Home | Burns Dinner Photos | NEWSLETTER | Officers | CLANS | BELTANE FESTIVAL | PEGASUS FARM | Charitable Requests | BOOKS | Tigh na Creige | Profiles | Rose & Thistle Award | Contest Winners | Genealogy | Resources | FEATURES | MEMBERSHIP | PIPERS PAGE | Events - Past & Upcoming | St. Andrews 2015 photos | SPECIAL EVENTS | St. Andrews 2015 | PENNYGOWN | SCOTTISH SNIPPETS | Clan Spotlight | Bulletin Board | Recipes | Contact Us | TRAVEL

Clan History Archive

Scottish American Society

For information on any of the past featured clans not found below, please contact:  margaretfrost63@gmail.com

Clan Histories featured in past articles on this web site:

Agnew, Anderson, Armstrong, Arthur, Barclay, Baxter, Buchanan, Boyd, Boyle, Brodie, Brown, Burns, Cameron, Campbell, Chattan, Chisolm, Clark, Claus, Craig, Crawford, Cumming, Cunningham, Donald, Douglas, Drummond, Dunbar, Dundas, Elliot, Farquharson, Ferguson, Forbes, Forsyth, Fraser, Gordon, Gregor, Graham, Grant, Gray, Gunn, Guthrie, Haldane, Hall, Hamilton, Hannay, Harvey, Hay, Henderson, Hepburn, Hogg, Home, Hope, Horsburgh, Houston, Hunter, Inglis, Innes, Jardine, Kennedy, Kincaid, Kinnaird, Kinnear, Kinnimont, Kirkpatrick, Kittle, Lamont, Learmonth, Leask, Lennox, Leslie, Lindsay, Little, Livingstone, Lockhart, Logan, Lumsden, Lyle, Lyon, MacAlister, MacAlpin, MacArthur, MacAulay, MacBean, MacBeth, MacBrayne, MacCallum, MacCorquodale, MacCullough, MacDougall, MacDowell, MacDuff, MacEwan, MacFarlane, MacFie, MacGeachie, MacGillivray, MacInnes, MacIntosh, MacIntyre, MacIver, MacKnight, MacKay, Mackie, MacKenzie, MacKinnon, Maclaine of Lochbuie, MacLaren, MacLean, MacLeod, MacNab, Morehead, Morrison, Ross, Routledge, Sinclair, Somerville, Stuart, Stuart of Bute, Sutherland, Urquhart.




There are at least two possible derivations of this name. Firstly, from the Norman French barony of d'Agneux, via England and Liddesdale in the Scottish Borders. Secondly, from a branch of O'Gnimh, who were the hereditary poets of the O'Neils in Antrim, Ireland. The name was written in English as O'Gnive, then O'Gnyw and later O'Gnew.

Whatever its origins, the family became established in Wigtownshire in south-west Scotland. Andrew Agnew was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Wigtown in 1451 and his descendants hold that office to this day. Lochnaw Castle was their base with another branch in Lochryan. Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547.

The family prospered and there were a number of judicious marriages with other wealthy families in the area. The 5th Baronet, Sir Andrew, commanded a regiment at the Battle of Dettingen, Bavaria in 1743, when King George II commanded the English and Hanoverian troops against the French (the last monarch to do so directly). When the king commented on the way the French cavalry had penetrated Sir Andrew's troops he replied "Yes, please your Majesty, but they didna win back again". Sir Andrew later held Blair Castle in Perthshire against the Jacobite forces.

The 6th Baronet married the daughter of the Irish Lord Kingsdale and the 7th Baronet inherited the title and estates. He set about rebuilding Lochnaw castle (though it is now no longer in Agnew hands). A number of Irish Agnews emigrated to the American colonies, especially in Pennsylvania. The 11th Baronet, Sir Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw, is one of Scotland's leading heraldic experts and is the Rothesay Herald at the Court of the Lord Lyon.


The Sons of Andrew: A History of the Anderson Name
By Nadine Anderson,
former Clan Anderson Genealogist


The use of surnames started in France around the year 1100 AD, The Norman invaders brought the practice to Scotland nearly 100 years later. However, the use of surnames was not common for some 50 years or more after this time, or around 1155AD. Prior to this, Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-1093), spouse to Queen Margaret of Scotland directed his subjects to adopt surnames after their territorial possessions. Such was the origin of the first earls of Scotland, such as Leslie, Gordon, Shaw, and Abircrumby among others. Written references to actual surnames are first found during the time of David I, who reigned from 1124-1153AD. One such reference is found for Robertus de Brus (Robert the Bruce).

In light of this understanding about the use of surnames, one can appreciate that the name ANDERSON would not be a Scandinavian name, as the Danes invaded Britain between 997-1014 AD, some 150 years prior to the use of surnames. However, we do recognize that some Scandinavians may also bear the name.

Anderson means "Son of Andrew". Typically, the intent was to denote "servant of Andrew", Andrew being the patron saint of Scotland. The Gaelic form of the name is Gillanders. The Andersons are a diverse group, with no specific place from which the name is derived. Most likely, the name cropped up all over the country over a period of time, with one group of Andersons not necessarily related to another group of Andersons.

Anderson or Ross or Donald?

Occassionally, the Anderson name is affiliated with Clan Ross, which creates some confusion among Andersons. The first five earls of Clan Ross bore the name "Aindrea", and not Ross. They too were "Servants of Andrew". As the title passed to descendants of the female line, the name, Ross, was assumed by the male representatives of the earls as it referred to their territorial origin. The name "Ross" is actually derived from the District of Ross, and is therefore a territorial name. In fact, the Ross's first referred to themselves as do the Andersons: "Andrew's Servants". It is also possible that some descendants of Highland Andersons rightfully share a heritage with what today is the Ross Clan.

Some other Highland "Gillanders" (Servants of Andrew) may be associated with Clan Donald, also through the female line. The Lord of the Isles (Clan Donald) assumed the title of Earl of Ross. In fact it was Donald MacGillandrish who accompanied Moira McDonald of Clan Donald when she became the wife to a McIntosh chief in the 1400's. their descendants became known as MacAndrew (son of the servant of Andrew). This is the origin of the affiliation with Clan Chattan.

A Clan in its own Right

According to the Lord Lyon, there was an Anderson of that Ilk in the 1500's. This specific Anderson is unknown to us today. But this reference verifies that the Andersons are a clan in their own right, despite having a shared ancestry with other groups. The Anderson name shows up in many forms: Andrews, Andirsoone, Andersonne, Andersoun, Andersoune, Andison, Andreson, Andherson, MacAndrews, Endirone, and many other


Clan Arthur

The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros" meaning keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name is now known around the world as a result of the legendary King Arthur who may have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record of the name is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain named his son Arthur, also in the 6th century.

The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the legendary King Arthur, are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs and the Devil". The more established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old kingdom of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch Fyne.

The clan was at its peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader, Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.

When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the 15th century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions. The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the end of the clan; unlike others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands, though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.

For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells. Charles MacArthur, piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald of Islay.

Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century, a number of MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous and as a result of a skirmish on Loch Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the situation and appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.

In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon rose to be a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers of MacArthurs fought on both sides during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the '45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.

John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia in 1790. He was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino breed from South Africa). His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.

In more modern times, US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from Glasgow in Scotland, became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son, General Douglas MacArthur, became even more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.

The last clan chief of the MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no obvious male heir and so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87 at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan members. The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich. The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure (blue) background". The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur Chief's shield, has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical to the description given in ancient manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated in April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.

The MacArthur clan motto is "Fide et opera" which means "By fidelity and labour".

Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan are limited to Arthur.

Clan Baxter

Motto: Vincit veritas (Latin: Truth prevails)


This is an occupational name derived from the Old English word "baecestre" meaning a female baker and later Middle English "bakstere" which was applied to both male and female bakers. In early Latin charters the name is rendered as "pistor" - the Latin word for baker. In that form the name is found as early as the 12th century.

Baxters are found all across Scotland but those in the west are generally regarded as dependents of the Clan Macmillan.

In Fife, they were a prominent family in their own right and witnessed important documents in the 13th century. Between 1200 and 1240 a Reginald Baxtar witnessed a gift of a church of Wemyss in Fife. The name is still found frequently in Fife and the Baxters of Earlshall in northern Fife lived in a baronial castle there. Kilmaron Castle was a mansion built for a Baxter family near Cupar in Fife, around 1820.

In 1296 Geffrei le Baxtere of Lossithe in Forfar took an oath of allegiance to the king. Baxter was (and is) a common name in Angus as Forfar was at one time a royal residence and the first Baxters there may well have been royal bakers.

The Baxters of Kincaldrum were the first to bring power-weaving to the City of Dundee. They prospered as a result and gifted Baxter Park to the city. They endowed a college which eventually became the University of Dundee.

In more modern times, the Baxter family in Fochabers on the river Spey in Morayshire have built a successful business creating quality soups and produce from local suppliers. And Stanley Baxter has had a long career as an actor and comedian.

The Baxter clan motto is "Vincit veritas" which means "Truth prevails".

MacBaxter is regarded as a sept (sub-branch) of the McMillan clan.




Motto:  Believe

Founder and Chairman: Santa Kona Gant



On the 1st day of June in the year 2008, Santa Claus authorized the formation of The Clan Claus Society.  Since that time, membership has grown to 352 members representing 13 countries around the world!


Santa Kona, a professional Santa Claus, firmly believed in the family ideals inherent in the spirit of the way of life of the Scottish Clans.  He put together a group of Santa Claus performers, including Santa Bruce “Mac Claus” Arnold and Santa Bear Garner.  Together, these Jolly Old Elves, along with Mrs. Zelina Shaw another advisory board member, dedicated themselves to establishing a unique family of Santas, Mrs. Clauses, Elves, Reindeer Handlers, Helpers and others who, in similar fashion, sought to perpetuate the traditions and family values of the Scottish Santa Claus. 


The Clan Claus Society, it’s Founder and Advisory Board members, all have their own separate passion for things Scottish, the Celtic arts in general, and the music of Scotland’s most famous musical instrument, the Great Highland Bagpipes.


Family is the cornerstone to all activities of the Clan Claus Society.  The basic mission of the society is to bring members together in a family-friendly atmosphere, where the magic of Christmas and the traditions of Scottish Culture can be enjoyed and experienced by all.


Santa Kona and Advisory Board Members of the society invite anyone and everyone who believes not only in the spirit of Christmas and family fun, but also in the thrill that only the spirit of the Scottish Highlands can inspire, to join the Clan Claus Society.


To all nations throughout the world, the Society and its membership extend best wishes for Peace, Joy and our Warmest of Blessings during the coming Christmas Season.



Clan Chief: The current chief of Clan Haldane is Martin Haldane of Gleneagles.

Origins of the Haldanes of Gleneagles

[The following text is copied verbatim from The Haldanes of Gleneagles, General Sir J. Aylmer L. Haldane, 1929, William Blackwood & Sons, Ltd., London and Edinburgh, which book is in the Public Domain since 2004. While this text may appear on some message boards, it is NOT a copyright violation. Contact John Haldane for more information.]

HISTORIANS and genealogists have ascribed various origins to the family Haldane. Sir James Dalrymple, Nisbet, and others have suggested its descent from a Danish chief called Haldanus, or from an Anglo-Norman, Brien1 by name, whose son Bernard came to Scotland during the reign of King William the Lion (1165-1214), and was given by him a manor on the Border.2 The legend of Danish descent, which probably arose from the resemblance of the family name to that of this chief, is not borne out by the Kelso charters. In one of these,3 which is dated between 1165 and 1171, Bernard son of Brien is recorded, with some circumlocution, as granting to the monks of Kelso Abbey a carucate4 of land, ' which they have in the town of Hauden, and which they had before I came to Hauden in perpetual alms by the same boun¬daries by which they had the same before I came to Hauden.' A later charter from Bernard's nephew to the monks, which confirms the earlier gift, is couched in precisely the same words.5 A perusal of these two documents shows unmistakably that before Bernard obtained his lands on the border, they bore the name of Hauden, and proves that his surname - or rather that of his successor and his descendants, for he himself never dropped his designation of 'son of Brien ' - was derived from the title by which the lands were known, and from it alone.

This Bernard, son of Brien was the undoubted founder of the Haldane family in Scotland. He was a frequent witness to royal and other charters, and these, through their being dated at different places, show that he belonged to the royal retinue and probably filled some post near the person of the King. That he was a man of birth and consequence is obvious from the fact that he appears as a witness in company with some of the most important persons in the kingdom. Take, for example, the charter by King William to the abbey of Scone, dated at Dunfermline between 1165 and 1171.6 This charter, which confirms to the abbey all liberties that had been granted to it by the King's elder brother Malcolm IV., was witnessed, amongst others, by Nichol, the Chancellor of Scotland Duncan, 5th Earl of Fife, who was Justiciar of the northern kingdom for more than twenty years, and who, 'as in the case of former Earls of Fife, is given precedence over the other Earls of Scotland as witnesses to the King's charters;' 7 Walter Fitz-Alan, the first High Stewart of Scotland, who had great possessions in the lowlands ; David Ollifard, godson of David I., and the earliest known holder of the high office of Justiciar;8 a Richard Cumin, ancestor of the Red Comyn, who fell by the hand of Bruce ; Robert de Quincy, who through marriage owned estates in Fife, and whose son, Sair de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, was one of the twenty-five celebrated barons who were appointed to enforce the observance of Magna Charta ; and last on this list of notables comes Bernard son of Brien.

Apart, however, from the inference to be drawn from the royal charters, it is otherwise clear that Bernard son of Brien was a man of good birth, and one who knew who his ancestors were. This emerges from the fact that both he and his nephew, also called Bernard, in not less than six charters, refer to their 'ancestors and successors' - an expression which, though it is to be found in other deeds of the time, more particularly in deeds of mortification or bequests to religious houses, is not without significance.9

The question of Bernard's descent from a Danish source has been shown to be unfounded, and as regards the suggestion that he was of Anglo-Norman extraction no evidence has been found to substantiate it. It may, however, be mentioned that his father's name Brien was a common one in the family of the Counts of Brittany, who, though not Normans in the strict sense of the word, were nominally vassals of the Conqueror, and fought under his banner at Hastings. The dates associated with one of them, known as Brien Fitz-Count, a son of the head of that family, coincide closely with those of Bernard's father. This alone might count for little, but the facts that Margaret, a sister of King William the Lion, was the wife of Conon IV Duke of Brittany, and that Bernard was in that king’s retinue, and was given a manor by him, lend colour to the possibility of a connection with that nominally Norman family.  [please refer to Clan Haldane for further information]



Motto: "Vive Ut Vivas" - Live, So That You May Live
Arms: Three black Talbots (a species of hound) heads

Septs: Halle, Haule, Haul, Hal, De Aula, Hale, Haw, Collingwood, Crispin, Fitz William, MacHall.

History:  The history of Scotland, shrouded by the mists of time, indicates that the name 'Hall', is a Norman surname. The name 'Hall', was found in Lincolnshire [England] where they were granted lands after the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Upon entering England with the Norman Conquest, the Hall's were actually 'FITZ WILLIAM'S', they being settled in Greatford Hall in Lincolnshire, and being directly descended from Wentworth, Earl FitzWilliam. The younger son of this noble house, Arthur FitzWilliam, was called 'Hall', to distinguish him from his senior brother. Hence Arthur Hall would be the first on record about the year 1090 AD. The line continued in Lincolnshire, and intermarried with the Crispins, and the Earls of Chester. In Cheshire [England], the Hall's were a cadet branch of the Kingsley Hall's of that county. By 1340 AD, the name had moved northward at the invitation of Earl David of Huntingdon, later to become King David of Scotland. In Scotland, they were granted lands in Berwickshire, specifically the lands of Glenryg in the barony of Lesmahagow.


The Hall's were one of the sixty (60) major riding families of the Anglo-Scottish border and were involved in reiving as other border clans were. During one of the 'Day of Truce' occasions, a Robert Spragon 'fyled' a complaint against two Halls that had rustled 120 sheep. The traditional homes of the Hall's were at Redesdale in England; East Teviotdale, and Liddesdale, in Scotland. Some notables in the Scottish East March were: John Hall of Newbigging; George Hall (called Pats Geordie there; Andrew Hall of the Sykes, and Thom Hall in Fowlscheils. Other Hall's lived in Aynstrother; Glenryg, in the barony of Lesmahagow; Garvald; Irvide; Glasgow; Sancharmvr, in Preswick; and Perth.

By 1600 AD, many branches had developed in England and Scotland: Lord Llanover, Sir John Hall, Bishop Hall of Bristol, Bishop Hall of Wearmouth, and at the same time, continuing their interest and seats at Skelton Castle, Yorkshire, Greatford Hall in Lincolnshire, and Gravell House in Middlesex. Notable amongst the family at this time was Hall of Berwickshire.


