scholar
as well as a cleric in the church. It is therefore not surprising that this occupational name became widespread when surnames
began to be used. At the end of the 12th century, a Roger clericus held land in Kelso and in 1249 Alan clericus was a witness
to a charter in Aberdeen. There were nine people from Scotland
with that name who signed the "Ragman Roll" when King Edward I of England
demanded in 1296 that all landowners had to swear allegiance to him. However, it is only after 1400 that we can be certain
that it was being used as a surname rather than as a description of someone's occupation or status.
There was never a
Highland clan of that name. However, it is frequently found among the Clan Chattan confederacy.
Clarks appear to have been a sept (under the protection) of the MacPhersons (whose origins were also from the church, "Mac-a Phearsain" meaning in Gaelic "son
of the parson" in the days when celibacy of the priesthood was not enforced). The name is common throughout the Lowlands and Highlands of Scotland. It is particularly prevalent in Caithness and there were important
families of Clarks in places as far apart as Aberdeen, Edinburgh,
Paisley and some have become landed families with baronetcies. Two unrelated Clarks
reached high office in the Swedish navy in the 17th century and the name is found in Sweden
and Finland in the form Klerck. The American
explorer George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) was of Scottish descent. The tartan used by the Clerks is a variation
of one called "Blue Clergy" which was worn by ministers, though it dates from the re-invention of tartan after the visit (orchestrated
by Sir Walter Scott) of King George IV to Scotland in 1822. Clark is currently the 14th most frequently
found name in Scotland. The name is also
common in England where it is often spelt
Clarke. Clark is regarded as a sept (sub-branch)
of both Cameron and Macpherson
A "craig" in Scots is a cliff or an outcrop of rock (Ailsa Craig in the Firth
of Clyde being a prime example). It followed that someone with the name Craig came from a place with that name or perhaps
just a well-known crag of rock. The name is thus found across Scotland and was never identified with one specific area.
Landowners whose name was the same as the area they came from, were sometimes
described as being "of that Ilk" - of the same name. Usually that title is applicable to only one person but in the 15th century
were three "Craigs of that Ilk" in different parts of Scotland.
Johannes de Crag, a burgess of Aberdeen, held land at Rubislaw and his family
and heirs occupied Craigston Castle at Kildrummy for over 250 years.
Richarde de Crag was the vicar at St Mary's in Dundee in the 1550s and John
Craig at St Andrews University was imprisoned during the early stages of the Reformation for adopting Protestantism. He was
sentenced to death but escaped and joined John Knox and survived to see the Reformation triumph.
Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton was a renowned writer on feudal law and his
work "Jus Feudale" published in 1655 is still used by Scottish lawyers. Sir Thomas was admired by King James VI and was one of the Scots invited to attend the coronation of King
James as king of England in Westminster Abbey in 1603.
The winner of the design for Edinburgh's New Town in 1766 was James Craig.
Although his plans were modified, it is thanks to him that Edinburgh's 18th century Georgian architecture can be seen in all
Sir James Craig took his family and followers to Ulster in 1610 during what
was known as the "Plantations". A descendant, another James Craig, was a millionaire Irish whiskey distiller who organised
the Ulster Volunteer Force against Home Rule for Ireland in the 1920s. He then became the first Prime Minister of Northern
Ireland. He later became Viscount Craigavaon and the new town of Craigavon in County Armagh was named after him.
The Craig clan motto is "Vive Deo et Vives" which means "Live for God and
you shall have life".
Craig was the 55th most frequent surname at the General Register Office in 1995 but apart from descendants of those who emigrated from
Scotland, is relatively unknown elsewhere.
Names associated with Clan Craig: Crag, Craig,
Branches: Crawford of Auchinames, Craufurd of Craufurdsland, Craufurd of Kilbirnie
te robore reddam (Latin: I will make you safe with strength)
Names associated with the clan: CRAUNFORD CRAFORT CRAWEFORD
CRAFOORD CRAWFORD CRAWFURD CRAWFFURD CRAWFAIRD CRAFFORD CRAFOARD CRAFORD CRAFUIRDE CRAUFURDE CRAFURD CROUFORD CRAUFFURD CRAUFURD
CRAWFEURD CRAUFOORD CRAUFORD CRAUFORTH KRAUFORD
The early history of Clan Crawford is diverse and complicated. And like so many other Clan histories, competing
theories of Crawford history are difficult to decipher looking back 900 years through 30 generations. However, by employing
all we know about the secular and religious history of the period and using certain physical and biological rules [eg. a person
can't be in 2 places at the same time, people 15- and 50+ years typically are not prolific reproducers, and nobody lived over
100 years] we can sort out competing theories.
One anecdote that keeps returning "like bad haggis" is the claim that the Crawfords derive from Alan, the
4th Earl of Richmond. This version was widely distributed in Burke's General Armory, a series of editions published between
1842 and 1884, and separately in Burke's History of the Commoners. The registration of the Arms of Colonel Robert Crawford
of Newfield in the mid-1800's states the basis of the connection being "presumptive evidence" in reference to the similarity
of Arms between the House of Crawford (gules, a fess ermine) and the Earls of Richmond (gules, a bend ermine). There are several
problems with this formulation. The first styling of the unofficial "Earls of Richmond" did not come about until 1136, well
after the establishment of the House of Crawford absolutely no later than 1127 (stag incident and first use of the surname).
Second, Arms designs of England (Richmond) and Scotland (Crawford) were independent with no prohibition against similarity
as registrations didn't begin until a few centuries later. Third, aside from Alan technically being the 1st Earl of Richmond
(although he could be justified as the 4th), Alan wasn't born until 1116. The claim is that his younger son, Reginald, is
the father of John and Gregan who saved King David from the stag. Therefore, Alan was the 11 year old grandfather of the valorous
Gregan of 1127, conclusively debunking the anecdote.
In 1296 Sir Reginald Crawford was appointed sheriff of Ayr. His sister married Wallace of Elderslie and thus
became the mother of William Wallace the great Scottish patriot. Needless to say, the Crawfords rallied to his cause.
The main branches of the family were Crawford of Auchinames (in Renfrewshire) who received a grant of land
from Robert the Bruce and Craufurd of Craufurdland (in upper Clydesdale). Sir William Craufurd of Craufurdland was a brave
soldier who was knighted by King James I and fought for King Charles VII of France. The castle at Craufurdland was much extended
in the 17th century. The castle passed to the Howiesons in 1793 and was restored in the 1980s.
Other lines of Crawfords began in the reign of James III when descendants of Archibald Craufurd created the
families of Auchenairn, Beanscroft and Powmill. Archibald's son John was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513.
In the 16th century, Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill was a member of the household of Lord Darnley, husband
of Mary Queen of Scots. During those turbulent times he captured Dumbarton Castle in 1571 with 150 men by scaling the supposedly
impregnable rock and later received the surrender of Edinburgh Castle.
Lawrence Crawford (1611-45) fought for Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years War and returned to Britain to
fight for the Parliamentary forces against King Charles I.
Branches: Cunningham of Auchinharvie, Cunningham of Coreshill, Cunningham of Craigends, Cunningham
of Kilmaurs, Cunningham of Robertland.
Motto: Over fork over
Names associated with the clan: CHONIGHAM CONIGHAM
CONIGHAME CUNNYNGHAME CWNNINGHAME CUNNYNGAYME CUNYNGHAME CUNNYGAM CUNYNGAHAME CUNNINGHAME CUNYMGHAM CONYNGHAME CWNYGHAME CUNYNGAME
CUNYNGAHAM CUNYGHAME CWNYGHAM CUNNINGHAM CONYNGHAM CUNNINGGHAME CONYGHANS CONNINGANS CUNYGAM CUNIGHAM CUNIGOM CUNINGGAME CUNINGHAM
CUNINGHAME KUNINGHAM KYNINGHAME
This name is from an area in Ayrshire which in turn got its name from "cuinneag" meaning "milk
pail" along with the Saxon "ham" meaning "village".
In the 12th century, the lands of Kilmaurs in Ayrshire were granted to a Norman named Warnebald.
His descendants took the territorial name Cunningham and Harvey de Cunningham is reputed to have fought for Alexander III
at the Battle of Largs against the Vikings in 1263.
The Cunninghams gave support to Robert the Bruce and received additional lands as a result. King
James III created Sir William Cunningham as Lord Kilmaurs in 1462 and earl of Glencairn in 1488. But the first Earl was killed
(along with his king) a few months later at the Battle of Sauchieburn when James was attempting to subdue some rebellious
Alexander, the fourth Earl of Glencairn was a friend of the protestant radical John Knox and may
have been responsible for vandalising the chapel at Holyrood after Mary Queen of Scots defeat at the Battle of Langside in
1568. During this time there was a feud between the Cunninghams of Glencairn and the Montgomery earls of Eglinton. The 4th
Earl of Eglinton was later murdered by the Cunninghams in 1586.
The 8th Earl of Glencairn led an uprising in support of Charles II in 1653 and against General
Monck, who was Governor of Scotland. He was captured but managed to stay alive until the Restoration in 1660 when Charles
II appointed him Lord Chancellor. The title of Earl of Glencairn is now extinct.
The 14th Earl was a patron of Robert Burns (Burns named his fourth son James Glencairn Burns) and
the poet wrote a lament on the Earl's death.
"The mother may forget the child
That smiles sae sweetly on her knee;
But I'll remember thee, Glencairn,
And a' that thou hast done for me."
Motto: "Honour is the prize of honesty".or “In Promptu”
which means “In Readiness.”
Badge: A white horses head.