[This information courtesy of W. Wiseman of New Zealand]




Motto: "Through".
Badge: An oak tree, penetrated by a frame saw, standing above a ducal coronet.
Names associated with the clan: Hamilton, Hammeltoune, Hammyltoune, Hamyltoune, Hammyltoun, Hamyltone, Hamulthone, Cadzow.



Origin of the name:

In Old English "hamel dun" meant "bare hill" and there were a number of places in England with names derived from these words. Walter de Hameldone, owned property in near Paisley in Renfrewshire in 1294. In the War of Independence in 1290-1305, he was initially loyal to King Edward I of England but later supported Robert the Bruce. He was granted further lands by Bruce in Lothian and Lanarkshire, including lands at Cadzow (which was later renamed Hamilton). Walter's son, David, fought for King David II at the Battle of Neville Cross in 1346.


In 1474, James Hamilton married Princess Mary, daughter of King James II and was made Lord Hamilton and their son, who was in line of succession to the throne, was made Earl of Arran. The family built Brodick Castle as a Highland home (it is now National Trust property). The second Earl of Arran was made Regent of Scotland during the childhood of Mary Queen of Scots and proposed that his son should marry her. However, she married the Dauphin (heir to the throne) of France instead. Nevertheless, the Earl of Arran was created Duke of Chatelherault, a French title. Later, the Earl tried to save Mary after her ill-fated marriage to Lord Darnley and sheltered her at Cadzow after her escape from Loch Leven.


The fourth Earl of Arran became Chancellor of Scotland and in 1599 and he was advanced to the rank of Marquess. His brother Claud was created Lord Paisley and then Lord Abercorn and this branch prospered, becoming a dukedom in 1868, with a seat in Ulster.


The third Marquess supported King Charles I and he was made Duke of Hamilton in 1643 and the premier peer of Scotland. His daughter, Annie, married William Douglas, Earl of Selkirk. The foundations of a palace, near Hamilton in Lanarkshire, were laid at this time. The palace was later demolished because of mining subsidence but the magnificent hunting lodge named Chatelherault still survives in a public park. The seat of the Duke of Hamilton is now Lennoxlove, in East Lothian.


Other Hamiltons of note in Scottish history include Patrick Hamilton who was martyred for his Protestant beliefs in 1528 and the grandson of the 3rd Duke who climbed Vesuvius 22 times and married Emma, Lord Nelson's beloved. The 14th Duke was the pilot of the first plane to fly over Mount Everest (in 1933).


The Hamilton clan motto is "Through".

Names Associated with Clan Hannay:  Hannay · Hanna · Hanney ·  Hannah Clan Chief:  Ramsay William Rainsford Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk, Chief of the Name and Arms of Hannay, Died 10 January 2004 – Gatehouse-of-Fleet, Scotland and was succeeded by his son, Dr. David R Hannay.
Origins of the clan: The name Hannay may have originally been spelt Ahannay, possibly deriving from the Gaelic word 'O'Hannaidh' or 'Ap Shenaeigh'- "Son of Senach". The family can be traced back to Galloway in South-West Scotland. The name 'Gillbert de Hannethe' appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296, submitting to King Edward I of England. The Hannay's lands of Sorbie in Wigtownshire were reportedly acquired by the same Gillbert de Hannethe.
Unlike many Scottish nobles and clans the Clan Hannay did not support Robert the Bruce but instead supported John Balliol because he was more local to them through his descent from the Celtic Princess of Galloway.

15th & 16th centuries:  In 1488 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Later in 1513 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field which was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1532 Patrick Hannay was acquitted of the murder of Patrick McClellen as he had killed him in self defense.

James Hannay, the Master Gunner in the reign of James V led the clan at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 which were part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The family began to spread and a tower built at Sorbie in 1550 which commanded views their ever increasing territory.  The ancient clan seat, Sorbie Tower is owned by the members of Clan Hannay International and in 1965 received grants from Historic Scotland.

17th century  Patrick Hannay had a distinguished military career and was patroned by Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James VI and sister of Charles I. After the death of Queen Anne who was the wife of James VI in 1619 Patrick Hannay composed two eulogies and in return had many published on his own death, one of which said: 'Go on in virtue, aftertimes will tell, none but Hannay could have done so well'.  Sir Patrick (3rd) Privy Councillor of Ireland, and Master of the Chancellery in Ireland, died at sea in 1625.

Possibly the best known Hannay was James Hannay, the Dean of St Giles' in Edinburgh who had the claim to fame of being the target of Jenny Geddes' stool. In an infamous incident in 1637 the Dean had begun to read the new liturgy when with a cry of "Thou false thief, dost thou say Mass at my lug?" was heard and a stool came flying from the congregation, thrown by an incensed Jenny Geddes. The incident began a full scale riot which took the town guard to control. Sir Robert Hannay of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia In 1630, and from the Sorbie roots the Hannays of Grennan, Knock, Garrie and Kingsmuir also evolved.

Clan conflicts  The fortunes of the original Hannays of Sorbie were seriously dented in the seventeenth century when a long running feud with the powerful Clan Murray of Broughton resulted in the Hannays being outlawed. The clan has also had previous feuds with the Clan Kennedy and Clan Dunbar. After the feud with the Clan Murray the famous tower at Sorbie fell into disrepair and was lost along with the neighbouring lands around 1640. Many Hannays moved to Ireland, in particular Ulster and the name can still be found there and in many surrounding counties, particularly in the form "Hanna".

Another form of the name, "Hannah", is particularly common amongst the descendants of those that remained in Scotland.  Another variation of Hannay is "Hanney". In Oxfordshire, England, there are two villages called East Hanney and West Hanney.  Yet another version of Hannay is "Hanner". Although less common, Hanner, like Hanna, is found amongst the descendants of those who moved to Ireland.

The modern Clan Hannay  Sir Samuel Hannay, who had served within the Habsburg Empire. He returned to Scotland having amassed a considerable wealth and built a great mansion house which was said to be the inspiration for Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Guy Mannering. Sir Samuel's baronetcy became dormant on his death in 1841 and the estates passed to his sister, Mary, then further to her nephew, William Rainsford Hannay, on her death in 1850. From this direct line comes the present chief Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk.

One branch of the family begun by a younger son of the Sorbie Hannays, Alexander Hannay took lands at Kirkdale, by Kirkcudbright. The line established by his son John Hannay of Kirkdale is now recognised as the chiefly one.



Motto:  "Veritas Vincit" which means "Truth conquers"

Chief:  The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Kintore

Names Associated with Clan Harvey:  HERVEY/HERVIE/HARVEY/HARVIE.


Origins of the name:

This ancient surname, well recorded in Scotland, has two possible sources, the first being from the Breton personal name "Aeruiu" or "Haerviu", composed of the elements "haer", meaning battle, and "vy", - worthy. The 1086 Domesday has various references to followers of William the Conqueror, including Herueu de Berruarius of Suffolk, and later Heuei de Castre of Lincoln, in 1157. These were not surnames, although in fact the first surname recording was only just behind. The second source is Irish. It is said that a Galway clan called originally the O'hAirmheadhaigh, did 'anglicise' their name to Harvey or Harvie.

The Gaelic translates as 'the descendant of the son of Airmed'. The surname is generally recorded as Harvey, Harvie, Hervie and Hervey, and early recordings include William Hervy of Essex in 1232, Warin Harvi in the Pipe Rolls of Cambridge for the year 1273, and John Hervy, burgess of Aberdeen in 1398. The roll of famous namebearers includes William Harvey (1578 - 1657), who discovered the circulation of the blood in 1616, whilst Edmond Harvey, a Parliamentarian Colonel, was one of the fifty three regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles 1st in January 1649. Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey was one of the 1798 leaders of the Irish rebellion, whilst curiously Robert Hervie of Scotland was a member of the Huntly Volunteer force, raised to combat a possible French-Irish invasion. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Hervi, which was dated 1190, in the 'Calendar of Abbot Samson of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk', during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199.


There are those who could argue that the Keith Clan name more correctly would be Harvey.In the time of David I, King of Scotland (about 1160), a Scottish Knight named Hervey is said to have obtained a grant of the north-west portion of the lands of Keith, in East Lothian (near Aberdeen). From the owner, it was called Keith-Hervey. It was this Hervey who held the office of King's Marischal under Malcom IV and William the Lion. The title Marischal became hereditary, and was passed to his grandson Philip upon Hervey's death in 1196. As was the custom at the time, the family became known by the name Keith, after the lands they possessed. The Keiths were a very powerful Celtic family in the far north of Scotland and their chiefs continued to hold the important office of Marischal of Scotland for six hundred years. Numerous Earl Marischals used the name Hervey or Harvey throughout their history. Famous episodes of their chronicles are a bloody and treacherous battle with their Norse neighbors, the Gunns, in 1464 and the rescue in Cromwell's time of the Scottish Regalia which the sixth Earl Marischal hid safely at Dunottar Castle.




Crest:  A horse's head coupled Argent.  Motto:  Aegre De Tramite Recto (With difficulty along the right path)  Chief:  Armigerous*



The lands & barony of Horsburgh lie near Innerleithen in Peebleshire.  The ruins of the tower of the same name still stand, and according to Black, the first of this race is believed to have been an Anglo-Saxon designated horse or orse, who settled on the north bank of the River Tweed and there built the castle which communicated the present surname to his descendents.


The earliest name on record is Simon de Horsbrock, who witnessed a charter by William Purveys of Mospennoc to the monks of Melrose Abbey in the reigh on Alexander II.  William de Horsboroch is recorded in 1283.  In the diocese of Glasgow in 1287, he is lited as a Notary Public.  In 1297 Simon de Horsbrok was in the foreigh service of Edward I and had his lands restored in the same year.

Alexander Horsbrock of that Ilk is recorded in 1479. and another Alexander Horsbruik was served heir to John Horsbruik, his father, in the lands and mill of Horsbruik (1550). Lady Horsburgh of Horsburgh was the last Horsburgh to hold the barony, which, upon her marriage, passed into the Chinnery family.

The arms recorded by Nisbet of a silver horses head on a blue shield are clearly a pun based on the family name.

James Horsburgh, a fellow of the Royal Society, was a distinguished hydrographer at the beginning af the nineteenth century. In 1810 he was appointed hydrographer to the East India Company. He published numerous works on maritime subjects, which were to become standard authorities in that field.

The name is still found in the Borders and around Edinburgh..





Chief:  Rt Hon Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll and Lord High Constable of Scotland.


Badge: A falcon flying. The coat of arms shows farm implements which, legend has it, were weapons by which the Hays repelled a Danish invasion at Luncarty.


Motto: Serva jugmen - "Keep the yoke".

Names associated with the clan:

Alderston, Arroll, Aue,Ay, Aye, Ayer, Beagrie, Con, Conn, Constable, da Hay, Da Haya, D'Ay, D'Aye, de Hay, de Haya, de la Hay, De la Haye, de Plessis, Delgatie, Dellahay, Des Hay, Deshays, Drumelizior, Dupplin, Erroll, Garra, Garrad, Garrow, Gifford, Hawson, Hay, Hayburn, Hayden, Haydock, Haye, Hayens, Hayes, Hayfield, Hayhoe, Hayhow, Haylees, Haylor, Hayne, Haynes, Haynie, Hays, Hayse, Hayson, Hayston, Haystoun, Hayter, Hayton, Haytor, Hayward, Haywood, Hea, Hey, Heyes, Kellour, Kinnoullm Laxfirth, Leis, Leith, Lockerwort, MacGaradh, MacGarra, MacGarrow, MacHay, McArra, O'Garra, O'Garrow, O'Hay Aue, O'Hea, Peebles, Peeples, Peoples, Slains, Turriff, Tweeddale, Yester. Also certain families of: Ritchie, Ley, Watson, and King.




The first record of the name Hay, Norman in origin, is William de Haya, Cupbearer of Malcolm IV of Scotland, who arrived in this country around 1160 and married a Celtic heiress. He was one of the hostages held in England with William the Lion and on his return was granted an extensive manor in Erroll. His younger brother Robert was progenitor of the Earls of Tweeddale. Tradition has it that Thomas the Rhymer prophesied that an oak tree, covered by mistletoe would fall during a strange Hay ritual which took place every Halloween. When this prophecy became fact, the estate of Erroll was sold in 1636. The 3rd Baron, Gilbert was Co-Regent of Scotland, Sir Gilbert the 5th chief featured prominently in the Scottish War of Independence and was given Slains castle in Buchan and made Hereditary Lord High Constable of Scotland by Bruce. (A post which the family retains and is the highest ranking position in Scotland after the Royal family) The 7th chief married the King's daughter, while William, 9th chief was created Earl of Erroll in 1452. At the Battle of Flodden in 1513, the 4th Earl, William was killed along with 87 other Hays. In 1594 the Royal forces under Argyll were defeated by the Earl of Huntly in alliance with the 9th Earl of Erroll. In revenge King James personally blew up Slains Castle. Sir William Hay of Delgaty, Montrose's Chief of Staff was beheaded with him in 1650. The 13th Earl, Charles helped to organise the 1708 Jacobite attempt and was imprisoned after the Rising. His sister Mary who succeeded him as Countess of Erroll in 1717 raised her clan for Prince Charles during the '45. The Border branch of the Hays became Lords Hay of Yester in 1488 and are now represented by the 11th Marquis of Tweed-dale.






Henderson Gaelic Name: Mac Eanruig

Motto: Sola virtus nobilitat (Virtue alone ennobleS)

Badge: Cotton grass

Lands: Caithness and Glencoe                                                                   

Origin of Name: Henry's son

Clan Chief

The Chief of Clan Henderson is Alistair Donald Henderson of Fordell, an environmental engineer specialising in air pollution control who lives in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Chief is recognized by Lord Lyon, King of Arms, and is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs (SCSC).




Origins of the Clan

Clann Eanruig (pronounced KLAHN YAHN-reegk) is the Gàidhlig (Scots Gaelic) name for the Scottish clan known as "the Hendersons" in English. The words "Scot," "Scots" (not scotch), "Scottish," and "Scotland" derive from the Latin word "Scotus" meaning a Celtic inhabitant of Hibernia (Ireland) at the time of the Roman occupation of southern Britannia (Great Britain), i.e., an Irishman. The Scots of Caledonia flourished and soon outnumbered their Pictish neighbors.

The ancient Picts and Scots followed the Celtic custom of matrilineality. This meant that sons could not depend on their father's status, but instead had to establish domains of their own.

Pictish prince Eanruig Mor mac Righ Nechtan (Big Henry the son of King Nechtan) established a distinguished family line. The descendants of Prince Henry were known collectively as “clann Eanruig” meaning the “family of Henry.” The males of the clan took the surname “mac Eanruig” meaning “son of Henry,” which was later translated into English variously as “Henryson,” “Henderson,” “McHenry,” “McHendry,” “MacKendrick,” and such. The females of the clan took the surname “nic Eanruig” meaning “daughter of Henry.” A woman normally kept her own clan surname after marriage, and she could usually depend on her clan's support in a dispute with her husband. Families could give children the clan surname of either their mother or father. Over time, the descendants of other prominent Henrys also took the family name "clann Eanruig." Eventually, the most prominent of these families coalesced into a single clan identity.



Though a small clan, the Hendersons rose to prominence in Caithness, Glencoe, the Shetland Islands and Fordell in Fife. In Caithness, Clan Henderson associated with Clan Gunn. In Glencoe, Clan Henderson forged a close alliance with the powerful Clan Donald. A separate family grouping arose in Liddesdale and Ewesdale, being one of the smaller families of Border Reivers.

The Hendersons known for their size and strength became the personal body guards of the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe. In 1692, King William III, suspecting the loyalty of Clan Donald, secretly set the Clan Campbell upon the MacDonalds and Hendersons in the Massacre of Glencoe. Standing six feet and seven inches tall, the powerful "Big Henderson" of the Chanters was the MacDonald chief's piper and protector, and fell with the chief in the cold February night of 1692. After the Massacre, many Henderson families emigrated to Ulster ,North America and mid wales.


Highland Clearances

During the Highland Clearances from 1746 to 1822, many more Henderson families left Scotland for Ireland, England, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and other lands.


Hendersons in the Modern World

In 1934, British statesman Arthur Henderson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for world disarmament. Epidemiologist Dr. Donald Ainslie "D.A." Henderson led the World Health Organization's successful effort to eradicate smallpox throughout the world.


Hepburn is a family name of the Scottish-English border area.  It is associated with a variety of famous personages, places, and things. Although usually a Scottish name, the origins may be just south of the border in the north of England. It may have derived from the Northumberland towns of Hebron or Hebburn. It is perhaps the same as Hebborne, from the Ancient English words heah ("high") and byrgen ("burial mound"). Alternatively it could mean something along the lines of "high place beside the water.  A "burn" is a word meaning "river" in both English and Scots.  ,

The remains of a Bastle Tower can be found near Chillingham Castle.  This is where the family originated. This was the seat of a line of the family until the eighteenth century when that branch died out having left only a female heir. The Hepburn family is perhaps best remembered because of the Earl of Bothwell, a husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.  Katherine Hepburn, the famous American actress is another well remembered part of this family.  A branch of the family originated in Lothian.  A Hepburn was granted land for having saved the Earl of March from a horse that had lost control.  Subsequently they became the Lords of Hailes and were ultimately rewarded by being granted the Earldom of Bothwell.  

There were also Hepburns of Waughton, thought by some to have branched off from the Hailes line, thought by others to predate it. Another line was the Hepburns of Beanston, and yet another was the Hepburns of Athelstaneford. Primarily located in East Lothian, all of these families were prominent in various ways at various junctures of Scottish history.



Names Associated With Clan Hogg:  Hogg, Hogge, Hogue, Hoig

Chief:  Armigerous*




Origin of the Name


Taken from a person who was very tall. From the Germanic element hoch meaning 'tall'.  This is a hereditary surname of Nickname Origin.  Nicknames were derived from a physical feature, character, a favoured style of clothing or from animals, birds, flowers or a colour. Naming was borne thousands of years ago and at first there were just first names.

Around the 11th century the Normans introduced the first hereditary surnames taken from their estates in France. By the 15th century they had spread to England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the rest of the European countries. They consisted of a store of Baptismal, Locality, and Occupation names with Nicknames being formed from the Norman originals and Old Norse terms.

In these early centuries Coats of Arms were borne. The knights wore heavy armour from head to foot and the only means of identification for his followers was the emblem on the shield and on this surcoat. The Coat of Arms for this surname is one of the first granted from the very early centuries.


Clan chief: The chief of Clan Hope is Sir John Hope of Craighall, Baronet. The chiefly line of the Hope family survives through the Baronets of Craighall.

Motto: At Spes Infracta [Yet My Hope is Unbroken]

Origins of the clan: Hope is a native Scottish name. However, in middle English it means 'small valley'. Another suggestion is that it derives from 'oublon', which is French for 'hop' and could be from the family de H'oublons of Picardy.

HISTORY:  The Clan Hope was a Scottish border family and their name is among those found on the Ragman Rolls giving the oath of fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.

16th century: The principal line can be traced back to John de Hope, who travelled from France with Magdalen the first wife of King James V of Scotland. John settled in Edinburgh and became commissioner for Edinburgh to the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1560.

17th century:  John de Hope's grandson Sir Thomas Hope was Lord Advocate as appointed by King Charles I. The family became 'Hope of Craighall' after acquiring the estates of the same name in the parish of Ceres in Fife. Sir Thomas Hope's contribution to the Scottish legal profession was immense and his works are still referred to by Scottish lawyers today. He saw two sons raised to the Supreme Court Bench and was created Baron of Nova Scotia in 1638. He also drafted the National Covenant. After his death in 1646 his eldest son took the title 'Lord Craighall'. Lord Craighall became a trusted advisor to Charles II, his advice proved particularly useful in his dealings with Oliver Cromwell.

18th century: The younger son of the great Sir Thomas Hope founded the Hopetoun branch of the family and settled in West Lothian. His son was lost at sea when the frigate Gloucester sank. There is a story that he died saving the Duke of York, James VII of Scotland. Sir Thomas's grandson was a young member of parliament for Linlithgow, rising rapidly to the Privy Council and by 1703 was made a peer; Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie and Lord Hope. Around this time the magnificent Hopetoun House, one of William Adam's best known houses, was built for the family.

In 1792 the Craighall estates were sold on by the sixth Baronet to the Earl of Hopetoun, Sir Thomas Hope. The eighth Baronet is best known for turning former plague pits in Edinburgh into the 'Meadows' park.  The Earl of Hopetoun's estates grew rapidly in the 18th century with most of West Lothian, and parts of East Lothian and Lanarkshire.

19th century:  The fourth Earl, who had a notable military career, particularly during the Peninsular War, worked with Sir Walter Scott in welcoming George IV during his visit to Scotland in 1822. Hopetoun House was used to host a lavish reception for the monarch.

20th century:  The name John Adrian Hope is well remembered on the other side of the world; the seventh Earl was first Governor General to the Australian Commonwealth in 1900. Two years later he was made Marquess of Linlithgow. The second Marquess was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. The family still live at Hopetoun House.

Clan Castle: The seat of the Clan Hope is at Hopetoun House. Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun (later the Marquess of Linlithgow). It was built in 1699 and was designed by William Bruce, and extended in 1721 by William Adam. The house is located near South Queensferry to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Classical musical recitals are occasionally put on at Hopetoun House. During the summer months, the castle is open to visitors. It can also be rented for weddings, conferences, and as a film set.


Clan Houston

Chief: A living member of the clan, Josh Houston, has taken up the case with the Court of the Lord Lyon to be instated as the Chief of the Houston Clan. The Court has yet to reach a decision. Until then the clan will be considered as armigerous.*

Motto: In Vicis ("In Time").


Origins of the Clan: The name is territorial in origin, derived from an old barony of the name in Lanarkshire. Hugh de Padinan, who is believed to have lived in the twelfth century, was granted the lands of Kilpeter. By about the middle of the fourteenth century, these lands had become known as Huston. Sir Finlay de Hustone appears on the Ragman Roll swearing fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.

The castle of the de Hustones was built on the site of an ancient Cistercian abbey. The family also acquired a substantial barony near Whitburn, West Lothian, where Huston House, which was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, still stands today. Sir Patrick Hustone of that Ilk, who was probably the eleventh chief, married Agnes Campbell of Ardkinglas.

16th & 17th Centuries: During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Sir Peter Huston fought with the Earl of Lennox on the right wing at Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, where he was killed. His son, Sir Patrick Huston of Huston, was a companion of James V of Scotland and Keeper of the Quarter Seal. He intrigued with Lord Lennox against the king, and was slain at the Battle of Linlithgow. The next Sir Patrick, his grandson, was knighted by Mary, Queen of Scots, and accompanied her when she visited Lord Darnley in Glasgow.

The nineteenth chief was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles II in 1668. His son, Sir John, was falconer to Queen Mary and her husband, King William of Orange.

18th & 19th Centuries: The fifth Baronet was a prosperous merchant who had substantial interests in United States. His son, who was educated in Glasgow, made his home in Georgia (U.S. state), and he and his brother greatly increased the family’s colonial estates. They are reputed to have owned over eight thousand slaves when the thirteen American colonies broke from Great Britain and declared their independence. The Hustons renounced their Scottish titles in favour of their American wealth. From this family descended General Sam Houston, born in 1793, who fought for the independence of Texas from Mexico. He was first president of Texas and later a United States Senator. Sir Robert Houston, descended from a Renfrew branch of the family, was a prominent Victorian ship owner who was created a baronet of the United Kingdom. He is credited with developing the theory of convoys first used during the Boer War





Crest:  A demi lion rampant Argent

Chief:  Armigerous*

Motto:  Nobilis Est Ira Leonis (The Lion’s Anger is Noble)

Names associated with the clan: Englis, Ingles, Inglis, Ingalls, Ingals


The name Inglis is believed to have come from the old English for 'Englishman'.  An Early (12th century) mention of the name (Richard Anglicus) is found in the witnessing of a charter of David I to Melrose Abbey.

In 1296, when Edward I invaded Scotland, the names of John de Inglis, Walter de Inglis and Philip de inglis are recorded as owning a great deal of land.

During the early 14th century there was an Inglis family living in Douglasdale, Lanarkshire, along with the
Douglases.  Douglasdale was at this time being frequently invaded and held by the English.  The Inglises did the Douglases a great service when one of them overheard an English plot to take the castle, and sent a warning at great personal risk.  The Inglises were asked to name their reward, and were granted a part of the local church, St Brides, as their family burial place.  The Inglis coat of arms can be seen on the wall of the south transept to this day.

During the reign of Robert the
Second and Third, in 1395, Sir William Inglis duelled with Sir Thomas Struthers, killing the English champion.  As a reward, the family was given the Barony of Manner by royal charter the following year, thereafter tracing their descent from Sir William.  The family had for some time been followers of the Douglases, and now strengthened this association by adding the three Douglas stars to their own coat of arms.

The Barony was finally sold in 1707, when Chiefship was given to Charles Inglis of Craigend, an edinburgh lawyer who died in 1743.

A prosperous branch of the family lived in Crammond, Edinburgh, since purchasing land from the Bishop of Dunkeld in 1624.

In 1680 John Inglis built Crammond House near the Bishop's palace, and a short time later, in 1687, Sir James Inglis received a baronetcy.  Sir James's son later became Postmaster General of Scotland until 1725.





Motto: Be Traist (Be Faithful) Crest: A Boar's Head Plant: The Great Bullrush Accepted spellings: Eanes, Ince, Inch, Innes, Ennis, Inness, Innis

Septs of the Clan Innes (sub clans of the Clan Innes):
MacTary, Milnes, Marnoch, Mitchell, Maver, Oynie, Mavor, Redford, McInnes, Reidford, Middleton, Thain, Mill, Wilson, MacRob, Milne, Yunie

Chief:  Armigerous*


Origin of the Name

The clan takes its name from the lands of Innes in Moray, Scotland. It dates back to 1160 AD when King Malcolm IV conferred the Barony of Innes on one of his knights, Berowald of Flanders. The Barony was located on the outskirts of Elgin in Morayshire. It stretched for over 6 miles along the shore of the Moray Firth between the Spey and Lossie rivers. The name derives from the Gaelic, Innis, which means meadow, greens or island, all descriptive of this area. The Innes' grew to become one of the most powerful families in the province of Moray, dominating the parishes of Urquhart, Lhanbryde and the surrounding district. Innes House was built on the Barony by Sir Robert Innes, 20th chief of the Clan Innes, between1640 and 1653.

Sir James Innes, 22nd chief, married Lady Margaret Ker in 1666 and as a result their great grandson, Sir James Innes, inherited the Dukedom of Roxburghe in 1805 when the Ker family line died out. Today Sir Guy David Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe is the 30th Baron of Innes in direct descent from Berowald of Flanders. He resides at Floors castle near Kelso in the Scottish borders.


During the latter part of the 14 century Kinnairdy came into the ownership of the Innes family when Sir Alexander Innes married Janet, daughter of Sir David de Aberkerder, the lineal descendant of the Thanes of Aberkerder An imposing structure overlooking the river Deveron in rural Aberdeenshire, this ancient fortress has stood sentinel over the surrounding valleys since the 12th century, the present stone construction replacing a wooden structure known as a Motte & Bailey, in the 14th century.


The Tower of Kinnairdy Castle, which occupies the present site is believed to have been built by Sir Walter Innes (son of Sir Alexander Innes, 9th of that ilk) around 1420. For the next two centuries Kinnairdy remained in the hands of subsequent Clan chiefs who took a full part in the tumultuous history of Scotland.


The break with the Innes Clan came in 1627 when Sir Robert, the 20th chief sold the lands of Kinnairdy, in part as a result of his political activities and close association with the Court of Charles, many lawsuits and also in order to concentrate on the original Innes lands in Morayshire which was the home territory of Sir Roberts wife, she being Lady Grizel Stewart, 3rd daughter of the "Bonny Earl of Moray".


In 1923 Kinnairdy was again restored to the Innes family when it was purchased by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms 1945 - 1969. The author of many learned papers on Scots Peerage Law, Heraldry and Ceremonial, he was deeply interested in the family history. He set about restoring Kinnairdy with the help of his sister Miss Helen C. Innes of Crommy, a very able and astute lady who assisted with many of the more mundane tasks and who's advice was invaluable during restoration of the interior.


Following on from Sir Thomas' work, his son Sir Malcolm Innes, (Lord Lyon King of Arms, now retired) continued to restore the building which is now nearing completion under the guidance of the present owner, Mr Colin Innes.




Chief: Sir Alexander Maule Jardine of Applegarth, 12th Baronet and Chief of the Name and Arms of Jardine.

Chief's crest: A spur rowel of six points Proper

Chief's motto: Cave adsum (Latin: Beware I am present)

Plant badge: Apple blossom

Names & Septs Associated with Clan Jardine:  Jardine, Jardines, Gardino, Gardin, Gardinus, Garden, Jardin, Jardane, Jerdane, Jerden, Jerdone, Jarden, Jardyne, Jarding, Jardyn, Gerden, Gerdain, Gairdner, Gardynnyr, Gardynsr, Gardnsrd, Gardinare, Gardinar, Gardenar, Gardenare, Gardnare, Gardener, Gardennar, Gardnar, Gardiner, Gardner.

Origins of the clan:  The Clan Jardine is believed to be of French origin. The French word jardin means garden or orchard and it is presumed that the Jardine family originally came from France. Members of the Jardine family travelled with William during the Norman conquest of England in 1066. However records of the name Jardine do not appear in Scotland until 1153 with the name Wmfredus de Jardine appearing on several charters.

The first mention of the name Jardine is contained in Hollingshead's Chronicles of England as one of the Normandic knights that fought for William at the Battle of Hastings (AD 1066). There is also evidence that may suggest that the Jardines were of Norse extraction that migrated to Normandy with a warrior named Rollo prior to 1066.

At some point in time the name or its meaning appears to have been translated into English. Patrick de Gardinus was chaplain to the Bishop of Glasgow and there is a signature on a document from 1245 of Sir Humphrey de Gardino. To add to the confusion Jorden del Orchard's signature appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296. Later Humphery de Jardine's name appears on a charter drawn up by Robert the Bruce.

Wars of Scottish Independence:  Unlike many Scottish clans during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Jardine are said to have fought against William Wallace and in support of the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 and the Battle of Falkirk (1298). However the Clan Jardine supported King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1311 where they helped the Scottish King defeat the English.

During the 14th century the Clan Jardine settled in Applegirth in Dumfriesshire. There they built Spedlins Tower which was the family's seat until the 17th century when Jardine Hall was built on the opposite banks of the River Annan.

16th century and Anglo Scottish Wars:  The border region between England and Scotland was a difficult place to live. There were constant raids and incursions by both sides. Chief Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegirth led the clan when they met an advancing force of English near Carlisle in 1524 where they took hundreds of English prisoners during the Anglo-Scottish Wars.

In 1547 the tables were turned when Alexander's son, the next chief, had to deal with over 5,000 English who overran the area, sacking the Jardine lands and forcing John Jardine of Applegirth to yield. John later sought assistance from the French and along with the Clan Jardine fell on their English oppressors taking many lives.

The Clan Jardine also supported the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, however her scandalous marriage to Bothwell after the suspicious murder of Lord Darnley turned the Jardines along with many other Scots to support her infant son James's claim to the throne.

In 1573 the King confirmed the grant of lands to Sir Alexander Jardine of Jardinefield in Berwickshire; Applegirth and Sibbaldbie in Dumfrieshire; Hartside and Wandel in Lanarkshire; and Kirkandrews in Kirkcudbright. It is recorded that he had to muster 242 men to fight for the King if required. It was these retainers who then had no surnames who became known as "Jardine Men" and adopted Jardine as their surname

17th century:  A later Sir Alexander Jardine forged a link to the powerful Clan Douglas through marriage to Lady Margaret Douglas, sister of the first Duke of Queensberry. They had a son, Alexander, in 1645, who was later created a Baronet of Nova Scotia.

The chief of the Clan Jardine and his family were reportedly forced to move from their seat at Spedlins Tower to Jardine Hall because of a grisly family secret; A miller had been left to starve to death in the dungeon of the tower and his ghost had driven the family from their home.

18th century:  The fourth Baronet was a Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta, taking a vow of celibacy. When he died in 1790 the title passed to his brother, Sir William. Jardines also made their mark on the literary world. Reverend John Jardine, born in 1716 mixed in the intellectual heart of Edinburgh during the Scottish Enlightenment had the good fortune to be part of a society that included great Scots such as economist and writer Adam Smith, philosopher David Hume, and the painter Allan Ramsay. He was one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review. His son, Sir Henry Jardine, was one of those present when the Honours of Scotland were re-discovered in 1818. He was knighted in 1825 and later made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Clan seat:  The seat of the Chief of Clan Jardine was at Spedlins Tower. Spedlins Tower is situated by the River Annan, 4 miles (6.5 km) northwest of Lockerbie. It is a 15th century fortalice which was abandoned by the Clan Chief when he built a new mansion nearby. The tower fell into ruin. In the second half of the 20th century its ownership changed hands three times. The present owner bought Spedlins Tower in 1988 from her predecessor who had restored it.