Clugston, Corbett, Dunbar, Dundas, Edgar, Grey, Heryng, Home, Knox, Nisbett, Peddie, Strickland, Washington, Wedderburn
Names associated with the clan: DUNBARRE DUNBAR DUMBARE DUMBAR DOUNBARE ABERLADY
name comes from the old barony of Dunbar, now in East Lothian. The name Dunbar
itself comes from the Gaelic "dun" meaning "fort and "barr" meaning "summit". The lands were granted by King Malcolm III to
the Earl Gospatric who had lived further south in Northumberland in the 11th century but had been forced to flee by William
the Conqueror. Earl Gospatric in turn was descended from Crinan, the thane of Dunkeld whose grandfather was probably Duncan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld who died in 965.
of Dunbar married a daughter of King William the Lion in 1184. A later Patrick "Black Beard", 8th Earl of Dunbar, was one of
those who competed for the crown of Scotland in 1291 when King Edward I
of England volunteered to mediate in the
argument. Later, the 9th Earl of Dunbar sheltered King Edward II at Dunbar after the flight of the English king from the field
of Bannockburn in 1314.
the 14th century, the 10th Earl enlarged his estates and became one of the most important nobles in Scotland. He accompanied the Earl of Douglas in his raids into England and fought at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 in which
the Scots defeated Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but with the loss of the Earl of Douglas. But he fell out with the Douglas
family when they disrupted his plans for his daughter to marry the son of King Robert III.
early 15th century, the 11th Earl of Dunbar became so powerful that he became perceived as a threat to King James I and he was imprisoned on a trumped up charge of treason so that the king
could take over the large Dunbar estates. The last Earl died in exile in England in 1455.
1368 the Dunbars obtained lands of Glenkens and Mochrum in Dumfries and Galloway and the Dunbars also appear in Caithness around the middle of the 15th century, descended from the Dunbars of Westfield in that county.
The present chief of the Dunbars is from the Mochrum line.
been a number of other Dunbars who have walked across the pages of Scottish history. In 1337, Agnes, Countess of Dunbar, known
as Black Agnes, conducted a sturdy defence of Dunbar Castle while her husband was absent. She was the daughter of King Robert the Bruce's
friend, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. She calmly dusted the stones off the battlements with her 'kerchief whenever the besieging
cannons of the Earls of Salisbury and Arundel crashed into
the castle walls. The siege lasted 19 weeks and was eventually abandoned. In the 16th century, the Archbishoprics of both
Glasgow and Aberdeen were both
held by Gavin Dunbars from the Mochrum line. The Archbishop of Glasgow was a tutor of King James V and became his Lord Chancellor.
the best known member of the family was William Dunbar (1460-1513) who was a court poet to King James IV. While much of his poetry was composed by royal command, he also managed
to include advice to his monarch! His works were meant to be read out loud and Sir Richard Burton listed Dunbar's
"Lament for the Makaris" as one of his three favourite poems. William Dunbar may have died at the Battle of Flodden with his
Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia and in his coat of arms he was allowed to use supporters
"Imperially Crowned". The present line of Dunbar clan chiefs was established in a celebrated
court case in 1990 which went all the way to the House of Lords.
Branches: Dundas of Arniston, Dundas of Fingask, Dundas of Inchgarvie
Essayez (French : Try)
Names associated with the clan: DASS DUNDAS DUNDASS
The name Dundas (the emphasis should be on the second syllable) is derived from a place name near Edinburgh
which, in Gaelic was "dun deas" (south fort). The first record of the name is Helias de Dundas in the reign of William the
Lion in 1200. He may have been a descendant of Gospatrick, earl of March. His descendants styled themselves as Dundas of that
Ilk, signifying the head of a landed family and held their property until the 19th century.
In the reign of King James III, Sir Archibald Dundas was a favourite of the king and was sent on missions to England. James IV later gave a grant of lands to the Dundas family.
The main branches of the family can be found in Duddingston in Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Blair Castle, Arniston
and in Fingask in Perthshire.
The 18th Laird of Dundas supported the cause of the Covenanters and was a member of the committee which tried
the first Marquis of Montrose when he refused to support the extreme aspects of Presbyterianism. Sir James Dundas was knighted
by King Charles I in 1641 and became a Member of Parliament. On the restoration of the monarchy (in 1660), he became
a member of the supreme court, with the title Lord Arniston, in 1662. There were a number of further generations of Dundas
(all confusingly named Robert) who became judges also.
William Dundas of Kincavel was a supporter of the Jacobites in 1715 and was afterwards imprisoned. The 23rd Laird joined the East India Company and died in
a shipwreck off the coast of Madagascar in 1792.
The most famous Dundas was Henry, 1st Viscount Melville, who lived from 1742 to 1811. He held the office of
Lord Advocate, Keeper of the Signet and Privy Seal and, by controlling political patronage in Scotland, he had considerable
power in the Westminster Parliament. He was instrumental in taking over India (from the East India Company) and large numbers
of Scots gained the opportunity to work there as a result. He was also the driving force behind the repeal of the Proscription
Act which banned the wearing of tartan and the carrying of weapons (implemented as a result of the 1745 Uprising in support
of Bonnie Prince Charlie). A Bill in 1784 also restored forfeited land to the Jacobites. His power as a politician was unequalled
in his day and has not been matched since, lending his support to a succession of UK Prime Ministers. He built a house in
St Andrew Square in Edinburgh. It was recently the head office of the Royal Bank of Scotland and is fronted by a statue of Viscount Dundas, designed by William Burn.
Motto: Fide et Fortitudine - "By fidelity and fortitude".
The upper half of a lion rampant, with a sword in his paw.
Septs of the Clan:
Barrie, Brebner, Christie, Coates, Coutts, Farquhar, Findlay, Findlayson, Finlay, Finlayson, Gracie, Greusach,
Hardie, Hardy, Kellas, Lyon, MacCaig, MacCardney, Macartney, MacCuaig, MacEarachar, MacFarquhar, Machardie, Machardy, MacKerchar,
MacKerracher, Mackindlay, Mackinlay, Paterson, Reoch, Riach, Tawse.
The immediate ancestor of the Farquharsons of Invercauld,
the main branch, was Farquhar or Fearchard, a son of Alister "Keir" Mackintosh or Shaw of Rothiemurchus, grandson of Shaw
Mor. Farquhar, who lived in the reign of James III, settled in the Braes of Mar, and was appointed baillie or hereditary chamberlain
thereof. His sons were called Farquharson, the first of the name in Scotland. His eldest son, Donald, married a daughter of
Duncan Stewart, commonly called Duncan Downa Dona, of the family of Mar, and obtained a considerable addition to his paternal
inheritance, for faithful services rendered to the crown.
Donald's son and successor, Findla or Findlay,
commonly called from his great size and strength, Findla Mhor, or great Findla, lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century.
His descendants were called MacIanla or Mackinlay. Before his time the Farquharsons were called in Gaelic, clan Erachar or
Earachar, the Gaelic for Farquhar, and most of the branches of the family, especially those who settled in Athole, were called
MacEarachar. Those of the descendants of Findla Mhor who settled in the Lowlands had their
name of Mackinlay changed into Finlayson.
Findla Mhor, by his first wife, a daughter of the Baron Reid of Kincardine
Stewart, had four sons, the descendants of whom settled on the borders of Braemar, and some of them in the district of Athole.
eldest son, William, who died in the reign of James IV, had four sons. The eldest, John, had an only son, Robert, who succeeded
him. He died in the reign of Charles II.
Robert's son, Alexander Farquharson of Invercauld, married Isabella, daughter
of William Mackintosh of that ilk, captain of the clan Chattan, and had three sons.
William, the eldest son, dying
unmarried, was succeeded by the second son, John, who carried on the line of the family. Alexander, the third son, got the
lands of Monaltrie, and married Anne, daughter of Francis Farquharson, Esq. of Finzean.
The above-mentioned John Farquharson
of Invercauld, the ninth from Farquhar the founder of the family, was four times married. His children by his first two wives
died young. By his third wife, Margaret, daughter of Lord James Murray, son of the first Marquis of Athole, he had two sons
and two daughters. His elder daughter, Anne, married Eneas Mackintosh of that ilk, and was the celebrated Lady Mackintosh,
who, in 1745, defeated the design of the Earl of Loudon to make prisoner Price Charles at Moy castle. By his fourth wife,
a daughter of Forbes of Waterton, he had a son and two daughters, and died in 1750.
His eldest son, James Farquharson
of Invercauld, greatly improved his estates, both in appearance and product. He married Amelia, the widow of the eighth Lord
Sinclair, and daughter of Lord George Murray, lieutenant-general of Prince Charle's army, and had a large family, who all
died except the youngest, a daughter, Catherine. On his death, in 1806, this lady succeeded to the estates. She married, 16th
June 1798, Captain James Ross, R.N. (who took the name of Farquharson, and died in 1810), second son of Sir John Lockhart
Ross of Balnagowan, Baronet, and by him had a son, James Farquharson, a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Aberdeenshire,
representative of the family.
There are several branches of this clan, of which we shall mention the Farquharsons of
Whitehouse, who are descended from Donald Farquharson of Castleton of Braemar and Monaltrie, living in 1580, eldest son, by
his second wife, of Findla Mhor, above mentioned.
Farquharson of Finzean is the heir male of the clan, and claims the chieftainship,
the heir of line being Farquharson of Invercauld. His estate forms nearly half of the parish of Birse, Aberdeenshire. The
family, of which he is representative, came originally from Braemar, but they have held property in the parish for many generation.
On the death of Archibald Farquharson, Esq. of Finzean, in 1841, that estate came into the possession of his uncle, John Farquharson,
Esq, residing in London, who died in 1849, and was succeeded by his third cousin, Dr Francis Farquharson. This gentleman,
before succeeding to Finzean, represented the family of Farquharson of Balfour, a small property in the same parish and county,
sold by his grandfather.
The Farquharsons, according to Duncan Forbes "the only clan family in Aberdeenshire", and
the estimated strength of which was 500 men, were among the most faithful adherents of the house of Stuart, and throughout
all the struggles in its behalf constantly acted up to their motto, "Fife et Fortitidine". The old motto of the clan was.
"We force nae friend, we fear nae foe". They fought under Montrose,and formed part of the Scottish army under Charles II at
Worcestor in 1651. They also joined the forces under the Viscount of Dundee in 1689, and at the outbreak of the rebellion
of 1715 they were the first to muster at the summons of the Earl of Mar.
In 1745, the Farquharsons joined Prince Charles,
and formed two battalions, the one under the command of Farquharson of Monaltrie, and the other of Farquharsons of Balmoral;
but they did not accompany the Prince in his epedition into England. Farquharson of Invercauld was treated by government with
considerable leniency for his share in the rebellion, but his kinsman, Farquharson of Balmoral, was specially excepted from
mercy in the act of indemnity passed in June 1747.
"Dulcius ex asperis" - literaly, "Sweeter after difficulties". Names Associated with Clan Fergus: Ferguson, Fergusson, Fergie, Fergushill, Ferrar, Ferrie, Ferries, Ferris, Ferriss, MacFergus, McKerrass,
McAdie, Keddie, and Kiddie, Kydd, MacAdie, MacCade, MacErries, MacFergus, Mac Fhearghuis, Mac Firries, MacHerries, MacInlay,
MacIrish, MacKeddie, MacKerras, MacKersey, MacKestan, McMagnus, MacTavert.
History of the clan
the 18th century, at least five groups of Fergusons possessed lands and lived in the style of a clan under their respective
chiefs in Argyll, Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, Galloway, and Carrick. Today, the Kilkerran Fergusons in Ayrshire and the family of Ferguson
of Baledmund and the Fergusons of Balquhidder, both in Perthshire, are still owners of extensive lands.
from both Galloway and Carrick alike claim descent from Fergus of Galloway. The grandfather of Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick and in turn great-great-grandfather to Robert Bruce, Fergus, restored the see of Whithorn and founded Dundrennan Abbey during the reign of David I and Malcolm IV. He died as a monk at Holyrood in
1161. Through Robert Bruce passes the line of the Royal Family of Britain. It was the 1st Earl of
Carrick's signature that might suggest the origins of the Fergusson surname, Duncan, son of Gilbert, the son of Fergus, hence
It is known
with certainty that by the 13th century there were men in widely separated districts of Scotland which called themselves "sons of Fergus". It is recorded in the Annals of Ulster there was in 1216 a day of disaster to the Cenel-Ferghusa at the hand of the Mormaer of
Lennox's son, Muireadhach. Through the passing of the ages however the particulars of the story have been lost.
Robert I of Scotland granted certain lands in Ayrshire to Fergus MacFergus, and in 1466 John Ferguson resigned a portion of his estate to Fergus Ferguson (of Kilkerran),
his son, and Janet Kennedy, his wife. From this line stems Sir Charles Fergusson, 9th Baronet, and Baron of Kilkerran who holds the undifferenced arms as Chief of the
is also common in Ulster where there have been several landed families, some claiming to have been
planted there from Ayrshire in the 17th century. Others of the name in Antrim and nearby counties descend from people who
did not migrate to Dalriada in the 5th century.
"Fergusson" was widely used by the reign of James IV. The shortened form of the name with the single "s" was initiated by record
clerks before the 1600s. The common spelling of the day was "Fergussoun" and by the reign of Charles II, "Fergussone".
17th century & Civil War
Clan Fergusson has not blazed the battlefield with glories won by the sword. However, "Sons of Fergus" fought with Clan Bruce in the Scottish Civil War and the English Civil War. Some Perthshire Fergusons fought alongside James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1644.
18th century & Jacobite Uprisings
soldier in Prince Charles Edward's Army at the Battle of Prestonpans in the '45 was an 80-year-old Ferguson.
In the 18th century the head of the Kilkerran family came gradually to be regarded as the chief of all the Fergus(s)ons.
This family has produced notable statesmen, military leaders, lawyers, writers and agricultural improvers. The present Chief
is Sir Charles Ferguson of Kilkerran, 9th Baronet, who lives in the ancestral home near Maybole, Ayrshire.
modern times and during World Wars I and II many Fergus(s)ons from Scotland
and abroad were distinguished military leaders. Clan Ferguson
has been termed a "gentle force" that gained respected prominence from live and let live. Recently, however, a clansman, after
looking at McIan's depiction of "The Ferguson" as a barefooted, Claymore-wielding, helmeted warrior wearing the ancient Lein-croich,
or saffron colored shirt of the Celts, remarked that "if Clan Ferguson is a "gentle force" he was glad the warrior was one
of us and not a foeman!"
Clan Fergusson today
Fergus" the world over have gained distinction in nonmilitary activities, e.g. in the law, the church, government, the arts
and sciences, medicine, education, agriculture and in business and industry. Mention can only be made of Adam Ferguson the philosopher (1724-1816) and Robert Fergusson (1750-1774) the poet and mentor of Robert Burns. And in the realm of romance, the heroine of the song Annie Laurie was married to Alexander Ferguson of Craigdarroch.
modern era the peers of Ayrshire, Dumfries, Argyll, and Perthshire families have retained the double 's' while those of Fife, Aberdeenshire, Angus and Ireland have the
Clan Crest: A crowned blue griffin.
Clan Motto: Instaurator Ruinae (A repairer
Origins of the Clan
first recorded person of the name was William de Firsith on the Ragman Roll in Berwick on the 28th August 1296. Much of the records of Clan Forsyth were destroyed
by Oliver Cromwell in the Civil War, therefore little is known.
Wars of Scottish Independence
the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence Robert de Forsyth received lands from King Robert I of Scotland. Roberts de Forsyth's son called Osbet Forsyth led the clan against the English
at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.
1364 the accounts of the 'Customers' of Stirling were rendered by Fersith the Clerk who was probably Robert's brother and
who was granted ú100 per annum from the lands of the Polmaise Marischal by Robert II.
1418 Robert Forsyth renderd the accounts of the Burgh of Stirling. In 1432 his son who was also called Robert became Burgess of Stirling and a Baille in 1470. Duncan Forsyth and David Forsyth became Burgesses
in 1497 and descendants of the family settled in Stirling and held civic office for centuries.
1488 David Forsyth the now Burgess of Stirling bought the land of the Dykes also known as Hallhill which is near Strathaven near Lanarkshire. The castle there had fallen into ruin but it was not demolished until
16th Century Anglo-Scottish Wars
the 16th century the Clan Forsyth led by Alexander Forsyth fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where Alexander was slain.
grandson James Forsyth married Elizabeth Leslie in around 1520. Elizabeth
was the granddaughter of George Leslie who was the Chief of Clan Leslie and the 4th Earl of Rothes. Elizabeth was also the great granddaughter of
King James III of Scotland.
1540 the family left Dykes and moved to Inchnoch Castle in Monkland which was also in Lanarkshire.
In 1621 William Forsyth had become a member of Forres in the Scottish Parliament.
Charles William Forsyth, Baron of Ethie, was recognised by Lord Lyon King of Arms as Chief of the Name and Clan of Forsyth
Motto: Ne oublie - "Do not forget".
Badge: A winged falcon attacking a stork.
Septs of the Clan: Airth , Allardice,
Allardyce, Bonar, Bonnar, Bontein, Bontine, Buntain, Bunten, Buntine, Bunting, Graeme, Grahame, Grahym, Grim, Grymn, Hadden,
Haldane, Macgibbon, Macgilvernock, Macgrime, Maharg, Menteith, Monteith, Pitcairn, Pye, Pyott.
From the greed of the Campbells,
From the ire
of the Drummonds,
From the pride of the Grahams,
From the wind of the Murrays,
Good Lord Deliver us, prayed a 17th century laird who’s land was bordered
by all four. And indeed, the pride of the Grahams was famous throughout Scotland
for they were a close knit race deeply loyal to kith and kin. The also took pride in their unswerving devotion to their monarch
even when this was sometimes rewarded with scant thanks. And lastly, they took pride in following their personal conscience,
whatever the consequences.
Tradition says the first Graham was a Caledonian chief called Graym who attacked and burst
through the mighty Antoine Wall which divided Scotland in two, and drove
the Roman legions back to Hadrian’s Wall on the English border. More likely, the chiefs
spring from an Anglo-Norman family who originally came to England with
William the Conqueror in 1066, and are recorded in his Doomsday Book as holding the lands of Graegham or Grey Home.
David I, king of Scots, was brought up in England
and given a Norman education. He married a Norman heiress and through her acquired vast estates in England. Thus when he succeeded to the Scottish throne in 1124 he brought with
him many of his Anglo-Norman friends to help create order in what was then a very primitive and savage land. He granted them
large estates in the Lowlands and without exception these barons then intermarried into the
local Celtic aristocracy. Within a generation or two they had become totally integrated with the older race and were soon
William de Graham, the first recorded of that name, was granted land around Dalkieth and Abercorn
in Midlothian and appears as a witness on David I’s charter of 1128 founding the Abbey
of Holyroodhouse. His descendant, Sir David Graham, acquired the lands of Dundaff in Strathcarron in 1237, and built a castle
there. This was probably a wooden fortification on a motte or artificial earth mound in the Norman style. The remains of the
later stone castle can still be seen. Sir John de Graham of Dundaff was William Wallace’s right hand man and close friend
in the first struggle for Scottish independence in the late 13th century. The contemporary poet Blind Harry calls
him ‘’Schir Jhone the Grayme’’ and records his brave death at the battle of Falkirk in 1298 when the
small, ragged Scottish army was crushed beneath the hooves of the heavy armoured cavalry of the English army of Edward I.
Sir John’s gravestone and effigy can be seen today at Falkirk Old Church and bear the inscription ‘"Here lyes
Sir John the Grame, baith wight and wise, Ane of the chiefs who rescewit Scotland thrise, Ane better knight not to the world
was led, Nor was gude Graham of truth and hardiment".