Motto: This I'll Defend Origin of Name: the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’

Clan Chief: Madam Arabella Kincaid of Kincaid




Origin of the Name


The name Kincaid, it is supposed, is territorial in origin, or possibly from ‘ceann cadha’, the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’ but could also be ‘of the head of the rock’, or even ‘the head of the battle.’ The lands of Kincade were granted to Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox by Alexander III in 1238 the Earl then passed these lands to Sir William Galbraith, the fourth chief. The direct male line ended in three sisters which resulted in the partitioning of the estate. One sister married a Logan and were confirmed lands of Kyncade by the fourth Earl of Lennox. The family took their surname from the area which was around 30,000 acres

Kincaids were present during Scotland's wars of independence; one family member fighting against Edward I and recapturing Edinburgh castle in 1296. A Kincaid was made constable of the castle and Robert the Bruce granted that the castle to be added to their arms as a recognition of their achievements.

The family estates grew in the sixteenth century, through marriage they gained the estate of Craiglockhart near Edinburgh, the estate of Bantaskin by Falkirk, Blackness Castle and the fields of Warriston, now in Edinburgh.

Malcolm Kincaid was involved in a battle against the Stirlings of Craigbarnet in 1563 were he lost his arm, he was also fighting with the Lennoxes of Woodhead in the 1570 before finally being dispatched by a Stirling of Glovat in 1581.

in 1600 John Kincaid of Warriston was murdered. His wife and one of his own grooms were implicated. both were put to death for their crimes, the wife beheaded and the groom 'broken on the wheel' a particularly grizzly punishment.

Kincaids supported the royalists during the civil war and suffered for this during the 'protectorate', prior to the restoration of the monarchy with many of the clan emigrating to America. They also supported the later Stewart cause, also costing them dear both during the 1715 and '45 rebellions with several Kincaids escaping to Virginia.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Kincaids became closely linked to the Lennoxes through marriage. The two families grew close, in complete contrast to the situation that had existed between them 200 years earlier.

Madam Heather Kincaid of Kincaid was the first chief of the name to sit on the Council of Chiefs and was succeeded in 2001 by her granddaughter Arabella.

For more information - especially in Ohio - you may contact bkincaid@cinci.rr.com




Crest: Saltire shaped by two anchors.




Chief: The Clan, although not ruled by a Chief, has a senior male in the way of Malcolm MacIntyre Kinnear.  It may be considered as Armigerous.*


Names Associated with Clan Kinnear:  Kinneir, Ceanniar, Kyner



In the reign of Malcolm IV (1153-65) a family of Norman origin was established in the north of Fife as vassals of the priory of St Andrews. Symon, son of Michael, gave land from his holdings at Cathelai to the church of St Andrews earlier than 1164.  His descendants took their family name from the rest of the holdings. The head of the family took his surname from the lands of Kinnear (probably Gaelic ceann iar - 'west headland') now represented on the map only by a farm name.  It is located near Wormit, in Fife.

By 1296 Sir John de Kyner was important enough to have his name included in the Ragman Roll. He was listed as “submissive to Edward I.”

Henry Kinnear of that Ilk was appointed commendator of Balmerino Abbey in 1574, while John Kinneir was appointed its baillie . By this time the family had the lucrative monopoly of ferry crossings of the Tay at what is now Newport.

George Kinnear was an Edinburgh banker at the end of the 18th century, into the early 19th century.  His lovely wife was painted by Raeburn. His son, James, began a family legal tradition which carried into the twentieth century.

The name, now found all over Scotland, may tend to be confused with Kinnaird.




Motto:  Bono Vince Malum [Overcome evil with good. ]

Names Associated with the clan:  Kettle, Ketley, Kettles, Ketill, and others.




The family is first found in Perthshire, where they were seated from very ancient times.  Some say this family was there well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066.


The descendents of Viking settlers in Ancient Scotland were the first to use the name Kittle.  It was derived from the old Norse personal name of Ketill, or from the Danish personal name of Ketil. 


Some of the first settlers in America by this name were: 


Peter Kettell settled in Boston in 1635

Edith Kettle settled in Nevis in 1653 along with William Kettle

Ralph Kettle settled in Virginia in 1698

Margarita, Sarah and Wennell Kettle arrived in Philadephia in 1733.

Peter Kittle who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1755

George Kittle who arrived in Washington County Pennsylvania in 1854



*Septs or branches of a clan.  When a smaller clan or family group declared allegiance to the chief of a more  powerful or prominent clan they became a sept or branch of that clan.  Clans also had many associated families through marriage.  During difficult times, it was often advantageous for smaller clan or family group to ally with a larger clan for protection from enemies and/or other feuding clans.  This practice which often included paying homage to the Clan Chief at important events was effective in building respect, devotion, and familiarity between different families within the same clan.





Motto:  Stabo (I shall stand)

Crest:  An oak tree Vert

Names associated with Clan Kinnimont:  Kinninmont, Kinnimonth, Kinnimund, Kinnimmund, Kynemuthe, Kynninmond, Quinemont

Chief:  Armigerous*



The name Kinnimont has a regional origin, with the name deriving from the lands of Kinninmonth in Fife. William I of Scotland granted a charter for those lands to Odo, a seneschal to the Bishop of St. Andrews, between the years 1189 and 1199. 

An 1841 publication tells us that on the original charter, it is the first time that we see the family name in the form of S'Iohannis de Kinimmund. 
 Elias de Kynninmond is recorded as a witness to a Fife charter in 1228 and Helya de Kynninmond witnessed a charter of lands to Johanni Lambini in 1290. Names were recorded in these ancient documents to make it easier for their overlords to collect taxes and to keep records of the population at any given time. When the overlords acquired land by either force or gifts from their rulers, they created charters of ownership for themselves and their vassals.

On the 1296 Ragman Roll, William de Kynemuthe's name is present, along with many other Scottish nobles, declaring allegiance to Edward I of England.

Other examples of this name were found in the person of Alexander de Kinnemunt who appears as Canon of Brechin in 1322 and Archdeacon of Lothian in 1327.

In 1329 an Alexander de Kininmund became the Bishop of Aberdeen, whilst in 1352, a different Alexander de Kininmund became the Archdeacon of Aberdeen, and later on, in either late 1354 or early 1355, he too, became the Bishop of Aberdeen. Jamys of Kyninmond asserted his right to the office of bailie, steward, and marischel under the prior of St. Andrew in 1438.

With no male heirs left to carry on the direct line of Kininmonts of that Ilk, the chief line came to an end with the sole heiress marrying Murray of Melgund.

A more recent notable Kinninmont was the late Sir William Kininmonth (1904-1988), a well known Scottish architect.


Motto: Touch And I Pierce (First used by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick during the Wallace Campaigns); I Mak Sikkar (the current motto bestowed by King Robert Bruce for Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's support of Robert Bruce's claim to the crown, secured by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's action at the Grey Friar's Church in Dumfries, Scotland.

This is an armigerous* clan, located in the lowlands.  The clan is recognized by the Lord Lyon, but doesn't currently have a recognized chief.  It takes it's name from the church of St. Patrick which is located in the parish of Closeburn in Dumfriesshire. 

The first record of the clan is in the 12th century, when Ivone de Kirkpatrick was listed as a witness in a Bruce Family charter. Alexander the second confirmed by charter the lands of the same Ivone. Roger Kirkpatrick was attendant to Robert the Bruce during the time when Bruce brutally murdered the Red Comyn. Clan Kirkpatrick legend has it that their motto is derived from Bruce's killing of Comyn.

Bruce fled from the church to his escorts and told them, "I doubt I have slain Comyn." , Kirkpatrick drew his sword shouting, "I MAK SICCAR" ("I'll make sure"), whereupon he finished off the wounded Comyn. Sir Roger Kirkpatrick hid with Robert Bruce for three nights to escape Comyn's family. This event is memorialized in the clan's crest, which contains a hand holding a bloody dagger; and the shield: three pillows on a shield bearing the Saltire with the Scotland colours, or the St Andrews Cross, reversed (i.e. Kirkpatrick wears a blue saltire on a white ground). It is also memorialized in the Clan's motto, "I make sure".

In 1314 the Kirkpatricks were rewarded the lands of Redburgh. In 1355, Sir Roger Kirkpatrick captured both Caerlaverock and Dalwinston Castle from the English. Two years later, in 1357, Sir Robert Kirkpatrick was murdered by Sir James Lindsay in a private argument. The title passed from Roger to his Nephew, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, who had a charter for the lands of Closeburn and Redburgh given to him in 1409 by Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. In1542, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick was captured at the Battle of Solway Moss.  The estate then passed to a cousin. In 1685 Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn was named a Baronet of Nova Scotia. The Kirkpatrick estate of Closeburn was finally sold by the 4th baronet, Sir James Kirkpatrick.

Closeburn Castle is the former stronghold and seat of the Chiefs of the clan.  It is a tower house, probably 14th century (possibly older) and is one of the oldest continually inhabited houses in Scotland.  The castle is located 1 km east of the village of Closeburn in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland.

Alexander the Second granted the lands of Closeburn to the Kirkpatrick family in 1232.  The tower house was probably built in the late 14th century, although some sources give a date as early as 1180 or as late as 1420. In the 17th century the Kirkpatricks moved out of Closeburn to an adjacent, newly built manor house. However, this burned down in 1748, with the castle sustaining some damage. Renovations were made to the castle, and the family moved back in. The Kirkpatrick family finally sold Closeburn in 1783 to a local minister, Dr James Stewart-Menteith. It has since changed hands several times, but is still occupied as a dwelling house. Today it has been bought back into the family by Luis Kirkpatrick from Spain.


Clan Learmonth

Motto: Dum spiro spero

Translation: While I breathe I hope

Chief:  Armigerous*


Variants:  Learmont, Learmond, Leirmonth.




Origin of the Name


The name Learmonth arises from lands in Berwickshire and the Learmonths of Ercildoune in the Merse were the earliest family of note.The family established the principal line of the family in that county through marriage into the Dairsies of Fife.


Many of the ancient manuscripts of Scotland feature this name. Examples of such are a William de Leirmonth who was a juror on an inquest held in Swinton in 1408 and Alexander Leyremonth was clerk of works of the town and castle of Berwick in the year 1434.


In 1446 Sir James Learmouth of Dairsie was Master to the Household of James V and provost of St. Andrews. The Learmonths acquired the lands of Balcomie in Fife and in 1604 Sir James Learmonth of Balcon was a commissioner appointed to consider possible political union with England.


Other examples of this name were found in the person of William of Learmonth who was summoned in 1479 to answer to Parliament for treason and other crimes and John Learmont who published a volume of Poems in Edinburgh in 1791. 


Alexander Learmonth was a highly succesful merchant in Edinburgh and Leith. The Learmonths acquired the estate of Parkhall at the beginning of the nineteenth century and latterly assumed the compund surname of Livingston-Learmonth. They still, however, use the ancient Learmonth arms.




Motto:  Virtute Cresco - is the ancient motto of the Leasks, meaning “By Virtue I Grow.”

Chief:  Jonathan Leask, 23rd chief of Clan Leask


Origin of the Name

There is more than one theory as to the origin of the name Leask. One is from the Anglo-Saxon word lisse which means happy. Another is that it comes from the Norse meaning of stirring fellow. Another is that it comes from Liscus which was the name of the chief of a tribe called the Haedui. The Haedui were a tribe of Gauls as described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Another theory concerns the Castle of Boulogne, once the possession of Charlemagne, at one time belonged to a family called de Lesque. William de Laskereske's signature appears on the Ragman Roll of 1296.

14th century

Later William Leask was granted the lands of Leskgoroune by King David II of Scotland, son of Robert the Bruce. William was also the first known chief of the Clan Leask. The second chief was baillie of the barony of Findon. He inherited lands from Henry de Brogan, Lord of Achlowne, in 1390, later in the 1400s another branch of the family sprung up on Orkney after Jamis of Lask, younger son of Thomas de Lask of that Ilk settled there.

16th century

During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the clan suffered when they fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Both William, the fifth chief of the clan and his eldest son Alexander were killed. William's younger son also called William became the 6th chief of the clan. William Lesk of that Ilk, the seventh chief supported the infant King James VI of Scotland in opposition to his mother Mary, Queen of Scots after the murder of Lord Darnley and her scandalous marriage to Bothwell.

17th century

Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some sort between the Leasks and the neighbouring Clan Gordon. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men.

Also in the seventeenth century the Leasks suffered terribly by investing heavily in the Darién scheme. The venture was a disaster with a vast amount of Scotland's wealth being lost which in some part led to the union of Scotland and England Alexander Leask of that Ilk, the thirteenth chief was forced to give up his estates which were taken over by Robert Cumming.

The clan today

In 1963, a descendant managed to buy back a portion of the family lands and established the Leask Society with the support of other prominent Leasks such as Lieutenant General Sir Henry Leask, sometime governor of Edinburgh Castle and General Officer commanding the Army in Scotland. In 1968 Moira Anne Helgesen was granted the chiefship of the clan by the Lord Lyon, where upon she changed her name and became: Madam Anne Leask of Leask. She died in April 2008 and was succeeded in the chiefship of the clan by Jonathan Leask, the 23rd chief of Clan Leask


Chief: Edward Lennox of that Ilk and Woodhead, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lennox.

Arms: Argent, a saltire between four roses Gules.

Crest: Two broadswords in saltire behind a swan's head and neck all Proper.

Motto: I'll defend.

Plant Badge: A rose slipped Gules.

Names associated with the clan: Levenax, Levinax, Levynnax, MacCorc, MacGurkich, MacGurgh, MacGurk, MacKork, Lenox, Lennox, MacCork



Origins of the name :  The name Lennox in gaelic comes from the place of the same name. The clan name comes from the title of Earl of Lennox which commanded the vale of Leven between the 12th and 15th centuries.

15th century:  In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colquhoun of Luss of Clan Colquhoun took advatage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox.

Sir John Stuart of Darnley was created 1st Earl of Lennox of the new line by King James III of Scotland in 1473.

Malcolm the fifth Earl of Lennox led Clan Lennox into England and besieged Carlisle Castle.

16th century:  A clan battle took place between the Clan Kincaid and the Clan Lennox of Woodhead in 1570.

Henry Stuart (1545-1567) Lord Darnley and the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was also the father of King James VI of Scotland. The King promoted the 8th Earl of Lennox to Duke of Lennox in 1581.



Gaelic Name: Mac an Fheisdeir

Motto: Grip fast

Badge:  Rue

Chief:  The Hon. Alexander Leslie

Names associated with the clan: Lesslie, Leslie, Lesly, Lesli, Leslei, Lessley, Lessely, Lesley, Achindachy, Achyndachy, Bartill, Abbernetti, Aburnethe, Abrenythie, Abirnythy, Abirnethy, Abirnethny, Abirnethie, Abernethy, Abernethny, Abernethie, Abernethi, Aberneathy, Abernythe, Abernathy, Abernathie, Habernethi,  Bartelmew, Bartholomew, Bartilmew, Bartholomew, Bertholmew, Bartilmew, Bertholomei, Bertillmew, Abernyte, Abirnyte.




Origin of the Name


The family name comes from the Leslie lands of Aberdeenshire and was to become famous in Germany, Poland, France and Russia. A Flemish noble named Bartholf settled in this area and in the 12th century one of his sons obtained a charter for the Barony of Lesly from William the Lion.


15th Century & Clan Conflicts
Sir Andrew de Lesly was one of the signatories when the Declaration of Arbroath was sent to the Pope in 1320 asserting Scotland’s independence.
16th Century Clan Conflicts & Anglo-Scottish Wars
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars George de Lesly was the Leslys' first Earl. His grandson, the 2nd Earl was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the third Earl, also George, carried out a private family vendetta on the life of David Beaton, cardinal Archbishop of St Andrews.

One of the most highly respected Leslies is said to be John Leslie, the Bishop of Ross, who was born in 1526. He was the most loyal of Mary Queen of Scots supporters during the turbulent times of 1562. It was John Leslie who wrote for her the famous ‘History of Scotland’.
In 1571 the Clan Leslie joined forces with the Clan Gordon against their bitter enemies the Clan Forbes. The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone.
17th Century & Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years' War General Alexander Leslie of Balgonie fought for Gustavus Adolphus, the King of Sweden. He achieved great fame across Europe for his skills in war and returned to Scotland a Field Marshal.
17th Century & Civil War
Commanding the Covenanters Alexander Leslie captured Edinburgh Castle with a thousand men.
With the Scots Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went into England in 1640 and defeated the King’s soldiers at the Battle of Newburn. For this he was created Earl of Lewis by King Charles I. In 1642 Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went to Ireland and held command alongside Robert Munro (d. 1680) of the Scottish Army. They were sent to put down a rebellion of Irishmen who had killed Scotts in Ulster.

In 1644, Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven commanded Scottish Covenanter forces to victory over English Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. This battle was the largest battle of the English and Scottish Civil War, and one of the most decisive. It resulted in a Parliamentarian victory, which meant that the north of England was effectively lost to King Charles for the rest of the war.
During the Civil War General David Leslie is victorious commanding his Scottish Covenanters force against a Scottish Royalist force at the Battle of Philiphaugh in 1645. The Royalist army of James Graham, the 1st Marquess of Montrose was destroyed by the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the power of the Committee of Estates.

18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings
During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Leslie supported the British government. The 9th Earl of Rothes now the Duke of Rothes was Vice Admiral of Scotland and governor of Stirling Castle. He commanded a British regiment of cavalry at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715 where he helped defeat the Jacobites.

Castles & Clan Seat
The Clan Leslie held several castles including Balgonie Castle in Fife, and Fetternear Palace in Aberdeenshire, as well as Leslie House in Fife until 1919, and Balquhain Castle, Aberdeenshire.

The Irish Leslies still reside at County Monaghen Ulster in their 17th-century family home Castle Leslie and it's surrounding 1000 acre estate. The Castle is no longer private, and is now open guests. While visiting they enjoy beautiful vistas, great food and mild ecentricity. The Castle is also used for functions, weddings and now boasts a brand new Cookery School and Day Spa.


Earl of Rothes
From 1457 the Clan Chief of Clan Leslie also held the position of Earl of Rothes. It is currently held by James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes (b. 1958).






Strictly speaking, as the Clan Little has had no chief since the 17th. century and is therefore a 'heidless' clan, it cannot have a clan crest badge, as these were handed out to his followers by their chief.  It is, therefore, armigerous.*

As a compromise, the black demi-lion of David Little within a buckled strap bearing the motto 'Concedo Nulli' is being used as the Littles' clan crest badge until such time as a chief shall be recognized.  The clan crest badge may be worn on the person of members, but must not be used in any other way (for example on stationery, banners, etc).

Motto: Concedo Nulli  (no surrender, no retreat, yield no ground)

Alternative Mottos:  Fidei Coticula Crux"  (The Cross is the Test of Truth) or “Magnum in Parvo” (Great in Little) or “Multum in Parvo” (Much in Little)

Names associated with the clan: Litel, Litil, Litill, Litle, Littell, Littil, Littill, Little, Littyll, Lityl, Lytil, Lytle, Lyttle, Lyttille


Origin of the Name

The first appearance of the surname Little (Lytle, or le Little) is in the period following the Norman Conquest, Richard Lytle being in line of descent from Robert FitzHugh, Lord of the Barony of Malpas in Cheshire, mentioned in the Domesday Book. (FitzHugh was related to a nephew of William the Conqueror.) A descendant of Richard Lytle came north to Scotland from Cheshire some 750 years ago.

1296/7 Edward Little, one of the descendants of Richard Lytle, and a nephew of William Wallace, assists his famous uncle in guerrilla warfare against Edward I of England, so-called 'Hammer of the Scots'.

1398 Nicol Little is one of the knights and 'squires' entrusted with the repatriation of English prisoners across the Border. He is one of the 'Conservators of the Peace for Lochmabenston' (the Lochmaben Stone, which still exists), the meeting place during the Border Wars for opposing forces to gather and negotiate.

1426 James I, King of the Scots, grants to Simon Litil, chief of the clan, his 'beloved Simon', tenure of the lands of Meikledale, Kirkton and Sorbie in Ewesdale. Simon thus becomes the first Laird of Meikledale.

16th. Century Clement Litil the 2nd. of Liberton (died in 1580) founds the Library of the University of Edinburgh.

1530 James V, King of the Scots, alarmed at the increasing power of the Border Clans - Armstrongs, Elliots, Littles , Irvins and others - invites 32 of their most important members to a parley. It is a trap~ they are seized and summarily hanged. Henceforth, the Littles and other Border clans, formerly loyal to the monarchy, abandon patriotism and concentrate on self-preservation.

1569 A force of over a hundred men of Clan Little joins with the Earl of Morton in a raid on Stirling.

1585 The Littles, and other clans involved in the Stirling Raid, are pardoned by James VI, King of the Scots. (This event is commemorated by a memorial window in the kirk of Bentpath in Dumfriesshire.)

1672 David Little, the Clan's last chief, and the last Laird of Meikledale, registers his coat of arms. With his death, Clan Little becomes 'heidless'.

1745 Matthew Little, last surviving descendant of David Little the last chief, goes to sea and is heard of no more.

1991 Dr J.C. Little of Morton Rig, having researched the history of the Littles in Scotland, founds the Clan Little Society (UK and Worldwide) on St. Andrew' s Day.

1994 Foundation of the Clan Little Society of North America.




Livingstone Clan Crest: A demi savage, wreathed on the head and body, holding a club on the dexter shoulder and a serpent in the sinister hand.

Livingstone Clan Motto: Si Je Puis (If I can).

Livingston(e) Clan History

Legend has it that a Saxon of the name of Leving acquired lands in West Lothian in the 12th century under David I and representatives of the name Leving appear in documents of that period. Sir Archibald de Levingestoune rendered homage to Edward I of England in 1296.

Sir Archibald's son James was taken prisoner alongside David II at the Battle of Durham in 1346, but was later released.  As a Commissioner for the King's release from English captivity, he was given the Barony of Callendar, and in the following centuries the Livingston Family held the earldoms of Callendar, Linlithgow and Newburgh.

Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar was appointed a guardian of James II and his son, Sir James, became Captain of Stirling Castle and Lord Chamberlain of Scotland under the title of Lord Livingston. Alexander, 5th Lord Livingstone accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to France, where he died. In 1599, Alexander, 7th Lord Livingston, was created Earl of Linlithgow.

James Livingston, younger son of Alexander, 1st Earl of Linlithgow, was created Earl of Callendar by Charles I. The titles later merged, but following the Livingston's support of the Jacobite Cause during the 1715 Uprising, the titles were forfeit.

The small Highland Clan of Livingston originally bore a Gaelic name spelt in different ways – MacDunsleibh, Mac-an-Leigh or MacLea. The amalgamation came about when Sir William Livingston of Skirling, Keeper of the Privy Seal for Charles I, was given a 57-year lease on Achanduin Castle, on the island of Lismore, locally known as the 'Bishop's Castle.' The clansfolk of Lismore had hitherto tried to avoid becoming involved with the surrounding clans – the Stewarts of Appin, the Macleans and the Macdougalls - so rallied around Livingston of Skirling.

The Chief's Charter for lands dates from 1544 and confirms him as the Hereditary Keeper of the Pastoral Staff of St Moluag, an Irish missionary born around 520. On his death, the staff was entrusted to the family who had become almoners to Lismore Cathedral and subsequently Barons of Bachuil. In 1950, a Lyon Court judgement declared that the Custodian of the Staff is the Co-Arb of Saint Moluag and a Baron in the Baronage of Argyll and the Isles.


David Livingstone (1813-73) was born in Blantyre and joined the London Missionary Society. He  carried out explorations from Cape of Good Hope to Zambesi, then northwards into Central Africa. Charles Livingstone (1821-73), brother of David Livingstone, joined his brother on African expedition (1821-63) and emigrated to America.

Places of Interest:

Callendar, Falkirk, West Lothian. Lands held by Livingstons from the 14th century. A 15th century tower house remains part of the mansion house of a later date and gave its name to the Livingston earldom, although it is spelled differently.

Livingston, West Lothian. Almshouses were founded here by Henry Livingston in 1496. This is now the site of Livingston New Town.

Achandon, Isle of Lismore. 13th century Livingston stronghold. Now a ruin.

Bachuil, Isle of Lismore. Home of the Livingstons of Bachuil. St Moluag's Staff (also known as the Bachuill Buidhe), which ranks  among the oldest ecclesiastical relics on record, is held here.

Blantyre, Lanarkshire. David Livingstone (1813-73), the great explorer, was born here. There is a National Memorial open the year round.

Motto: Corda Serrata Pando (I open locked hearts)
Crest: A boar's head erased argent, langued gules

Names associated with the clan: Lockhert, Lokhartt,Lockhartt, Lokkard, Lokert, Lokarte, Lockheart, Lockhart, Lokart, Lockhead

Clan Chief: Chief: Angus Hew Lockhart of the Lee, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lockhart


Origin of the Name

In early times this name was spelt 'Locard' or 'Lokart'. Like so many Scottish families, the Locards came from England where they were among those dispossessed of lands by william the conqueror. There were lands of Lockards near penrith in the 12th century and later in Annandale, where the town of lockerbie is said to be named after them. The family finally settled in Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, where they have held land for over 700 years.

The earliest paper in the family archives is a charter of 1323. By this Sir Symon Locard bound himself and his heirs to pay out of the lands of Lee and Cartland an annual rent of £10. Stephen Locard, grandfather of Sir Symon, founded the village of Stevenston in Ayrshire. His son, Symon, acquired lands in Lanarkshire and, like his father, called a village which he founded , Symons toun(today Symington) after himself. Symon, the 2nd of Lee, won fame for himself and his family fighting alongside Robert the Bruce in the struggle for Scottish Independence. He was knighted for his loyal service. Sir Symon was among the knights, led by Sir James Douglas, who took Bruces heart on crusade in 1329 to atone for his murder of John Comyn in the church of Grefriars in 1306. The crusade was ended prematurely when Douglas was killed fighting the Moors in Spain, but to commemorate the adventure and the honour done to the family, their name was changed from Locard to Lockheart, which afterwards became Lochhart. The heart within the fetterlock was from then on included in the arms of the family, and the dead is also commemorated in the motto.

As well as a new name, the family gained a precious heirloom on the Crusade: the mysterious charm known as the Lee Penny. Sir Walter Scott used the story of its acquisition by the family as a basis for his novel, The talisman. Sir Symon captured a moorish amir in battle in Spain, and received from the mans mother as part of his ransom, and amulet or stone with healing powers. The amirs mother told Sir Symon that the stone was a remedy against bleeding, fever, the bites of mad dogs and the sicknesses of horses and cattle. The amulet was later set in a silver coin which has been identified as a fourpenny piece of the reign of Edward IV.

The coin is kept in a gold snuffbox which was a gift from Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, to her general, Count James Lockhart. Such was the belief in the amulets powers that a descendant of Sir Symon, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, was charged with sorcery, an offense which could carry the death penalty.

After examining the accused the Synod of the Church of Scotland dismissed the case, because ' the custom is only to cast a stone in some water and give deseasit cattle thereof to drink and the same is done without using any words such as charmers use in their unlawful practices and considering that in nature there are many things seem to work strange effects whereof no human wit can give reason it having pleast God to give the stones and herbs a special virtue for healing of many infirmities in man and beast'.

Alan Lockhart of Lee was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. Sir James Lockhart of Lee, born in 1596, was appointed a gentleman of the Privy Chamber by Charles I and was knighted. In 1646 he was appointed to the Supreme Court Bench, taking the title of 'Lord Lee'. A zealous royalist, he was captured at Alyth in 1651 and conveyed to the Tower of London.

His son, Sir William, was a distinguished soldier who fought on the royalist side at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. He then campaigned on the continent, where he achieved such prominence that Cardinal Mazarin, successor to Cardinal Richelieu, offered to make him a mareschal of France. He died in the Netherlands in 1675. 

James Lockhart, who inherited the estates in 1777, also saw service on the Continent where he rose to be a count of the Holy Roman Empire, a Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa and a general of that empresses imperial forces. The title of Count became extinct when James's only son, Charles, died without issue. Although the family seat, Lee Castle, has been sold, the estates are still owned and managed by the present head of the family, Angus Lockhart of the Lee.




Motto:  "Hoc Marjorum Virtus" which means "This is the valour of my ancestors".


The following is a partial list of names associated with Clan Logan: 

Lagan, Laggan, Leonerd, Loban, Lobban, Loben.Logane, Logen, Loggan, Loggane, Loggans, Loghane, Loghyn, Login, Logyn, Lopan, Lowgan, Lyndon, MacLennan.


Chief:  Armigerous*




The Logans in the Highlands are often linked to the MacLennans due to a colourful (but unreliable) legend about a chief of the Logans in Easter Ross who was killed in a feud with the Frasers. His wife gave birth to a child a few months later who later became a priest. His son was named Gillie Fhinnein (disciple of St Finnan) and MacLennan is the anglicised version of this name.


All the Logan/Logie names are probably derived from the Gaelic word "lagan" (little hollow) which became parts of place names in various parts of Scotland. One of the most important sources of the name was Logan in Ayrshire but there are examples of the name in Dryburgh in the Borders in 1204, Adam de Logan in Gowrie in 1226 and Thurbrand de Logan in Cunningham, Ayrshire. There were four landowners of that name who signed the "Ragman Roll" of King Edward I in 1296.


Two knights named Logan accompanied Sir James Douglas on his journey to take Robert the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. They died with Douglas fighting the Moors in Spain in 1329.

There was a landed family of Logans in Forfar, Angus for hundreds of years until the last of the lairds died without issue in 1802. Other Logans were established in lands in West Linton (south of the Pentland Hills in the Scottish Borders).


Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig in Edinburgh married a daughter of King Robert II and was Admiral of Scotland in 1406. The family owned Fast Castle in Berwickshire but they fell from favour and the last Logan of Restalrig died an outlaw and the castle was taken over by the Homes.

Logie/Loggie were located in different parts of the country from Logan. Wauter de Logie also signed the Ragman Roll and Sir John of Logy is reputed to have been one of the nobles who conspired with King Edward II of England and the Earl of Warenne when they attempted an invasion of Scotland in 1320. A coat of arms was granted to Logie of that Ilk (signifying a clan chief) but they were never subsequently recorded in the registers of the Lyon Court.


"The Scottish Gael" was the first work in English to try to give a history of Highland dress and it was written by James Logan in 1831. In modern times, Jimmy Logan is the most famous of a large theatrical family.




Motto: Amor patitur moras (Love Endures Delays)

Names Associated with the Clan:  Lumesten, Lumisdayn, Lumisdane, Lumsdean, Lumisdeyn, Lumsdaine, Lummisdane, Lummdane, Lummisden, Lummesdene, Lumisden, Lumisdeane, Lumysden, Lumsden, Lummysden, Lommestone, Blanerne.


Origins of the clan:  The name Lumsden derives from the old manor of Lumsden in the parish of Coldingham in Berwickshire. The earliest known recordings of the name appear between 1166 and 1182 when the brothers Gillem (William) and Cren de Lumsden witnessed a charter by Waldeve Earl of Dunbar to Coldingham Priory. The lands of Lumsden are first mentioned in a charter dated 1098 of King Edgar of Scotland and his son Malcolm Canmore. Gillem and his brother Cren are the first recorded owners of the land.

In 1296 Adam Lumsden and Roger de Lumsden were among the Scottish clan leaders who were forced to do homage to King Edward I of England with both of their names appearing on the Ragman Rolls.


Around 1328 Gillbert de Lumsden married an heiress of Blanerne and by 1329 had received a charter for the Blanerne lands by the Earl of Angus. By the mid fourteenth century offshoots of the Lumsden clan had charters and lands confirmed to them in Conlan in Fife and Medlar and Cushnie in Aberdeenshire.

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY  - Thirty Years' War and Civil War

Thirty Years' War

In the early seventeenth century during the Thirty Years' War the Clan Lumsden fought for the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in a famous unit called "Lumsden's Musketeers".

The Civil War

One of the Lumsden brothers, James Lumsden returned from the war in Europe with his men to fight in the Civil War which was taking place in England, Ireland and Scotland to support the Covenanters. They fought at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644 where King Charles I was defeated. They also fought at the Battle of Dunbar (1650) under David Leslie where the Covenanters were defeated by the Parliamentarians.

James Lumsden's brother Robert defended Dundee against General Monck but he was killed on its surrender.

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and Jacobite uprisings

During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Chief of Clan Lumsden was Prince Charles Edward Stuart's secretary. After the Battle of Culloden the chief fled to Rome. He returned to Scotland in 1773 and was pardoned by the British government. His tartan waistcoat is preserved at Pitcaple Castle.

Castles and clan seat

  • Blanerne Castle in Berwickshire, was acquired in the fourteenth century and was the main clan seat.




CREST: A cock Or, crested and barbed Gules.

MOTTO: An I may

CHIEF:  Armigerous*




Origin of the Name

This name is Norman in origin deriving from D’Lisle meaning in Latin “of the island”. The name Lyle is part of the same stock as the Northumberland family of 'de Insula' (as it is in Latin) 'Lisle' (de Lisle, Delisle in French).