Although principally a Lowland and Border clan the Grahams never forgot the Highlanders who
had fought for them. The 3rd Duke of Montrose, when Marquis of Montrose and a Member of Parliament, was responsible
in 1782 for the repeal of the law forbidding the wearing of Highland dress. Mugdock was the
principal seat of the Graham chiefs until 1680 when they acquired the lands of the Buchanans and moved to Old Buchanan House
near Drymen. In 1707 James Graham, 4th Marquess, was created the 1st Duke of Montrose by Queen Anne.
He is perhaps better known for being firstly the partner, and then the foe, of the Highland
folk-hero Rob Roy McGregor.
The Grahams had become the largest landowners in Stirlingshire by Victorian times and in 1857
built the huge Gothic Buchanan
Castle on the foundations of a much older fortification. This became
the residence of the Dukes of Montrose until the beginning of the Second World War when it was requisitioned as a military
hospital. Here was kept Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy, after he made his mysterious flight to Scotland in 1940. The roof was removed after the war and the castle is now a ruin.
James Angus Graham, b. 1907, was the 7th Duke of Montrose and was also Earl of Kincardine; Viscount Dunduff, Lord
Graham; Aberuthven; Mugdock and Fintry. He became a farmer in Rhodesia
(now Zimbabwe) and was a cabinet minister
in the Rhodesian Government of Ian Smith. He moved to South Africa and
later returned to Scotland before his
death in 1992. His son, James, the 8th Duke of Montrose lives on the ancestral estates, at Auchmar near Loch Lomond. The name of Graham is an honourable one not only in Scottish history but also in more modern
times. For example, it was the 6th Duke of Montrose who invented the aircraft carrier during the First World War.
Others of note include the evangelist Billy Graham; Kenneth Graeme who wrote the classic "Wind in the Willows:; Admiral Sir
Cunningham Graham of the last war and many others too numerous to mention.
Motto: I Stand For Truth [Sto Pro Veritate]
The current chief of Clan Guthrie is Alexander Guthrie of Guthrie, 21st of that
Ilk, who lives in both Italy and England.
Following the sale of Guthrie Castle out
of the family, the clan seat is known generally seen as being Torosay Castle on the Isle of Mull
Origins of the name: The name Guthrie almost
certainly derives from the barony of the same name near Forfar. Other theories are that it is a corruption of Guthrum, which
was the name of a Scandinavian Prince.
of Clan Guthrie: Although the Guthries of Guthrie were the
main line of the family, many offshoots existed, some of them mentioned in an old rhyme: "Guthrie o' Guthrie And Guthrie o'
Gaigie Guthrie o' Taybank An' Guthrie o' Craigie." An old tale without substance gives an alternative derivation for the name.
One of the early Scottish Kings had taken shelter, along with two attendants, in a fisherman's hut. The King, knowing his
attendants would be hungry, asked the fisherman to prepare two fish for them, but the fisherman offered to feed the king as
well and "gut three"; and so, the legend insists, the name stuck.
of Scottish Independence: The
first of the name Guthrie on record in Scotland
was one Squire Guthrie in 1303 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He had been sent to France to request the return of William Wallace, who had retired there having resigned the guardianship of Scotland.
The mission was evidently successful, as William Wallace did indeed return to Scotland.
However, Wallace was later captured and executed by the English.
The Guthries of Guthrie received their estates by
a charter from King David II of Scotland between the years 1329 and 1371.
Century: In 1457, Sir David Guthrie of Guthrie was Armour-Bearer to King James III of Scotland and the Sheriff of Forfar; he became Lord Treasurer of Scotland
in 1461 and continued in this office until 1467, when he was appointed Comptroller of the Exchequer. In 1468, he obtained
a warrant under the Great Seal to build Guthrie Castle near Friockheim in Angus, which remains standing to this day.
Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the 16th Century, during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Clan Guthrie fought at the Battle of Flodden Field (1513) against the English. Sir David Guthrie's eldest son Sir Alexander was killed in this battle.
The Guthries were supporters of the young King James VI of Scotland against his own mother Mary, Queen of Scots, who had been portrayed as a challenge to his authority as King. It was around
this time that Alexander Guthrie was murdered following a feud with the neighboring Gardynes (which continued until 1618).
Gray Clan Crest: An anchor
Gray Clan Motto: Anchor, Fast Anchor.
Gray Clan History
Fulbert de Gray was Great Chamberlain to Robert, Duke of Normandy, and owned lands in Picardy. There is a tradition that his
daughter Arlotta was the mother of William the Conqueror and that the family arrived in England in 1066 with the Norman Conquest.
The name first appears in Scotland in 1248 and Henry Gray
of Fife rendered homage to Edward I in 1296, but, like many other established families of
the time, followed Robert the Bruce when the timing was right. It was Sir Andrew Gray who scaled the rock of Edinburgh Castle to recapture it from the English
in 1312, and he was rewarded with lands at Longforgan in Perthshire. In 1377, the lands of Fowlis also passed to the
Gray family through marriage to a daughter of the powerful de Maule family, and in 1444, Sir Andrew's descendant, also Sir
Andrew, and a loyal supporter of James I and II, was created 1st Lord Gray.
Thereafter the Grays remained close to the ruling House of Stewart. Patrick, son of the 2nd Lord Gray, was a Gentleman
of the Bedchamber to James II. The 3rd Lord Gray was Lord Justice General of Scotland in 1506. Patrick, 5th Lord Gray, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Solway
Moss in 1542 and ransomed for £500 sterling, a princely sum at the time. Patrick, 7th Lord Gray, was caught up in the intrigues
surrounding the fall of Mary Queen of Scots and although tried for treason, was released and exiled. Andrew, 8th Lord Gray,
followed the Marquis of Montrose. In 1639, he resigned his honours to obtain a new patent in favour of his daughter
Ann who had married her kinsman William Gray, younger of Pittendrum. William was killed in a dual with the Earl of Southesk
in 1660 and the title passed to the earls of Moray, but on the death of the 14th Earl of Moray passed to his niece who became
Baroness Gray in her own right.
David Gray (1838-61), born in Kirkintilloch, was a prominent Scottish poet.
Places of Interest:
Longforgan, Perthshire was built in 1452 for Lord Gray of Foulis. Broughty Castle, Dundee, Perthshire. Five storey tower built
by Lord Gray of Foulis in 1490. Owned by Historic Scotland.
The true translation (not the literal meaning) of "Ceann
Ard" is "head land" ie. a high piece of land jutting into the sea. This may be the reason for the naming of the Kinnaird Head Lighthouse in Faserburgh, Aberdeenshire.
Rauf de Kinnaird in Kincardine swore fealty to King Edward
I of England in 1296.
Sir Richard de Kinnaird (grandson of Rauf de Kinnaird) had
a charter of lands and barony of Kinnaird, lying in the sheriffdom of Perth.
This was witnessed by John, Earl of Carrick, the King's son and Sir Richard's son, Walter, Earl of Fife. He also had a charter
of confirmation of the lands of Chethynrawoch and Kinnynmond, in the barony of Slains in Aberdeenshire.
When Alan de Kinnaird (elder son of Sir Richard) died, his
son Thomas succeeded him and with his wife, Egidia, (the heiress of Culbin, Forres and of half the barony of Naughton, Fife) started the family of Kinnaird of Culbin, Moray.
Reginald Kinnaird (younger son of Sir Richard) and wife
Marjorie (daughter and heiress of John de Kircaldy of Inchture) received a Charter from King Robert III of all the lands Marjorie
held of the King in the barony of Inchture (which she had previously resigned). He founded the family of Kinnaird of Inchture,
The family of Kinnaird managed to Flourish during the middle
ages, even though they made no alliances with the powerful clans.
Scotland during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, was ravaged by religious conflict.
The newly found passionate fervor of Presbyterianism and the Church of Scotland rejected all who could not pass "The Test"
of taking an oath of belief in the Church. Those failing 'The Test' were sometimes burnt at the stake or, more kindly, banished
to Australia, the Carolinas or the West Indies.
Many were freely "encouraged" to migrate to Ireland. Families migrated from Scotland
to Ireland with promises of cheap Irish
land. They became known as the "Scotch/Irish". There is no record of distinguished family migration to Ireland, but this does not preclude the possibility of individual
The migration or banishment to the New
World also continued. Some went voluntarily from Ireland, but
most went directly from Scotland.
In North America, some
of the first migrates which could be considered kinsmen of the name Kinnaird, or having a variation of the family surname
spelling were: William Kinnaird who settled in Charles Town SC in 1767 and William Kinnard who settled in Philadelphia P.A. in 1786.
From the original ports of entry the immigrants moved westward,
some to the middle west, some across the prairies to the west coast. During the American War of Independence some remained
loyal to the cause, whilst others became United Empire loyalists and moved north to Canada.
Many prominent people were a part of the Kinnaird name,
notably Lord Kinnaird of Inchture, Baron Kinnaird of Rossie and the Laird of Culbin. The last Lord Kinnaird (#13) died in 1997, there were no living male heirs.
Chief: Fergus Macdowall
of Garthland is the Chief of the Name and Arms
Motto: Vincere Vel Mori (To conquer or die)
MacDowalls of Galloway
The Society has
a strong membership of McDowells who are anciently connected to it through "Prince" Fergus, Lord of Galloway, a contemporary
ally of King Somerled of Argyll and the Isles. A younger son of Uchtred, second Lord of Galloway was Duegald the eponym of
the MacDougalls of Galloway. The "w" in MacDowall is a Norman transliteration introduced under Edward I of England circa 1300
and the "e" is an Irish spelling.
The MacDowalls (M'Dowells) of Galloway are the senior descendants
in the male line of the princely house of Fergus (b.1096) first of the ancient Lords of Galloway who maintained native leadership
by adopting Normanization under David 1. Fergus' successive heirs through Elizabeth (daughter of Henry 1 of England), were
Uchtred, Roland (Constable of Scotland), and Alan (co-signatory of the Magna Charta) whose daughter Dervorgilla passed the
lordship and heirship of the crown to her son John 1 (Baliol). Roland had a brother Duegald (k. 1185) from whom the MacDowalls
are descended according to Garthland records, as a result of which they carry the undifferenced Arms of Galloway, the same
Dalriadic lion used per pale by Somerled, or quartered by the MacDougall, except crowned in Galloway.