Ralph de Insula, or Radulphus, is the first of this name to appear in Scotland. A follower of the Steward, around 1170, he witnessed the church of Innerkyp being gifted by Baldwin de Birge, the sheriff of Lanharc (Lanark), to the monks of Paisley. Around the same time, de Insula also witnessed the giving of ferms of his mill at Paisley by Walter Fitz-Alan for the soul of Sir Robert de Brus.  He witnessed, at some point prior to 1177, the church of Cragyn (Craigie in Kyle) being given to the monks of Paisley by Walter Hose.

As early as the start of the 1200s a family of Lyles were barons of Duchal in Refrewshire.
William de Lile witnessed a charter to lands in 1222 and 1233. Alan de Insula witnessed many charters of Alexander, son of Walter the High Steward, prior to 1252.

Both John de Lille of Berwickshire and Richard del Isle of Edinburgh plead fealty to Edward I of England in the Ragman Roll of 1296.

They acquired the barony of Duchal in Renfrewshire, and extended their lands during the reign of David II, receiving a charter to the barony of Buchquhan in Stirlingshire.

Sir Robert Lyle was raised to the peerage as Lord Lyle by James II. The 2nd Lord Lyle was sent as ambassador to England in 1472.  He is said to have been present at the murder of James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. However, he appears to have been appalled at the actual murder of the king and joined the Earl of Lennox and other nobles to take up arms to avenge the kings death. However, this was not successful, and the title of Lord Lyle was forfeited the following year, 1489.

The estates were restored shortly after and Lyle enjoyed high status for the rest of his life. This title is now extinct.

Another family of Lyells received lands in Forfarshire around 1375.

This family produced a number of distinguished soldiers, Including Hercules Lyle who fought in the rising of 1745 and was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.

A Hercules Lyle fought in the 1745 rising, but died at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.




Motto:  In Te Domine Speravi (In Thee O Lord Have I Put My Trust)

Clan Chief:  The current Chief of Clan Lyon is Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

Gaelic Name:  Liobhunn

Septs:  Lion(s), Lyons, Lehane or Lehan


Origin of the name

Although Sir Iain Moncreiffe, perhaps the greatest herald genealogist, believed his family were of Celtic origin and descended from a younger son of the Lamonts, the generally accepted view is that they descended from a French family called de Leon, who came north with Edgar, son of Malcolm III, at the end of the eleventh century to fight against his uncle, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. Edgar was triumphant, and de Leon received lands in Perthshire which were later called Glen Lyon. Roger de Leonne witnessed a charter of Edgar to the Abbey at Dunfermline in 1105.

14th Century:

In 1372 Robert II granted to Sir John Lyon (called the White Lyon because of his fair complexion) the thanage of Glamis. Five years later, he became Chamberlain of Scotland, and his prominence was such he was considered fit to marry the king¹s daughter, Princess Joanna, who brought with her not only illustrious lineage, but also the lands of Tannadice on the River Esk. He was later also granted the barony of Kinghorne. He was killed during a quarrel with Sir James Lindsay of Crawford near Menmuir in Angus.

15th Century:

The family have descended in a direct line from the White Lion and Princess Joanna to the present day, and their crest alludes to this. His only son, another John, was his successor, and he strengthened the royal ties by marrying a granddaughter of Robert II. Sir John¹s son, Patrick, was created Lord Glamis in 1445 and thereafter became a Privy Councillor and Master of the Royal Household.

16th Century:

John, sixth Lord Glamis, was, according to a tradition, a quarrelsome man with a quick temper. He married Janet Douglas, granddaughter of the famous Earl Angus (also called Bell the Cat), and after his death she suffered terribly for the hatred which James V bore all of her name. Lady Glamis was accused on trumped-up charges of witchcraft and, despite speaking boldly in her own defence, her doom was preordained. She was burned at the stake on the castle hill at Edinburgh on 3 December 1540.

The eighth Lord Glamis renounced his allegiance to Mary, Queen of Scots, and served under the Regents Moray and Lennox. He was made Chancellor of Scotland and Keeper of the Great Seal for life, and his son, the ninth Lord, was captain of the Royal Guard and one of James VIs Privy Councillors.

17th Century & Civil War:

In 1606 he was created Earl of Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon and Baron Glamis. His son, the second Earl, was a close personal friend of James Graham the Marquess of Montrose and was with him when he subscribed to the National Covenant in 1638. He accompanied Montrose on his early campaigns in defence of the Covenant , but despite his great affection for the Marquess, he could not support him when he broke with the Scots Parliament to fight for Charles I. Lyon almost ruined his estates in supporting the Army of the Covenant against his friend.

In 1677, the third Earl of Kinghorne obtained a new patent of nobility, being styled thereafter Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon, Baron Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie. He paid off the debts he inherited from his father by skillful management of the estates and was later able to alter and enlarge Castle Glamis. John, his son, although a member of the Privy Council, opposed the Treaty of Union of 1707.

18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings:

His son was a Jacobite who fought in the rising of 1715 at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Tullibardine¹s regiment. He died defending his regiment¹s colours. In 1716 James, the Old Pretender. son of James VII, was entertained at Glamis. Thirty years later another king¹s son, but a much less welcome one, the Duke of Cumberland, stopped at the castle on his march north to Culloden. It is said that after he left the bed which he had used was dismantled.

Among the Jacobite relics now preserved at Glamis are a sword and watch belonging to James VIII, the Old Pretender, and an intriguing tartan coat worn by him. The youngest daughter of the fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne was the Queen Mother.

Likely came from the LYON charge from the coat-of-arms of Sir John de Lyon (Argent, Lion Rampant Azure, Riband Gules).

Clan Castle: The seat of the Chief of Clan Lyon is at Glamis Castle in Angus, Scotland.





Motto: Fortiter - "Boldly".
Chief:  St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox
Septs of the Clan: Alastair, Alexander, Alison, Alistair,Allison, Alister, MacAlasdair, MacAlaster, MacAlester,MacAlister, MacAllister, MacAllister, McAlister, McAlester, McAllister, McCallister, McCollister, McLister, Sanders, Saunders.





Origin  of the Name:


The Clan Alasdair descends from Somerled, 12th century Lord of Argyll, through his grandson Donald, who founded the mighty Clan Donald. Until the 15th century, they were, in fact, the senior cadet branch of the Clan Donald rather than an independent clan. Clan Alasdair was, and is, a West Highland clan, centered on the Kintyre peninsula and surrounding islands.

Clan MacAlister traces its descent from Alasdair Mor, son of Domhnall mac Raghnaill who was grandson of Somerled.  Somerled is claimed as the ancestor of the MacAlisters, MacDonalds and MacDougalls. Gaelic tradition gave Somerled a Celtic descent in the male line, though a recent DNA study has shown that Somerled may have been of Norse descent. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, and their variants it was found that roughly a quarter of MacDonalds, a third of MacDougalls, and forty percent of MacAlisters tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome found in Scotland has been regarded as showing Norse descent in the British Isles.


Birth of a clan

After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493, the MacAlisters seem to have formed into an independent clan of their own, and their chief, Iain Dubh (Anglicisation: Black John), lived at Ardpatrick (Ard Phadriue) in South Knapdale.[5] Later chiefs have styled themselves as Mac Iain Duibh, (sons of Black John) in reference to him.

The clan's lands were never very extensive, were located mostly in Kintyre. As early as 1481 a Charles Macallestar was made Steward of Kintyre. Later many MacAlisters were found in Bute and Arran. The principal family of the clan were the MacAlisters of Loup, and up to twenty years after the first record of Iain Dubh, Angus Macallaster of the Loupe who is called "John Dubh's son" is mentioned. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, the MacAlisters of Loup attached themselves for about one hundred years to the more powerful Clan Iain Vor. The "Laird of Lowip", the chief of the clan, appears in the General Band of 1587, in which Highland chiefs were held accountable by the Government for their tenants. In 1618 the Laird of Loup was one of the twenty barons who were made responsible for the good rule of Argyll during the absence of the Earl of Argyll.

Alexander MacAlister of Loup fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie, supporting the cause of the deposed James VII of Scotland, and also at the Battle of the Boyne. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Hector, though he died without issue and was in turn succeeded by Alexander's brother, Charles. Charles married the daughter of Lamont of that Ilk.

Charles, 12th of Loup, married Janet Somerville, heiress of Kennox, in 1792. In 1805 Charles assumed the name and Arms of Somerville along with his own, and from then on this family has been known as Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox.  


In 1846 Charles MacAlester of Loup and Kennox, was granted the right to take up Arms as Chief of the clan, by Lyon Court.  Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Godfrey Somerville MacAlester of the Loup and Kennox, succeeded him as Chief of Clan MacAlister is 1903.  His seat was Kennox in Ayrshire, though the seat of the clan as since been sold, and the current chief, William St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox, lives in England. Edit Text



Clan Chief: There is no question that, in 843AD, King Kenneth MacAlpin was our 1st Chief. He is the individual from whom our Clan subsequently took its name. However, ancient records are very few and almost nothing is known about persons living between then and about 1100 AD. Although we can probably presume that Kenneth's direct male line, which ruled Scotland for 200 years, represented the initial chiefly succession for our Clan, there is no clear picture of the succession following that time. By some point in time, probably by 1300 AD, Clan MacAlpine had become landless and the line of our Chief was lost; that is, we had become a "Broken Clan." Thus, our Clan has not had a Chief for more than 700 hundred years and it does not have one now.

In early times, a Clan Chief picked his successor in accordance with the Gaelic practice of "Tanistry." The Chief would select the most able candidate within the "derbhfine" (an extended kinship group normally consisting of the male descendants of a common great-grandfather) but, usually a close relative, such as a brother, son, cousin, nephew, etc. Today, Tanistry has given way to the practice of passing the title directly from father to eldest son, and so on. In addition, today, any person claiming to be Chief of a Scottish Clan must petition the Lord Lyon in Scotland for a Coat of Arms and legally prove in Lyon Court they are entitled to be recognized as Chief. In cases where the Chiefly bloodline has been lost, such as with Clan MacAlpine, Lord Lyon has established guidelines and procedures that can be followed to form an "Ad Hoc Derbhfine" and find a new Clan Leader (called a “Commander”) who might ultimately be recognized as Chief, thereby establishing a new Chiefly bloodline.

Given our Clan’s ancient and unrecorded history, it is not expected that any individual can prove to Lord Lyon's stringent requirements direct descent from our former Chiefs. Thus, we must follow Lyon Court's guidelines and procedures to form an Ad Hoc Derbhfine for the purpose of finding a new Clan Leader, a Commander, who might ultimately become our new Clan Chief.

Variant Spellings: Albain, Albanach, Albin, Ailpein, Allphin, Alpin, Alpine, Alpyn, Alpynsone, Calpin, Calpine, Culpen, Elphin, Galpin, Galpine, Gilpin, Halpin, Halpine, MacAilpein, MacAlipine, MacAlpan, MacAlpane, MacAlpeine, MacAlpeinne, MacAlpen, MacAlphine, MacAlpin, MacAlpie, MacAlpy, MacAlpye, MacAlpyn, MacAlpyne, MacApline, MacCalpin, MacCalpine, MacCapie, MacCappie, MacCappin, MacCappine, MacCappy, MacCapy, MacCarpin, MacColpin, MacColpine, MacCoplan, MacCoplin, MacCoppin, MacCoppine, MacCorpin, MacCorpine, Mackalpe, MacKalpin, Makalpe, Makcalpy, Makcalpyn, Malcalpyn, M’Alpen, M’Alpin, M’Alpine, M’Alpyn, McAlpain, McAlpan, McAlpane, McAlpe, McAlpen, McAlphin, McAlphine, McAlpie, McAlpien, McAlpil, McAlpin, McAlpine, McAlpion, McAlpon, McAlpy, McAlpyn, M’Calpin, M’Calppin, M’Calpy, M’Calpyne, M’Cappe, M’Cavpy, McCalpie, McCalpin, McCalpy, McCapen, McCawpyn, McCulpen, McKelpin, M’Kalpie, MkKalpy.

History of Clan MacAlpine:  The history of the Royal Clan MacAlpine is ancient. In fact, our Clan claims the distinction of being the most ancient and the most purely Celtic of the Highland clans. The Clan reached its peak of power and influence at a time when no written record was kept, leaving only the vague history of tradition. This has led some to conclude, erroneously, that the Clan MacAlpine never existed. Yet, the voices of the bards (ancient oral historians) cannot be silenced and evidence of the Clan’s existence and significance abounds.

Kenneth MacAlpin became the first King of Scotland in AD 843 when he united the Scots and the Picts. He was the son of King Alpin and the descendant of a long line of Dalriadic Kings. His direct male descendants ruled Scotland for the next 200 years and every Sovereign of Scotland since, including Queen Elizabeth II, today, has had his Royal blood coursing through their veins. It is from him that our Clan takes its name, and, thus, he is considered our first Chief. Of course, as King he was Chief of Chiefs and this is reflected in the name of our Society newsletter. But, certainly, he was the Chief of his own family branch, his “Clan.” From King Alpin and King Kenneth, several powerful branches emerged, eventually becoming formidable Clans in their own right. This group or family of related clans, of which Clan MacAlpine is certainly a part, is known as Siol Alpine.

The history of Clan MacAlpine is shrouded in Scotland's distant past; it is debated by scholars and will likely never be clear. The written history of the Clan is currently a work in-progress of the Society. In the mean time, we offer the following for your reading enjoyment.

Perhaps it was that King Kenneth’s brother, Donald, was the next Chief, to be followed by the succeeding Scottish monarchs of the MacAlpin dynasty through Malcolm II (1034 AD.) The line might then have vested with a distant male cousin that history has left unrecorded. Did they continue to exist as a family of power for a period of time? If so, there was no trace left by 1300 AD.

King Kenneth undoubtedly brought many of his family advisors and Clansmen with him when he moved his capital from Argyllshire, the traditional seat of the Clan, to Scone, in Perthshire, leaving behind others to look after the interests in Argyll. Perhaps thusly was ultimately created a Chiefship of Clan MacAlpine separate from the Kingship of Scotland. The Clan seat in Argyll may have become an outpost on the old frontier of a New Kingdom.

Perhaps potential successors to the throne were sent to Argyll as a Clan Chief, in order to sharpen their skills by managing the family interests there, before taking their successive turns as King. If so, it may have been that many were involved in the assassinations of sitting Kings, or the revenge thereof, as the history of MacAlpin descendants is littered with murder after murder, by one family member against another, in order to secure the throne. It may have been that several of these plots were launched from Argyll. Perhaps, after one such exchange, the Argyll Chief and his supporting clansmen were decimated in battle by a relative from Scone who sought to ensure that the Clan would be unable to pose a future threat but, also leaving it “broken.”

Or, perhaps disenfranchised potential successors were sent to Argyll by the sitting King to keep them at a safe distance, busy defending against Viking raiders with little support from the Palace in Scone, in an attempt to minimize threats from his competitors. The position of Chief of the Clan MacAlpine seat in Argyll may have come to be known as an undesirable assignment. As such, the powers in Scone may have viewed the Clan’s holdings there merely as a source from which to repay local clan Chiefs for political favors. With the lands exhausted and the Chiefship unwanted, the MacAlpine clansmen and their families would have had no choice but to offer allegiance to other local clan Chiefs.

Or, it might be that the Argyll Clan became broken as, at the urging of the MacAlpin King in Scone, various powerful family branches separated from the original line to establish strategic strongholds throughout the New Kingdom, each one, in turn, taking with it a share of clansmen. This may have been how the Siol Alpine family of clans was formed. The MacAlpine clansmen would have had to choose which faction to follow. As surnames were not in popular use in Scotland during ancient times, it is no surprise that it is the given (first) names of the progenitors (first Chiefs) of the various Clan MacAlpine branches that have survived to the present; each distinguishing a branch among the Siol Alpine Clans. Thus, MacAlpine clansmen would have had to indicate allegiance to one new branch or another, leaving behind his use of the predecessor name of Clan MacAlpine.

Whatever the actual use of the old Clan seat, it seems clear that with the move of the capital to Scone, the stage was set for the ultimate breakdown of the Clan in Argyll. As time went on, power shifted and the Clan lost its members to other, sometimes related, more powerful clans in the region, ultimately becoming landless with no recognized Chief. This condition has persisted for the past five hundred years, or more.

The following is a collection of some of what now makes up the written history of Clan MacAlpine: Writings of experts and old Gaelic sayings. We present them so that you gain an understanding of just how deeply these legends permeate Scottish history, remembering that most legends are based on fact.

In his book, “The Scottish Tartans,” Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms, refers to the claim that this Royal Clan is the most ancient in the Highlands. He states that the Clan MacAlpine is Celtic and that records indicate that, for 25 generations, the Kings of Scotland were of MacAlpine lineage. He also states that the ancient crest was a boar’s head, the war cry being “Cumbrich Bas Ailpein" or, "Remember the death of Alpin,” and that the traditional home of the MacAlpines was Dunstaffnage, near Oban, Argyll. This former Lord Lyon is one of the most respected Lyons to serve Her Majesty and, therefore, his description of the Clan, its history, and its symbols is considered to be authoritative.

There is an old Gaelic saying: “Cnuic `is uillt `is Ailpeinich” (“Hills and Streams and MacAlpine”, which signifies the origin of the MacAlpines was contemporary with the origin of the hills and streams, that is, the earth.)

“Tradition claims MacAlpin or MacAlpine as the oldest and most purely Celtic of the Highland Clans, of royal descent from the dynasty of Kenneth MacAlpin who united the Picts and Scots into one kingdom from the year 850, and transferred his capital to Perthshire from Dunn Add in Dalriada (beside Loch Crinan.)” (From “Scots Kith & Kin,” page 49.)

MacAlpine: One of the chief branches of the royal clan Alpin. Their seat is said to have been at Dunstaffnage in Argyll though they are now landless and without a recognized Chief.

Siol Alpine is a name given to a group of clans that claim descent from Kenneth MacAlpin. They are the Grants, the MacAulays, the MacDuffs, the MacFies, the MacGregors, the MacKinnons, the MacNabs and the MacQuarries.

Regarding the name MacAlpine, one of the earliest records of an early form of the name appears when John MacAlpyne witnessed a charter by Malise, earl of Stratherne, of the lands of Cultenacloche and others in Glenalmond, c. 1260 (Grandtully, I, p. 126.) Monaghe fiz Alpyn of the county of Perth rendered forced homage to Edward I of England in 1296. (From "The Surnames of Scotland" by George F. Black.)




Clan Motto:  Fide Et Opera ("By fidelity and labour")

Chief:  John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk, who represents the clan as a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs.




Origin of the Name


The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros" meaning keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name is now known around the world as a result of the legendary King Arthur who may have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record of the name is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain named his son Arthur, also in the 6th century.


The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the legendary King Arthur, are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs and the Devil". The more established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old kingdom of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch Fyne.


The clan was at its peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader, Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.

When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the 15th century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions. The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the end of the clan; unlike others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands, though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.


For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells. Charles MacArthur, piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald of Islay.


Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century, a number of MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous and as a result of a skirmish on Loch Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the situation and appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.


In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon rose to be a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers of MacArthurs fought on both sides during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the '45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.

John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia in 1790. He was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino breed from South Africa). His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.


In more modern times, US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from Glasgow in Scotland, became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son, General Douglas MacArthur, became even more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.


The last clan chief of the MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no obvious male heir and so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87 at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan members. The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich. The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure (blue) background". The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur Chief's shield, has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical to the description given in ancient manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated in April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.


Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan are limited to Arthur.

Here are the most widely known variant spellings for MacArthur: Arthur        MacArthur          McArthur        McArthure       MacArther      MacArtur Carter            MacCarter          McCarter         McCartor         Makcairter      McKairtour MacArtor      McArtor               MacArter           McArter          MacArtair       McArtair McArtan        McArta                Maccart           Makarta           Magarta          Mcharter          Makkarthyre          Makarturicht           McCarthair           Makarthour



Names Associated with the clan:

Aulay,MacAlley,,MacAulay, MacAuley, MacAully, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, McAuley, McCallie, McCauley   Septs:  Lennox Clan, MacAll, MacCall, MacKail, MacKell, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, MacPheidran, Paterson, Patterson

Chief:  Armigerous*




Clan MacAulay has three distinct branches. They are the MacAulay's of Ardencaple, the MacAulay's of Lochbroom and Coigach, and the MacAulay's of Lewis.


The MacAulay's of Lewis come from a Celtic and Norse mixture that used the Celtic language and followed Celtic traditions. The earliest historical reference was to a Donald MacAulay of Lewis in 1610. Following a tradition of Calvinist ministry, the Reverend John MacAulay produced in his Grandson, Thomas, Lord MacAulay, one of the finest essayists and historians in England. Lord Thomas Babington MacAulay (1800 - 1859 Macaulay) is buried at Westminster Abbey in London in the famous "poet's corner" next to Byron, Shelley, Keates, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lord Macaulay's father, Zachary Macaulay, was a businessman in Sierra Leon and an ardent abolitionist.


The MacAulay's of Lochbroom and Coigach were amongst the ancient inhabitants of Kintail. They were allied to Alexander II of Scotland (1214 - 1249) who granted them land in Lochbroom and Coigach for loyal services to the King. Their saga is closely entwined with Clan MacKenzie of Kintail whose stronghold Eilean Donan Castle was commanded and defended by Duncan MacAulay against the attacks of William, Earl of Ross. They also fought under King Alexander III against King Haco of Norway who invaded Ayrshire on October 2, 1262. Alongside of them in the thick of battle were their clansmen, the Ardencaple MacAulay's.


Aulay MacAulay of the Ardencaple MacAulay's first appeared in documents in 1296. In 1587, Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardencaple is included in the roll of landlords of Gaeldom, as a principal vassal of the earldom of Lennox. In May, 1591, Sir Aulay MacAulay entered into a formal bond of friendship (alliance) with MacGregor of Glenstrae recognizing that Clan MacAulay was a cadet clan of Clan Gregor. MacAulay folklore tells of the times that Rob Roy (MacGregor) stayed with the MacAulay's of Ardencaple to avoid capture by the authorities. Clan MacAulay's dress tartan is very similar to that of Clan Gregor.


Castle Ardencaple was on a hillside near the town of Helensburgh, Scotland. The remaining battle tower overlooks an inlet to the Firth of Clyde on one side and the shore of Loch Lomond on the other. The immediate area of Ardencaple is now HM Naval dependent's housing for the nearby Faslane submarine base. Loch Lomond and Helensburgh lie about 25 km northwest of Glasgow, Scotland.




BADGE:  Touch not a catt but a targe.” (Don’t touch this cat without a shield)

PLANT BADGE: Lus nam Braoileag (vaccineum vitis idaea) Red whortleberry.
PIBROCH: Mo Run Geal Og.

Chief: James McBain of McBain, is the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean


Septs of the Clan: Bean, MacBain, MacBeath, MacBeth, Macilvain, MacVean


Our Clan History

Clan MacBean started when Dougal Dall, 7th Chief of Clan Chattan (pronounce Hattan) gave his daughter, Eva, heiress to his Chieftainship of Clan Chattan, in marriage to Angus MackIntosh, the 6th Chief of Clan MackIntosh in 1291. One of our ancestors came with Eva as part of her family that moved with her when she married. It was the custom that a new heiress would bring a following of her own kinsmen with her to her new married home. Her father was from the Royal family of Loern of the Ancient Celtic Kingdom of Dal Riad and this was also the family that Bean Macdhomhil Mor came from. "Bean" means lively one and "mor" means great.


When the Mackintosh granted him land, he rightly took his place as a clan chief. This is how Clan MacBean is considered part of Clan Chattan's Federation of Clans. We carry the blood of both Clans and as the MackIntosh was also the Chief of Clan Chattan, our families have always been close.


Eva came from Lochaber and after their marriage,they lived for some time at Tocastle in Glenloy, but due to the enmity of Angus Og of Islay, they withdrew to Rothiemurchus.

Our Lands were located on the south side of Loch Ness. There are several notible family groups, such as the MacBeans of Faillie, the MacBeans of Tomatin, the MacBeans of Pittanie, and the MacBeans of Kinchyle. It is the MacBeans of Kinchyle that the Chieftainship is passed through to our present Chief, James McBain of McBain - 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean.

In the late 1700's , after the loss at the Battle of Culloden, Donald MacBean - 15th Chief of Clan MacBean - was in the British Army and fighting in North America. Through taxation, the lands of Kinchyle were lost. William McBain - 16th Chief of Clan MacBean , immigrated to Canada in the early 1800's, bringing the Chieftain lineage to North America. Many clan members came to North America during the late 1700's and early 1800's. Some through the military, some through exploration, and some through transportation as prisoners.


In the mid-1900's Hughston McBain was interested in his heritage and started doing research. It was discovered that the Chieftainship had been vacant for almost 200 years. After several years of follow-up research and applications to the Lord Lyon, he became the 21st Chief of Clan MacBean. He wrote a book, An American Chief, that tells how it all came about. He was able to buy a small piece of the old lands of Kinchyle and has established a park that all clan members may visit. Although the original home of Kinchyle has been lost to the clan, it still exists and is in very good shape. It is not a castle by any means, but a good sized home and can be seen by driving down the road past the turn off to the park.

Hughston's son, James McBain of McBain , is now the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean. He is married to Peggy, Lady of McBain and his son, Richard The Younger, is the Tanist (Next in Line).




Translation: A dragon was believed to possess a keen sense of sight and represents the most Valiant Defender of Treasure.
Motto: Conjuncta virtuti fortuna.
Translation: Fortune joined to bravery

This clan’s ancestor is MacBeth (1005-1057), Mormaer (High Steward) of Moray, whose mother Doada (or Donalda) was the daughter of Scotland’s King Malcolm II and Blanaid (who was the daughter of the Irish High King (Ard Ri) Brian Boru and his first wife Deidgre). He married Gruoch, daughter of Boedhe who was the son of Kenneth III. So MacBeth was the grandson of King Malcolm II and his wife was the granddaughter of King Kenneth III.

Under the ancient law of the Scots he had as much claim to the throne of Scotland as King Duncan I. He was commander for Duncan I, whom he defeated and slew, thereby becoming king. Macbeth was proclaimed king, and Scotland prospered during his reign. He was later defeated by Malcom, the son of Duncan.

It is a generally held opinion by Scotch historians that if MacBeth had not been killed by the future King Malcolm III, Scotland would probably have remained a separate nation until this day and might have conquered England. MacBeth was originally from Moray and records show that he used his power for the good of his country.

MACBETH / MACBEATH: Perhaps the best remembered is Shakespeare's arch-hero, and whose peaceful reign was far from the tale related by the 'bard' - although he did in fact die in battle, at Lumphanan - not when Birnam Wood moved to Dunsinane as is often believed. The name MacBeatha was also that of a family of physicians who served the Lords of the Isles, and such are thought to have originally come from Ireland in the train of a Macdonald bride. On the fall of the Lordship in 1493 they migrated to various locations along the western seaboard, but mainly to Pennycross on Mull, where they exercised their `physic' (medicine) under the Macleans.

Others duly removed to the shires of Inverness, Sutherland & Easter Ross and the name was also found in Moray where they had association with the Macbeans.

In Angus, 'MacBeths' received a charter from David II in 1369, but this family were of the ancestral line of the Fife Bethunes, who anciently held lands in the area. The later history of the MacBeths, the Highland Beatons and Bethunes has become hopelessly confused for, in the various lands with which they are associated, both forms were used, often referring to the same family, sometimes even to the same person.

Their story became even more complicated when many MacBeths anglicised their name to Beaton and became further confused with a lineage of Bethunes, who also had tradition of `physic' and practised in Skye. These latter were also of Fife ancestry, one of whom had been enticed north to pursue his healing arts.

Many former MacBeths now bear such names as `MacVeigh' (from Gaelic `Bh' = `V') - a common form on Mull, or `Leich', (from the popular name for their occupation). No chief has been recognized and tradition records that they held various affiliations with the Macdonalds, Macleans or Macbeans. Specific clan association should not be assumed without genealogical or geographical evidence, and in the absence of such the MacBeth tartan, now over 100 years old and based on the Royal Stewart pattern with a blue background edged with yellow, may quite appropriately be used by all of the name.

The Beatons: (a derivative of the MacBeth Clan)

The Beatons settled in Islay in the time of Angus of Islay, grandfather of John 1st Lord of the Isles, and became physicians and senachies to the Chief of MacDonald. Thiers was much advanced over what passed for medical science in much of Europe at the time. By the 15th century they possesed the teachings of Avicenna, the Persian physician, in Gaelic, well before they were translated into English.

The Beatons spread thier learning to Skye, Mull and the Outer Hebrides. A branch of the family moved to Pennyghael and became hereditary doctors for the Isle of Mull. They were also physicians and seneachies to the MacLeans

The family was renowned for their library, which contained many ancient volummes of poetry, history and legend, as well as many Greek and Persian medical text. The manuscripts ranged from the works of Hippocrates to ancient Irish legend to medieval French works. Among the volummes was the earliest account of the fall of Troy translated into any European language other than Latin. The library was last in the possession of the Episcopal minister Rev. John Beaton who moved to Ulster rather than conform to Presbyterianism. He died in Ulster in the 1690s or early 1700s and the library vanished with his death.

It should be noted that the MacBeath family has no connection to King MacBeth whose name was actually Maol Bheatha. However one renders his name it is his given name and not a surname.

Various branches of the family have, at one time or another, been adherents of the MacLeans, MacLeods, and the MacDonalds.



Motto: ‘non sumus praeda’ – ‘We are not prey’

Chief:  Currently Non Armigerous

Names associated with Clan Routledge:  Rothlek, Roulluche, Routledge, Rutledge, Mulderrig,


 The Clan Routledge is of Liddesdale and Roxburgh on the Scottish border. Its earliest recorded mention is in the 14th Century before blossoming in Hawick and surrounding area in the early 15th Century. Living under the Douglas’ on their lands it was not long before they clashed with one of their rivals. In 1494 they sacked and burned the Scotts Castle at Buccleuch before Branxholme was destroyed by more Routledges in 1510.

    The Routledges of Liddesdale were Border Reivers and lived in the debatable lands. They lived, fought and raided alongside the Armstrong family often drawing attention with bold raids into Northumberland and Cumberland. In 1528 the English sent a force of 500 to try and ‘dislodge’ the Routledges from their home, but they simple withdrew to the head of the Tarras and the English force failed.

    In the previous century however, Routledges of Liddesdale had been rewarded by the would be Richard III and were granted the lands of Bewcastle and the castle in 1478. Their wealth was not to last as when Richard was killed in 1485 they were stripped of their lands and it was given to the Musgrave family. This meant that come the battle of Flodden in 1513 Routledges faced each other on the battle field, no more than a generation or two apart. They fought under Dacre of England and Douglas of Scotland.

    The Border battles played a significant part of the Routledges Scottish History and in 1543 at the battle of Solway Moss the Routledges once again would have faced each other when an English Routledge captured the Earl of Cassillis.

     The Chief of the Routledges in Liddesdale is named in 1543 as Alane Routledge when he pledges his son Jock, but alas neither would ever be recorded again, nor any further mention of a Chief. The Rough Wooings which broke out in 1544 and lasted for nine years destroyed the Routledge lands in Scotland and they fled, some to Northumberland and other to Cumberland where they had once raided. Others fled to Ireland. The Rutledges, as they became, of Ireland prospered and gained land and castles quickly, suggesting the Chief fled there too. Those in Northumberland settled in Kilham, but those in Cumberland initial became involved in inter family murders and strife. By 1583 a letter saw it fit to describe the Routledges in Bewcastle as every man’s prey for they had no allies in Scotland; this was not true.

     Hardly any record of the Routledges in Scotland survive after 1550 but despite this in 1569 they are named as outlaws and among the most notorious of Liddesdale so it seems members did survive, albeit not on the records

    Those Routledges still on the border suffered when the Reiver period ended in 1603 and they shared a fate of forced enlistment overseas, execution or plantation in Ulster. From Ireland the Routledges spread into the new worlds first arriving in America in 1635 and then Australia in the late 18th Century.

    Today the name hardly exists in Scotland but still thrives in Northumberland, Cumberland, Ireland and America. Without a Chief, Clan Routledge are unable to bare a Clan Crest or Badge but they do have the Rutledge tartan and the Motto ‘non sumus praeda’ – ‘We are not prey’.





Motto:  Fortis Ceu Leo Fidus (Brave As A Faithful Lion)

Gaelic:  Mac a’ Bhriuthainn

Chief:  Armigerous*The name MacBrayne comes from the Gaelic Mac a' Bhriuthainn, which means 'son of the judge'.

Recorded MacBraynes include a Eugenius MacBrehin who was a student at St. Andrews in 1525. There is also an
Anna MacBreynr in Gortenagor in 1672.

Archibald Mcbrain and Duncan Mcbrain were both noted rebels in Argyllshire in 1685.

An employee called MacBraine in Mackintosh's 'secret work' in the making of cudbear, sold the secret of manufacture to an English company around the end of the 18th century.