John ("The Red ") Comyn of Badenoch was the grandson-in-law of Dervorgilla Lady of Galloway and Lord of Galloway by right
of his mother. He was a leading contender for the crown of Scotland. He was murdered during a meeting in the Greyfriars Kirk
at Dumfries in February 1306 by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, (afterwards Robert I King of Scots) in order to usurp the crown.
The murder started blood feuds and civil war in which the Galloway MacDougalls were mortal foes of Robert I and close allies
of the crowned Baliols of Galloway, of Alexander Comyn Earl of Buchan and of their fifth cousin Edward I of England. After
several battles in which the Gallowegians followed their native leader Sir Dougal MacDougall (first translated " MacDowyl"
by the English at that time), Sir Dougal was dispossessed by the Bruces. The next three generations changed sides several
times until reinstated at Garthland in 1413 defenders of Scotland.
The main branches of the
family eventually included the MacDowalls of Garthland, the Makdougals of Makerston, the MacDoualls of Logan, the MacDoualls
of Freugh, and the MacDowalls of Machrimore. The caput baroniae of Garthland near Stoneykirk, Wigtonshire, was sold to the
Earl of Stair and a substitute estate was established in Renfrewshire at Lochwinnoch. Logan House and Gardens are extant under
different ownership in Wigtonshire. The barony of Freugh belongs to the Marquess of Bute. Makerston on the Tweed in Roxburghshire
belongs to Baron Biddulph, and Machermore castle is a seniors' residence at Newton Stewart, Kikcudbrightshire.
The main migrations of the family name were to Ireland during the Plantations of Ulster, and then to America during the Irish
potato famine as a result of which most members of the family now live in the United States.
Today, Fergus Macdowall of Garthland is the Chief of the Name and Arms. The caput baroniae is at Garthland Mains on the Rhinns
of Galloway. The present seat is at Barr Castle, Garthland, Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire
Motto: Reviresco (I Grow Strong Again)
Cowal, Lennox, Galloway
Name: Son of Ewen
chiefs of the clan lived at Otter, on Loch Fyne. Their castle was located on the rocky shore of
the loch, near Kilfinan. In 1431–2, during the reign of James I of Scotland, Sween MacEwen of Otter resigned the destination of the
Barony of Otter to the heir of the chief of Clan Campbell, after which on Sweens death the barony
passed into the hands of the Campbells. From that time on with the loss
of their land the MacEwens as a broken clan were dependants on Clan Campbell. Since the death of Sween the line of chiefs of the MacEwens of Otter have been
untraced. In an Act of Parliament of 1602 the MacEwens are listed beside the MacLachlans
and McNeils, as vassals of the Earl of Argyll and answerable to him for their behaviour.
According to the 19th century historian James Logan, in General Wade's statement of the Highland forces engaged in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, the Mac Ewens of the Isle of Skye were recorded with 150 men.
members of Clan MacEwen are permitted to wear a crest
badge which shows their allegiance to the clan. Crest badges
are of relatively recent origin, and usually consist of strap and buckle surrounding the clan chief's
crest and motto. However, in the case of Clan MacEwen, the crest badge
is not derived from the arms of a previous chief of the clan.
The clan does not have a chief recognized by Lord
Lyon King of Arms and as such the clan can be considered an Armigerous
crest badge suitable for a member of Clan MacEwen contains the Latin motto: REVIRESCO, meaning
"I grow strong again"; and the crest of a
trunk of an oak tree sprouting Proper. This modern crest badge is
derived from the crest and motto that make up the Arms of the McEwen
Baronets (McEwen of Marchmont and Bardrocha). These McEwens held
lands in Bardrochat in Carrick. The McEwen Baronets may not have any connection with Clan MacEwen of Otter
Clan MacEwen is a Highland Scottish clan.. The principle clan with the name MacEwen
was Clan MacEwen of Otter that
was centered on the shores of Loch Fyne in Argyll. The MacEwens of Otter's traditional ancestry is entwined with several local clans
such as Clan Lamont, Clan
Maclachlan, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens, all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill, who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. All of these clans can claim a further descent from the
legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. In the 15th century the MacEwens of Otter
lost their lands to the Campbells, and since then the line of chiefs has
been untraced. The MacEwens were then known as a broken clan (landless) and followed Clan Campbell.
Clan MacEwen of Otter claims a descent from Donnsleibhe, who was
said to be a descendant of an Irish prince of the O'Neill dynasty named Ánrothán
Ua Néill, who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. He was a son of Áed, son of Flaithbertach Ua
Néill, King of Ailech and Cenél nEógain, died 1036. There are several other Argyll clans which
claim a descent from this prince—Clan Lamont, Clan Maclachlan, Clan MacNeil of
Barra, and also the MacSweens who left Scotland to settled in Ireland in the 14th century.
From this descent, these clans claim a further decent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of
Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century.
The only genealogy to survive, regarding Clan
MacEwen of Otter, is the so-called MS 1467, now held in the National
Library of Scotland. The Gaelic manuscript was written in 1467 and contains
the genealogies of many Scottish clans. Unfortunately for the MacEwens of Otter, today their genealogy
within the manuscript is practically unreadable in places. The MS 1467 was uncovered by W.F. Skene in the early 19th century, who transcribed and translated
Contradicting Skene's transcription, Niall
Campbell, 10th Duke of Argyll considered the MacEwens of Otter as a branch of the MacSweens,
and thus descended from Dugald, son of Suibne (who is thought to have left his name to one of the
oldest stone castles in Scotland—Castle Sween).
The chiefs of the clan lived at Otter, on Loch
Fyne. Their castle was located on the rocky shore of the loch, near Kilfinan. In
1431–2, during the reign of James I of Scotland, Sween MacEwen of Otter resigned the destination of the
Barony of Otter to the heir of the chief of Clan Campbell, after which on Sweens death the barony
passed into the hands of the Campbells. From that time on with the loss
of their land the MacEwens as a broken clan were dependants on Clan Campbell. Since the death of Sween the line of chiefs of the MacEwens of Otter have been
untraced. In an Act of Parliament of 1602 the MacEwens are listed beside the MacLachlans
and McNeils, as vassals of the Earl of Argyll and answerable to him for their behaviour.
According to the 19th century historian James Logan, in General Wade's statement of the Highland forces engaged in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, the Mac Ewens of the Isle of Skye were recorded with 150 men
Roger de Berchelai came to England with William the Conqueror and was granted Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire.
This early form of the name was believed to be the Anglo-Saxon version of 'beau' meaning beautiful, and 'lee', a meadow or
field. Roger was mentioned in the Domesday Book as well as his son, John. In 1069 John de Berchelai accompanied Margaret (later
St. Margaret) to Scotland. In gratitude for his service, King Malcolm (Canmore) granted him the lands of Towie, near Turriff,
in Aberdeenshire, as well as the title, Barclay of that Ilk. 900 years of Barclay history in Scotland descend from John's
three sons, Walter, Alexander, and Richard.
The Barclays formed important alliances and held land throughout the north-east of Scotland, principally
Towie, Mathers, Gartley and Pierston in Aberdeenshire. They also settled in Banff, Collairnie in Fife, Brechin in Forfarshire
and Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. One family line settled on the west coast in the Ardrossan and Kilbirnie areas in Ayrshire.
Sir David Barclay was one of Robert the Bruce's chief associates and was present at many of his battles.
Sir Walter de Berkeley, Gartley III, Lord Redcastle and Inverkeillor, was Great Chamberlain of Scotland 1165-1189. Alexander
de Berkeley, Gartley IX, became Mathers I in 1351 when he married Katherine Keith, sister of the Earl Marischal. Their son
Alexander was the first to adopt the Barclay form of the surname. Sir George Barclay, Gartley XIX, was Steward of the household
of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a later Sir George was second in command of James IV forces in the Highlands in the 1689.
One of the major Barclay families was established at Urie near Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. The
first Laird, Colonel David Barclay, was a professional soldier serving with such armies as that of Gustavus Adolphus. He returned
home when civil war broke out and serviced as a colonel of a regiment of horse fighting for the king. Following his retirement
and the conclusion of the war, he was confined in Edinburgh Castle where he was converted to the Society of Friends (Quakers).
His son Robert, Urie II, was widely known for his Apologia, described on the title page as being an Explanation
and Vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the People called Quakers.
The last Laird of Urie, Captain Robert Barclay-Allardyce (Allardyce added when he married an heiress of that name
whose lands were added to those of Urie), was known as the Great Pedestrian. Many tales exists of his walks over the Scottish
hills, such as his walk from Urie to Crathynaird (28 miles), staying less than an hour and then walking home again the same
day. His most famous record, however, was that of walking 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours. This feat was accomplished in 1809 and
five days later, he embarked with his regiment for the Walcheren Expedition in the Napoleonic Wars.
Names Associated with Clan Barkley: Ardrossan Barklaw Berclie Barckley Barklay Berekele Barckly
Barkley Berkeley Barclaye Barkly Tollie Barclet Barraclough Tolley Barclye Berckley Towie Barcula Berclay Towy Barkla Bercley
*excerpted from Clan Barclay web site
Buth Chanain is Gaelic for “Canon’s House,” and the lands which
received this designation border Loch Lomond. The Earl of Lennox, to whom the first MacMhuirich bard to come to Scotland addressed
a poem early in the 13th century, referred to Sir Absalon of Buchanan as “Clericus Meus.” The Buchanans
thus appear equally early in the ranks of the Scottish intelligentsia.
Among the Buchanan Clan, two men are outstanding. George Buchanan (1506-1582) was born at Killearn in Stirlingshir.
George was sent to study in Paris during the intellectual ferment of the Reformation. He became an outstanding scholar, wrote
plays and poetry in Latin, and returned to Scotland a convert to Calvinism - just as Mary, Queen of Scots, returned from France
and began to reign in Scotland. She became his patron despite the fact that he did not share her Catholic beliefs. When Mary
was deposed, he sided with her enemies - as did many others. He was appointed tutor to her son and it was felt by Mary that
he poisoned the child’s mind against his mother. However he was a brilliant man and it may well have been due to his
influence that the child who later became King of both England and Scotland is known for his own intelligence and pursuit
James Buchanan (1791-1796) 15th President of the United States, was born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He
was the son of a Scottish Calvinist who emigrated to the States with his family in 1783. It was Buchanan’s misfortune
to preside over the outbreak of the American Civil War. Though the clan no longer holds land around the area of Loch Lomond,
Buchanan County in Missouri commemorates their name and their president.
Septs: Colman, Cormack, Cousland, Dewar, Dove, Dow, Gibb, Gibbon, Gibson,
Gilbert, Gilbertson, Harper, Harperson, Leavy, Lennie, Lenny, MacAldonich, MacAlman, MacAslan, MacAslin, MacAuselan, MacAuslan,
MacAusland, MacAuslane, MacCalman, MacCalmon, MacCammond, MacCasland, MacChrutter, MacColman, MacCormack, MacCubbin, MacCubing,
MacCubin, MacGeorge, MacGibbon, MacGreusich, MacGubbin, MacInally, MacIndeor, MacIndoe, MacKinlay, MacKinley, MacMaster, MacMaurice,
MacMurchie, MacMurchy, MacNeur, MacNuir, MacNuyer, MacQuattie, MacWattie, MacWhirter, Masters, Masterson, Morrice, Morris,
Morrison, Murchie, Murchison, Richardson, Risk, Rusk, Ruskin, Spittal, Spittel, Walter, Walters, Wason, Waters, Watson,Watt,
Watters, Weir, Yuill, Yool, Yule, Zuill
The Gaelic for Bute, the island next in size to Arran in the Firth of Clyde, is Bod and its genitive
case is Boid. The first in Scottish records to take their name from the island were vassals of the de Morevilles, and may
have accompanied them from England.
In the 15th century Malcolm de Bute became chaplain to King Robert III and Thomas Boyd was selected as one
of the hostages for the King of Scots in 1425. About 1466, Robert, eldest son of Sir Thomas Boyd of Kilmarnock, carried out
a daring coup d’etat. He had been created Lord Boyd in 1454 by James II. James was subsequently blown up by a cannon,
and Lord Boyd became Regent for young James III in 1460. He then kidnapped his charge and obtained an Act of Parliament appointing
him sole governor of the realm. His rule was competent and his role was cemented when he was appointed Great Chamberlain for
life. His son married the King’s sister Mary and was created Earl of Arran and Lord Kilmarnock. In 1468 Boyd negotiated
the royal marriage with Norway which brought the Orkney islands to the Scottish Crown.
Despite many reverses due to evil plots furthered by enemies of Clan Boyd, the clan persisted. The 10th Lord
Boyd was created Earl of Kilmarnock in 1661 for his family’s services to Charles II. The 3rd Earl supported the Union
with England in 1707, but the 4th commanded the cavalry of Prince Charles at Culloden and was beheaded on Tower Hill. His
earldom was forfeited but his second son became the 15th Earl of Erroll by inheritance from his great-aunt and adopted the
surname of Hay. To this title the barony of Kilmarnock was added in 1831. So when the 22nd Earl of Erroll died in 1941, leaving
a daughter as Chief of Clan Hay and Countess of Erroll, his brother resumed the name of Boyd and became the 6th Lord Kilmarnock
as Chief of Clan Boyd. He was succeeded in 1975 by the 7th Lord Kilmarnock.
For further information on Clan Boyd contact: Donald Boyd Mellen, 4820 Carlton, NW, Canton, Ohio 44709.
Like most Europeans, the Scots are a blend of races: Neolithic survivors mixed with Celtic "Pict", Britonic
Celt incomers, Celtic "Scots" invaders from Ireland, Viking and Norse raiders and settlers, Norman and Flemish knights and
even some few Angles in the south. All these joined to add their genes to this sturdy race of people. Like most Scots, all
Campbells are a blend of races through maternal ancestry, although there were times from the 16th through the 18th centuries
when, among some leading families in Argyll and Perthshire, they had grown so numerous as frequently to intermarry, intensifying
their characteristics as a kin. Many also share the Scots Gaelic blood of the Dalriadic O'Duibne people whose heiress their
ancestor married on Lochawe in the 13th century.
Their paternal ancestry is apparently from the Britonic Celts of Strathclyde, sometimes called the "Romano
British" from the northwestern part of the early "Kingdom of Strathclyde".
The capital of Strathclyde was Al Cluit or DunBriton (now Dumbarton Rock) in the area known as the Lennox.
According to legend, here in An Talla Dearg, the Red Hall of Dun Briton, was born the first ancestor of the Campbells who
appears in all three of the early Gaelic genealogies; Smervie or Mervyn, son of an Arthur, who became known as "the Wildman
of the Woods", perhaps being a notable hunter. If the legend is based upon a real character, he likely lived in the eleventh
or twelfth century. However those names at that period can have absolutely no actual connection with the legendary Arthur,
whose possible existence is said to have been many centuries earlier.
The name Campbell did not come into use until several generations later.
It was Sir Cailein Mor Campbell's grandfather Dugald on Lochawe who is said to have been the first given the
nickname "Cam Beul" since he apparently had the engaging trait of talking out of one side of his mouth. Cam beul means curved
mouth in the Gaelic. This Duncan was so much loved by his family that they took his nickname as their family name and held
to it even beyond Argyll.
The spelling of the surname (family name) was originally Cambel. Then when Robert the Bruce's son King David
came to the throne as King of Scots he brought with him a number of Norman knights to whom he gave lands in an attempt to
introduce Norman efficiency in administration. David had been at the English court and admired the Norman system of feudalism.
The use of the spelling "Campbell" may perhaps have been as a result of Norman rather than Gaelic scribes attempting to write
the Gaelic name.
The name Cambel was first used by the family in the 13th century. The first chief of the clan to appear on
record as "Campbell" may well have been Sir Duncan of Lochawe when he was created Lord Campbell in 1445
Clan means family group in the Gaelic. There came to be roughly three uses of the word clan: for the large clans like Clan Campbell, Clan Donald and Clan Gordon; for the smaller clans like Clan Callum or Clan Lachlan; for the sub-clans or name
groups within the larger clans like Clan Tavish or Clan Arthur (the McTavishes of Dunardry and McArthurs of Tirevadich).
The idea of all members of a clan being of one name is a Victorian misconception. Clans begin to emerge as
recognizable units in the 12th and 13th century. Initially the Chief and the Chief's close kin were the leaders of the clan
while their followers were the local people who were their tenants or who looked to them for leadership in defense. So while
the Clan Campbell were led by Campbells, until about the 18th century, many of their followers, and sometimes even they themselves
often used patronymics or father's names.
Patronymics lie behind many modern Scottish family names, particularly those now beginning with the `Mac'
or `Mc' prefix, meaning `son of'. Further, in early records these sometimes appear with `Vic', meaning `grandson of'. For
example Archibald MacDougall V'Gillespic (Gaelic for Archibald) was Archibald son of Dougall son of Archibald. Sometimes,
such as in the 16th century, such names might even appear followed by `alias Campbell'. In modern times families who were
not of Campbell origin yet who had long given their allegiance to the Chief of the clan have come to be called "septs". Names associated with Clan Campbell may be found on their web site.
This long-powerful group of clans comprised two main divisions, respectively under Macintosh and MacPherson
leadership, with some subsidiary septs and family groups joining for protection. Dissension arose among the sections from
various causes, not least from their encroaching neighbours, the Gordons, enticing them into opposing camps.
Accounts of the Clan Chattan’s origin vary. The Macintoshes, holding to their own Maduff origin, regard
it as a confederacy, with the MacPhersons just a branch from Macintosh stock. MacPhersons, putting reliance on a written genealogy
of 1450, favour the Chattan sections as having branched from an ancestor, Gillechattan Mor, a Moray chief of the early 11th
century, his elder son Nechtan founding the MacPhersons and the younger, Neil, the Macintoshes, which surname only appears
two centuries later. Either way of it, the Clunie MacPhersons retained the old Chattan chiefship, although in 1291 the Macintoshes,
through marriage of their chief Angus to Eva, the MacPherson heiress, achieved the greater share of land and followers and
also their chief’s right to be styled “Captain of the Clan Chattan” leaving their claim to full chiefship
a good-going dispute scarcely yet settled.
MacPherson Group/ Macintosh Group:MacPherson,Macintosh, Machardie,Davidson, Farquharson,
Macqueen,Gillespie, Macbean, Noble,Keith, Macgillivray, Mactavish,Smith, Macglashan, Shaw. Also: Cameron, Cattanach,
The name Cumming (or Comyn) is of Norman origin, derived from Comines near Lisle on the French/Belgian border.
Robert de Comyn came to England with William the Conquerer in 1066 and was given lands in Northumberland. His grandson was
later given land in Roxburghshire by King David I. His nephew, Richard de Comyn, married a grandaughter of Kind Duncan I.
Through careful alliances and beneficial marriages, the Comyn held three earldoms by the 13th century: Monteith, Mentieth,
and Atholl and Buchan.
The Cummings (as the name came to be spelled) of Altyre were eventually recognized as the chiefly line. Alexander
of Altyre was created a baronet in 1802. Until recently the chief was Sir William Gordon Cumming. He lived at Blairs House,
Altyre, Forres in Morayshire. His son, Alastair succeeded him in the baronetcy.
Branches: Cumming of Altyre, Cumming of Inverallochy.
Septs: Buchan, Cheyne, Chiene, Common, Commons, Cummin, Cummings, Cumyn, Farquharson,
MacNiven, Niven, Russell, Skinner, Tindell, Tyndale.
greatest and largest of the Highland Clans, begins it's recorded history with Somerled, a descendant of Conn of the Hundred
Battles and Clan Colla. Somerled's defeat of the Norse King of Man in 1156 gained independence for southwestern Scotland that
survived for over four centuries.
The clan takes it's name from Donald, the 3rd Lord of the Isles and grandson of Somerled
who lived until 1269. Donald's son was the original "Mac" (meaning "son of"). It was Donald's great-grandson, Angus Og, the
6th Lord of the Isles who sheltered Robert the Bruce at the lowest ebb of his career. Later, leading a small band of Islemen,
Angus Og was instrumental in Bruce's defeat of the English at Bannockburn. This battle won independence for Scotland. In recognition
of Clan Donald's part in the victory Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald would forever occupy the honored
position on the right wing of the Scottish Army.
Angus Og's grandson, Donald, the 8th Lord of the Isles, married the
heiress of the Earldom of Ross and in 1411 fought the Battle of Harlaw to keep his wife's inheritance from being usurped by
the Regent Duke of Albany. His army of 10,000 men included the forces of almost every clan of the Highlands and Isles. All
these clans were willing vassals of the Lord of the Isles. They regarded the MacDonald Chiefs as the heads of the ancient
"Race of Conn," and lineal heirs of the ancient Kings of the Dalriadic Scots, going back to the 6th century and beyond.
of Harlaw's son and grandson were both Earls of Ross and Lords of the Isles, controlling not only the Hebrides from Islay
and Kintyre to the Butt of Lewis, but most of Argyll and the modern County of Inverness, along with the County of Antrim in
northern Ireland. The Earldom was lost in 1471, but the Lordship of the Isles was not absorbed by Scotland until the middle
of the 16th century. A MacDonnell (a variation of the surname MacDonald) is still Earl of Antrim.
The power of the
clan survived and formed the backbone of the army of the Marquis of Montrose, fighting for the survival of the Stewarts in
the 17th century, and, though divided, it was an important factor in the Jacobite Rebellions of the 1700's.
Names & Families of Clan Donald
Some people and clan associations speak of a "sept list" to indicate the various
names associated with their clan. It is the official position of the Clan Donald-USA Genealogy Committee that this an improper
use of the term, at least when speaking of Clan Donald, and probably when speaking of any Highland clan. Our preferred terminology
is "Families of Clan Donald."
Most of the family names connected to Clan Donald have territorial limitations. (This
is true with names connected with almost all clans, although many do not recognize or impose those restrictions, leading to
unseemly confrontations about, for example, "my Clark" no "MY Clark!" -- when almost every clan probably had families named
Clark attached to them -- from the clerks or clerics who did most of the accounting and book work. The same can be said of
Gowans, Smiths, Taylors and a number of others.)
Clan Donald feels that these territorial limitations are important. Therefore,
where those limitations are listed, a prospective member must indicate that his or her family of the correct name did come
from the indicated area before they may be accepted for membership. In over 35 years of using this list we have found that
a strong family tradition of being of Clan Donald has proven correct in 99.99% of all cases.
If you feel you might have Clan Donald heritage, it is strongly suggested
you check the Clan Donald web site for more information: http://www.clan-donald-usa.org/
[above material extrapolated from Clan Donald web site]
For more information on Clan Donald in Ohio:
Deputy Regional Commissioner
Donne E. Shepperly, 4373
Westchester Ct.,Hudson, OH 44236-4177,(h) 330-463-5559,(c) 216-650-1311 - email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
An adequate history of the Douglases would be largely one of Scotland itself, where they long rivaled the
royal power and eleven times married into it. It would be far too lengthy to do justice here. But an attempt to somewhat sum
up their history follows.
Perhaps originally kinsmen of Freskin, the founder or Clan Murray, it is in the South the Douglas Family is
first noted. In the 12th century we find the Black Douglases of Douglasdale, Dumfriesshire, and Galloway. The next century
saw the establishment of the Red Douglases at Dalkeith, and then in Angus. The first use of the term “Black Douglas”
was applied by the English in referring to Sir James Douglas, lieutenant to Robert the Bruce. The term, of course, was redundant.
The name “Douglas” derives from the Gaelic “dubh” meaning black and “glas”
meaning grey. The origins are unknown, despite a multitude of legends. The first known to carry the name is William of Douglas.
He witnessed several charters between 1175 and 1199, and again in about 1200 and 1211. Between 1198 and 1239 came Archibald
Douglas, progenitor of those great families that were to play a resounding part in Scottish history. He was succeeded by William,
who became the founder of the senior line of the Black Douglases. He was the father of Sir William the Hardy, the companion
of William Wallace of “Braveheart” fame.
The son of Sir William was named James. As Good Sir James Douglas, the first Earl of Douglas, he is often
given a place equal to that of King Robert himself. He attended Bruce at his death in 1328 and promised to take his heart
to the Holy Land. But he was unable to do this as he fell in battle in Spain, and his son fell fighting against the English
at Halidon Hill in 1333. He did, however, leave a bastard son named Archibald the Grim, who inherited his father’s estate
as the 3rd Earl of Douglas. He is known to have ruled with strength and justice. The ruins of his castle at Threave
still stand as a memorial to the Black Douglas Lords of Galloway.
Through a long and complicated disagreement with King James II of Scotland, the Douglas family lost its estates
and the earldom was extinguished. But this was not the end of them. Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, the Douglas family
was to rise to power again, this time as the Red Douglases. A bastard son of the first Earl, named George, married a daughter
of King Robert III and was then raised to the earldom of Angus, as befitted the husband of a princess. By the time the Black
Douglases had forfeited their lands and title, he was well established and had an heir, Archibald. The Red Douglases, therefore,
began to occupy the centre of the stage of Scottish history almost as soon as the Black Douglases had departed from it.
Septs: Cavers, Douglass, Drysdale, Forest, Forrest, Glendinning, Inglis, Kirkpatrick,
Lockerby, Macguffie, Macguffok, Morton, Sandilands
The name is from the clan’s earliest land at Drymen, near Loch Lomond. Tradition says it was conferred
upon their ancestor, Maurice, who married Queen Margaret’s maid-of-honour. Either he or his father was the Hungarian
prince who piloted the refugee vessel of 1066 that brought Malcolm Canmore’s bride-to-be to Scotland. The earliest chief
now documented was Malcolm Beg (the “little”) a 13th century steward to the Earl of Lennox.
The Drummond arms display a motto, “Gang Warily,” and the caltrops. These are the four-spiked
cavalry spikes that a later Sir Malcolm contributed to the victory at Bannockburn. For his services, Bruce awarded the lands
in Perthshire where the clan was to flourish. Annabella Drummond became Queen to Robert II, the first Stewart king; and from
then on to the last Stewart, no clan remained more faithful to the Stewarts than the Drummonds.
Septs of Clan Drummond include: Begg, Brewer, Cargill, Dock, Doig, Grewar, Gruar, Gruer, Maccrouther,
Macgrewar, Macgrouther, Macgruder, Macgruer, Macgruther, Macrobbie, Macrobie, Mushet, Robbie.
The Elliots were an important family in the south of Scotland. The Chief of the clan was of Redheuch, and
some other branches of the family were designed as of Larriston, Braidlie, Horsliehill, Arkleton, and Stobs.
Of the last-named branch came Gilbert Eliot of Stobs, celebrated in Border history as “Gibbie wi’
the gowden garters,” who died leaving several sons. William, the eldest, was ancestor of the Baronets of Stobs, now
regarded as the principal line of Eliots extant; also of John Eliot, M.D., Physician to the Prince of Wales, who was created
a Baronet, 1778, but died unmarried in 1786; and also of the celebrated General George Augustus Eliot, who successfully defended
Gibraltar for three years (1779-83) against the whole power of France and Spain. General Eliot was created Lord Heathfield
Baron Gibraltar, 1787, but the title became extinct on the death of his son, Francis, 2nd Baron, 1813.
Gavin Eliot of Midlem Mill, 4th son of the above-named Gilbert Eliot of Stobs, was father of Gilbert Eliot,
Lord Justice Clerk, created a Baronet in 1700. His great-grandson, Gilbert, after having been Governor-General of India, was
created Earl of Minto in 1813.
CLAN FORBES - Motto: Grace Me Guide
Names associated with Clan Forbes: Bannerman, Berrie, Berry, Boyce, Boyes, Faubus,
Fobes, Fordice, Fordyce, Forbess, Forbis, Forbus, Forbush, Furbush, Lumsden, Macouat, Macowatt, MacQuattie, MacWatt, Mechie,
Meldrum, Michie, Middleton, Walter, Walters, Watson, Watt,Watters, Wattie,Watts
Forbes is a parish in the Aberdeenshire area. A reliable tradition tells that the 'Braes o’ Forbes'
were once uninhabitable because of bears living in the area. Oconachar, founder of the clan, killed the bears and claimed
the land as ‘first occupier’. The present chief still holds part of the Lordship of these Forbes lands.
In 1271, the chief of the time, Duncan de Forbes, obtained a charter from Alexander III for the land, confirming his claim. In the fourteenth century John de Forbes of the Black Lip had four sons with
whom the family expanded widely and prosperously. William began the Pitsligo line, John was progenitor of the branch of Polquhoun
and Alistair of Brux was ancestor of extensions in Skellater and Inverernan.
Alexander, the eldest of the brothers, fought in the 1411 Battle of Harlaw against the invaders from the Isles, led by Donald. He was created Lord Forbes by James I around 1444. To this
day the Lordship is regarded as Scotland’s premier. His own three sons would extend the family with the branches of
Corsindae and Monymusk, Corse, and later the Baronets of Craigievar.
There was a point where, from the coasts of Banff and Buchan, to the mountains of Aberdeenshire, there were
one hundred and fifty Forbes houses and estates. Clan Forbes was, through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, constantly
at odds with their powerful, predatory neighbours the Gordons, Earls of Huntly. The consistent murders by both sides escalated, fuelled with the excuses of religious self-importance,
into two battles at Craibstone and Tillieangus during 1571.
These were followed by the plunder of Lord Forbes' seat itself, and then the murder of twenty-seven Forbes'
of Towie at Corgarff. It eventually took two Acts of Parliament to force them to lay down their arms against each other.
During the 1715 rebellion, Duncan Forbes of Culloden, President of the Court of Session, was in opposition to the Jacobite cause.
He is remembered however, for his efforts to win the rebels better treatment from their captors. Speaking out for the people
after Culloden, Butcher Cumberland responded with the sneer, 'that old woman talked to me about humanity.' A memorial to Duncan
Forbes stands in the Parliament Hall at Edinburgh.
Built in 1815, Castle Forbes stands on the land claimed by Oconachar, overlooking the Don. Information
obtained at: www.scotclans.com
(Scottish Gaelic: Clann Frisealach, French: Clan Frasier) is a Scottish clan of French origin. The Clan has been strongly associated with Inverness and the surrounding area since the Clan's founder gained lands there in the
13th century. Since its founding, the Clan has dominated local politics and been active in every major military conflict involving
Scotland. It has also played a considerable role in most major political turmoils.The Clan's current chief is Simon Fraser, the 16th Lord Lovat, and 25th Chief of the Clan. The arms of Clan Fraser are Quarterly: 1st and 4th Azure, three fraises
Argent, 2nd and 3rd Gules, three antique crowns Or, or in layman's terms, the traditional three cinquefoils, or fraises (strawberry flowers), as they have come to be known, in the first and fourth positions and
three crowns in the second and third positions. Only the Lord Lovat is allowed use of these arms plain and undifferenced
Origins of the surname
The surname 'Fraser' is of an uncertain origin.The first record of the name
occurs in the mid-twelfth century as "de Fresel", "de Friselle", and "de Freseliere", and appears to be a Norman name, though there is no known placename in France that corresponds with it.
Also, it has been thought possible that a medieval scribe could have corrupted a Gaelic name beyond recognition.
A tradition, favoured by the leading family of Fraser, derived the clan's
descent from a Frenchman, Pierre Fraser, Seigneur de Troile, who came to Scotland in the reign of Charlemagne to form an alliance with the mythical King Achaius. Pierre's son was then to have become thane of the Isle of Man in 814.
Another explanation for the surname is that it is derived from the French
words fraise, meaning strawberry (the fruit), and fraisiers, strawberry plants. There is a fabled account of
the Fraser coat of arms which asserts during the reign of Charles the Simple of France, a nobleman from Bourbon named Julius de Berry entertained the King with a dish of fine strawberries. De Berry was then later
knighted, with the knight taking strawberry flowers as his Arms and changing his name from 'de Berry' to 'Fraiseux' or 'Frezeliere'.
His direct descendants were to become the lords of Neidpath Castle, then known as Oliver.This origin has been disputed, and seen as a classic example
of canting heraldry, where heraldic symbols are derived from a pun on similar sounding surname:
(strawberry flowers - fraises).
Around the reign of William the Lion (r.1165-1214), there was a mass of Norman immigration into Scotland. Thomas Grey, a fourteenth century English Knight, listed several Norman families which took
up land during William's reign. Among those listed were the Frasers. The earliest written record of Frasers in Scotland is
in 1160, when a Simon Fraser held lands in East Lothian at Keith. The Frasers moved into Tweeddale in the twelfth and 13th centuries and from there into the counties of Stirling, Angus, Inverness and Aberdeen.
During the Scottish Wars of Independence, Sir Simon Fraser, known as "the Patriot", fought first with the Red Comyn, and later with Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce.
Sir Simon is celebrated for having defeated the English in three separate engagements at the Battle of Roslin in 1303, with just 8,000 men under his command. Along with the Clan Fraser,
the Red Comyn's Clan Comyn, and the Clan Sinclair are known to have fought at the battle, which took place on 24 February 1303.At the Battle of Methven in 1306, Sir Simon led troops along with Bruce, and saved the King's life in
three separate instances. Simon was allegedly awarded the 3 Crowns which now appear in the Lovat Arms for these three acts of bravery. At the end of the day, he was captured by the
English and executed with great cruelty by King Edward in 1306, in the same barbaric fashion as Wallace. At the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Sir Simon's cousin, Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie, was much more fortunate. He fought at Bannockburn, married Bruce's sister,
and became Chamberlain of Scotland. The Frasers of Philorth trace their lineage from Alexander. At
the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, Alexander Fraser's three younger brothers, Simon Fraser of Lovat, Andrew,
and James, were killed while fighting the English.
As most all Highlanders, the Frasers have been involved in countless instances
of Clan warfare, particularly against the Macdonalds. Two Gaelic war cries of the Frasers have been generally recognized.
The first, "Caisteal Dhuni" (Castle Dounie/Downie) refers to the ancestral Castle and Clan seat, which once existed
near the present Beaufort Castle. The second is "A Mhòr-fhaiche" (The Great Field).
In 1544, the Frasers fought a great clan battle, the Battle of the Shirts (Blar-ne-Léine in Gaelic) against the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, over the disputed chiefship of Clan Ranald. The Frasers, as part of a large
coalition, backed a son of the 5th Chief, Ranald Gallda (the Stranger), which the MacDonalds found unacceptable. The
Earl of Argyll intervened, refusing to let the two forces engage. But on their march home,
the 300 Frasers were ambushed by 500 MacDonalds. Only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds are said to have survived the battle.
Both the Lovat Chief, Hugh Fraser, and his son were amongst the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory.
Robert Mor Munro, 15th chief of Clan Munro, was a staunch supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he consequently was treated favourably by her son, James VI. Robert was also a faithful friend of Mary. Scottish historian George Buchanan, a contemporary, wrote that when the unfortunate princess went to Inverness
in 1562: "as soon as they heard of their sovereign's danger, a great number of the most eminent Scots poured in around her,
especially the Frasers and Munros, who were esteemed the most 'valiant of the clans inhabiting those countries in the north.'
" These two clans took Inverness Castle for the Queen. The Queen later hanged the governor, a Gordon who had refused her admission.
In 1571 the Clan Fraser joined forces with the Clan Forbes in their centuries-long feud against the Clan Gordon. The Frasers and Forbes
were joined by Clan Keith and Clan Crichton. The Gordons were joined by Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The feud culminated in two full scale battles: the Battle of Tillieangus and
the Battle of Craibstone. At the first, the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son, known as Black Aurther Forbes, was killed.
During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644–1650, the Clan was as active as ever, supporting the cause of
In 1645, at the Battle of Auldearn, in Nairnshire, the Clan opposed the Royalist leader James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and fought under a Fraser of Struy (from a small village at the mouth of Glen Strathfarrar). The battle left eighty-seven Fraser widows
In 1689, the Glorious Revolution deposed the Roman Catholic King James VII as monarch of England, replacing the King with his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband and cousin William of Orange. Swiftly following in March, a Convention of the Estates was convened in Edinburgh,
which supported William & Mary as joint monarchs of Scotland. However, to much of Scotland, particularly in the Highlands,
James was still considered the rightful, legitimate King.
On 16 April 1689 John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, raised the royal standard of the recently deposed King James VII on the hilltop
of Dundee Law. Many of the Highland clans rallied swiftly to his side. The chief of the Clan
Fraser, Thomas Fraser, tried to keep the members of his clan from joining the uprising, to no avail:
The Clan marched without him, and fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie. In 1690, Thomas gave in and joined them.
The Clan Fraser was split during the first Jacobite rising in 1715. While some supported the Jacobite cause, Simon "the Fox" Fraser, Chief
at the time, supported the British Government. In 1715, a force led by Simon, who had been outlawed by the Stewarts and was
in exile, surrounded the Jacobite garrison in Inverness. The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch attempted to relieve the garrison, but when their path was blocked by the Frasers,
Keppoch retreated.The Inverness garrison surrendered to Fraser on the same day that the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought.
On 2 August 1745, a frigate successfully landed Bonnie Prince Charlie, grandson of James VII with his seven men of Moidart on the island of Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides. He would go on to raise the royal standard at Glenfinnan, and led the second Jacobite rising in Scotland. The by-now-infamous Simon "the
Fox" Fraser supported the Jacobites and Bonnie Prince Charlie during The '45. One very strong reason was that Simon had been created Duke of Fraser, Marquess of Beaufort, Earl of Stratherrick and Abertarf, Viscount of the Aird and Strathglass and Lord Lovat and Beauly in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland by James Francis Edward Stuart in 1740. Frasers were on the front lines of the
Jacobite army at the Battle of Falkirk, and the Battle of Culloden in 1746.
The Battle of Culloden in 1746 was a decisive defeat for the Jacobites and the House of Stuart. At
the battle, Frasers made up the largest Centre Regiment of the Front line, with 400 men under Charles Fraser of Inverallochy, and Simon Fraser, Master of Lovat. The Fox was not present at the battle, reportedly trying to
gather dispersed Clansmen to fight.
Being on the front line, the Frasers were one of the few units to actually
close with Government forces, breaking through Barrell's regiment with 800-900 other Highlanders. The Frasers were massacred
by the Government second line. Hundreds may lie buried in a mass grave underneath the Fraser gravestone at Culloden. Each
clan had its own grave.
Today the Clan Fraser is composed of many thousands all over the world. Large
Fraser populations exist in the United States and Canada, and smaller populations are in Australia, New Zealand (both of which
have had Fraser Prime ministers), and South Africa, not to mention those who never left Scotland. In 1951, the
Lord Lovat Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser was able to muster some 7,000 Frasers to the family seat at Beaufort Castle,
and in 1997, some 30-40,000 Frasers from 21 different countries came to Castle Fraser over a period of four days for a world-wide Clan gathering