In 1878, a David MacBrayne became the owner of a number of vessels which provided ferry services to parts of the Western Isles. The company quickly expanded and became the main suppliers of both passenger and freight ferry services from the Scottish mainland to most of the islands. The company remained in the MacBrayne family until it went bankrupt in 1928, and ownership was spilt between a private company and a state owned company. By 1970 the whole company was state owned, and then at the beginning of 1973 it merged with Caledonian Steam Packet Company, and formed under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne. Today it remains a major ferry company providing services to over 20 of the major islands in the Western Isles from the mainland



Motto: Vivat Rex (Latin : May the King live)
Names associated with the clan: Kerkyll, MacCorqudill, Maccorquidall, MacCorquhedell, MacCorquodill, MacCorkle, MacCorquell, MacCorkindale, MacCorquidill, MacCorquidle, MacCorkill, MacCorkil, MacCorker, MacCorkell, MacCordadill, MacCorcadill, MacCorquodale, MacCorquydill,  MacCorcadale, MacCorcadail, MacKurkull, MacKorkitill,  MacKorkyll, Macorkill, Macorquodale, Macorquidill, Macorquidill, MacThorcadail, MacQuorquodale, MacQuorquordill, MacQuorcadaill, MacTorquil, MacTorquedil, MacThurkill, MacThorcuill, MacQuorquhordell, Makcocadill, Makcorquydill, Makcorquidill, Makcorcadell, Mikcorcadill, Thorcull Torquil, Corquodale, MacCorkie.

Chief:  Armigerous*

Origins of the name:  The name originates from Old Norse Thorketill (Thor's kettle), in Gaelic MacCorcadail, and the clan held lands in Argyll in the fourteenth century. From Ewen Mackcorquydill of Phantelan, of whom there is a record in 1434, descended Duncan MacCorquodale of Phantillans, and from him Sir Malcolm MacCorquodale (1901-71), 1st and last Lord MacCorquodale of Newton, created in 1955.

The name is often given as a sept of the MacLeod on no more evidence than that it is derived from 'son of Thorketill, or Torquil', the latter name being that of the progenitor of the MacLeods of Lewis. Such name is of Scandinavian origin meaning "Cauldron of the Thunder Spirit" and undoubtedly would have spread wherever the maurauding Norsemen stamped their influence. The traditional account of the MacCorquodales makes them of more ancient origin than the MacLeods, for the lands of Fionnt Eilean comprised, at one time, the northern shore of Loch Awe from Avich to Ard-an-aiseig, and such are said to have been granted to another Torquil, progenitor of the MacCorquodales, by King Kenneth MacAlpin. There is no evidence that this Torquil was of Clan Leod and the name MacCorquodale appears seldon, if ever, in the histories of that clan. It is evident by their Argyllshire habitat and title that the MacCorquodales ARE A DISTINCT CLAN, whose chiefs were the Barons MacCorquodale of Phantelane (The 'White Island' - Eilean-a-Bharain on Loch Tromlee). From their island castle they held Baronial power over the thousands of mountainuous acres which have been their domain since at least the 13th century. In 1428 Euan MacCorquodale and the chief of the Campbells were summoned to Court, with their charters in order that adjudication might be made in a land dispute with Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, who held the neighbouring lands of Glassary. Such was resolved when Euan's son, Malcolm, married the Constable's daughter in 1436. The Dean of Lismore's book of Gaelic poetry (collected 1514-1551) contains verses by Effric nighean Thorcaidill, poetess of the clan, and in 1542 the MacCorquodale lands were re-incorporated by royal charter as a free barony. In 1612, younger sons of the chief were charged by the Privy Council for consorting with proscribed MacGregors and the clan history and succession in the rest of that century is confused by two step brothers each contested the other's claim. The MacCorquodales supported the Campbells in the Civil Wars and 'Colkitto' MacDonald sacked their island home in 1645. Since the death of the last Baron in the 18th century the chiefship has been uncertain. 



Motto:  Vi Et Animo - By Strength and Courage

Variations:  Culloch, Gulloch, McCulloch, McCullough, MacCoulaghe, MacChullach, MacAlach, MacCullaigh, MacCullough, MacClullich, MacLullich, MacLullick, Makcullocht

Chief:  Armigerous*

The family name McCulloch is one of the oldest in Galloway. It is of ancient Celtic origin and as such, the family can boast of a number of fanciful legends concerning its origin.

According to one, the family is descended from Ulgric, the grandson of Owen Gallvus, king of the Cludienses, or Strathclyde Britons. Ulgric was killed leading the gallant but wild and undisciplined Gallovidians (natives of Galloway) in the van of King David's army at the Battle of the Standards in 1138. Ulgric and Douvenald were vice-sovereigns of Galloway, the McCullochs, Mackuloghs, or Culaghs holding sway over the lands of Ulgric, and the McDowalls over the lands of Douvenald.

According to another account, the name McCulloch derives from a warrior of earlier lineage. Gwallawc or The Hawk of Battle, a Gallovidian chieftain of the sixth century, whose battles were celebrated by the ancient bards and is reputed, in local legend, to have be buried beneath the Standing Stones of Torhouse. His descendants thus took the name Mac-Gwallawc.

Another legend claims that the McCullochs took their name from a warrior who in the Crusades carried the device of a wild boar (which in Gaelic is cullach) on his shield and distinguished himself in the Holy Land with his gallantry and daring. On his return, William the Lion, in reward for Cullach's martial prowess, granted him the lands of Myrton, Glassertoun, Killasser and Auchtnaucht. The grateful soldier adopted as his patronymic, the word cullach, his nom-de-guerre. His son Godfrey, named after Godfrey de Bouillon, the First King of Jerusalem and Knight Templar, was naturally styled Mac-Cullach. Although this story is the most plausible, it is probable that the king was merely confirming those lands in the name of the McCullochs as they are mentioned as being a prominent family in the area some 400 years before.

In the book, "The Surnames of Scotland" by George Black, of the "MacCulloch name he states: Much obscurity enshrouds the origin of this old Galwegian name, and no satisfactory pedigree of the family exists. They are said to be described in one of their charters as having their origin "ultra memoriam hominum." The name may be MacCullaich or MacC(h)ullach, "son of the boar". The name first appears in the Scottish records in 1296, when Thomas Maculagh del conte de Wiggetone (now Wigtown) rendered homage to Edward I. His family later held castles at Gatehouse of Fleet in Kirkcudbrightshir, and Creetown and Port William in Wigtownshire. Thomas Maculagh's seal bears a squirrel and S'Thome Macculi. He appears again in the same year as a juror on inquest at Berwick along with his brother Michal and is probably the Thomas Makhulagh, sheriff of Wigtown, 1305. Michel Maculagh and William Maculaghe also rendered homage. Sir Patrick McCoulagh and Gilbert McCoulaghe were charter witnesses in Galloway, 1354. Sir Patrick Macologhe had an annuity of 100 marks "in recompense of his sufferings, and loss of his lands in Scotland for his allegiance" to the king of England 1360 and in 1363 as Sir Patrick M'Owlache had restoration of his lands.
(Black goes on to describe some other MacCulloughs/MacCullochs. Here are some of the spellings of the name he brings up) Patrick Makcowloch (1480), Patrick Mackullouch (1482), Symon McKowloch (1500), David M'Ulloch (1643), MacLulich, Makawllauch (1414), McCoulach (1410), M'Coulaghe (1352), M'Cowlach (1476), Makcowllach (1482), M'Cullauch (1439), Maccullo (1546), M'Cullogh (1685), M'Kowloche (1495), McColloch, McCullie, McCullo, McCulloh, McCully, McKeulloch, McKulloch, M'Alach, Mackculloch, Makculloch, M'Hulagh, M'Kulagh, and Malrcowlach (1444).

The Argyllshire MacCullochs appear to have been identified with the MacDougall clan. R.C. MacLagan in <>says: The lands surrounding Balamhaodan forming the district of Benderloch are alleged to have belonged to Modan, who was the head, so runs the tradition, of the Clan MacLullich, as recorded in the local phrase, Clann Lulich o thulaich Mhaodain, the MacLullichs from the hill of Maodan.

Lullach was the stepson of the infamous Macbeth and ruled briefly as King of the Scots until killed by Malcolm III. He was the natural son of the Mormaer of Angus and was married to the daughter of the Mormaer of Moray. He had a son and daughter by this marriage and his son would have been styled "Mac-Lullach".

A final note on the origin of the McCulloch name which indicates it could also have been linked with that of Clan Donald is contained in a manuscript history of the MacDonalds written during the reign of Charles II (Gregory Collection). It states that Reginald MacDonald, son of Somerled, is said to have married MacRandel's daughter, or as some say to a sister of Thomas Randel, Earl of Murray...[Reginald] had by her Angus, of whom are descended ...the MacLullichs, who are now called in the low country Pitullichs. In actual fact, the said Reginald MacDonald married a daughter of Angus, Earl of Moray.

The McCullochs are considered to be a Clan Sept (or Sett). A Sept is a family name that is related to a Clan or larger family. A Sept may result from descendents of the Clan Chief through the female line who consequently bore a different surname usually through marriage. It may also have resulted by a small family seeking protection from a larger and more powerful neighbour.

Over time, many Septs have become clans in their own right. In the political turmoil that Scotland has seen over the centuries, many Septs also came to be related to more than one clan.

The McCulloughs were also allied with a number of larger clans, primarily the MacDougalls, the Rosses, and the Munros. To a lesser degree there were also some who allied with MacDonald of Sleat and with Gunn (MacCullie).

McCullochs are also associated with the Galloway District in Scotland. Galloway is also the location of the MacDowell branch of Clan MacDougall. In addition, there are many McCullochs that are from Ireland, primarily from the County Antrim and County Down areas of Ulster.



Clan MacDougall

Mac means "son of" while the term "clan" comes from the Gaelic word for children. Thus, Clan MacDougall signifies the children of the son(s) of Dougall.
Dougal or Dugall or Dougall derived from the Gaelic word Dubh meaning Black or Dark, the Gaelic word Gall meaning Stranger or Foreigner. Hence Dougal would translate as "Black Foreigner" or "Black Stranger" which was the early Gaelic nickname for a Dane, later extended to Norsemen.
By the mid 12th century the name implied that the bearer likely had Norse connections in his ancestry. Dougall's mother and great grandmother were both of Norse descent.
Dougall's heritage from the Gael and the Norse is shown in the present arms of the MacDougall Chiefs which quarter the lion of the ancient Scottish Kingdom of Dalriada and the black royal galley of the Norse.
The MacDougalls of Lorn are the senior branch of the royal house of Somerled, King of the Hebrides and Regulus of Argyll. As a Highland clan, the MacDougalls are one of the three oldest in existence dating from 1164. In that year Dougall, Somerled's oldest living son and the clan's patronymic forebear, inherited the central portion of his father's kingdom upon the death of his father and step brother in the Battle of Renfrew with the forces of the King of Scots. This inheritance included the mainland kingdom of Lorn from Morvern to Knapdale along with the islands of Jura, Coll, Mull, Tiree, Kerrera, Lismore, and the surrounding smaller isles.
Dougall's son Duncan and grandson, Ewan, defended their vast territories through the construction of various castles including Dunstaffnage, Dunollie and Duntrune on the mainland and their islands, Aros, Cairnburgh, Dunchonnel and Coeffin. From their principal seats of Dunstaffnage and Dunollie Castles, the MacDougall Lords of Lorn and Chiefs of the clan exerted a major influence in what is now Argyll and in the islands to the west and were a strong sea power. This era of widespread power ended during the first years of the 14th century when the MacDougalls chose the losing side in the struggle for the Scottish throne.
Sir John the "Red" Comyn of Badenoch was the nephew-in-law of the Alexander the Fourth MacDougall Chief and a contender for the crown of Scotland. In the complex political forces at play during the time, the murder of the Red Comyn, by Robert the Bruce during a meeting in the Greyfriars Kirk at Dumfries in February 1306 started blood feuds and civil war.
In the warring which followed, the forces of the MacDougall Chief under the direction of Sir John of Lorn (Iain Bachach) nearly captured Bruce at Dalrigh in Strathfillan in June 1306. He was forced to leave his brooch in the hand of his dead attacker in order to escape. Thus the famous Brooch of Lorn along with his cloak came into in the hands of the MacDougalls. Less than two years later, Bruce, having consolidated his power, brought it to bear on the MacDougalls, whom he defeated in the Pass of Brander in the late summer of 1308. This resulted in the permanent loss of all the clan's island possessions except for part of the island of Kerrera.
The Lordship of Lorn was temporarily lost until it was restored to Ewan the seventh Chief of the clan some time after 1330. At the time of Ewan's death the Lordship of Lorn was a great Lordship extending from Ballachulish and Loch Leven in the north at least down to Kilmartin in the south. However the naval power of our seagoing clan had been drastically reduced by the loss of our island possessions, and their galleys and fighting men.
Ewan was the last MacDougall Chief to use Dunstaffnage castle as his main seat. After it and the Lordship of Lorn passed to the Stewarts through Ewan's daughters' inheritance, Dunstaffnage remained as the main seat of the Stewart Lordship of Lorn.
Around 1386 both of Ewan's children, daughters Janet and Isabella, married brothers who were Stewarts of Innermeath from Perthshire. Janet and Isabella inherited Lorn equally as females under the laws of primogeniture. Then Janet and her husband Sir Robert Stewart traded their half of Lorn to her younger sister Isabella and her husband Sir John Stewart in exchange for Sir John Stewart's inherited estate of Durrisdeer in Perthshire. Through Isabella the Lordship of Lorn then passed to her Stewart husband. These Stewarts of Innermeath became the Lords of Lorn and retained the Lordship until around 1468 when the Lordship of Lorn transferred to the Chief of the Campbells. Ewan died around 1375. Upon Ewan's death the Chiefship of Clan MacDougall permanently separated from the Lordship of Lorn. Iain of Dunollie became the next and Eighth Chief with his clan duthus at Dunollie castle.
Despite the loss of the Lordship of Lorn, the Clan continued to play an important role in Argyll. Clan MacDougall was a consistent supporter of the Royal House of Stewart.
The Clan suffered a large loss at Dunaverty castle in Kyntyre in 1647. It is estimated that one hundred men or one third of the clan's fighting strength was killed in the massacre of MacDougalls and MacDonalds and their followers, after their surrender to the Covenenter forces. There was only one survivor amongst those who had been defending at Dunaverty castle.
The Clan fought for the Royal House of Stewart under Viscount Dundee "Bonnie Dundee" at Killiecrankie in 1688, and again under its fighting 22nd Chief Iain Ciar at Sherrifmuir in the Jacobite Rising of 1715, and at Glenshiel in the Jacobite Rising of 1719.
Our 23rd Chief Alexander of Dunollie did not join the Jacobite Rising of 1745 in support of Charles Edward Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie" but his brother Duncan fought at Prestonpans and Culloden. Twenty MacDougalls were listed as prisoners of the Government forces after the '45 including three from the lowlands. After the 45' was over Alexander moved from Dunollie castle and built the manor house below the castle by adding to the original "laigh bigging" which stood there. The building is now known as Dunollie House. There he raised a large family and it became the home of our Chiefs ever since.
Through the following years the proud history of the clan has been reflected in the distinguished service of the MacDougall Chiefs to their country and in the pride they have taken in their stewardship of the old clan lands. Equal distinction has been shown by the clanspeople, many of whom left their homes to be pioneers in far off places and to bring their spirit, faith, and abilities to the building of new nations. But the link with Lorn and the tie to Clan and Chief have not severed. The heritage prospers and the old belonging takes on new dimensions in the Clan MacDougall Society of North America and our sister society in UK/Europe, and in Australia.
Our present Chief is Morag MacDougall of MacDougall, thirty-first Chief of the Clan, whose official residence is Dunollie House, close by the castle on its high cliffs.
For more information about individual clan Chiefs in Argyll or events during their time see The Chiefs of Clan MacDougall in Argyll).
During the centuries that Clan MacDougall was a powerful influence along the West Highland Coast, a number of families became associated with this clan. Those of these surnames whose ancestors shared in this connection are welcomed members of our Society.




Gaelic Name: MacDhuibh.

Origin of Name: Dubh (Gaelic) (Black).

Motto: Deus juvat (Latin) (God assists).

Badge: Red whortleberry.

Lands: Fife, Lothian, Strathbran and Strathbogie


Clan MacDuff is a Scottish armigerous* clan, which is registered with Lyon Court, though currently without a chief. Moncreiffe wrote that the Clan MacDuff was the premier clan among the Scottish Gaels. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Today the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the direct descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs



The Clan MacDuff were hereditary Abbots of the Celtic abbey of Abernethy.

The clan originates from the original Scotto-Pictish lines who created the Kings of Scotland and the Earldom or Mormaerdom of Fife. The direct male line of the Mormaer failed in 1353 after Edward I took Donnchadh IV prisoner in England. His aunt, Isabella, later gave the title to Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and Regent of Scotland. In 1425 the earldom was absorbed into the crown, not withstanding the clan retained it status as first among clans.

The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Madcap in 1759. Later Alexander William George Duff, 6th Earl of Fife and 1st Duke of Fife, married the Princess Royal, HRH Louise (daughter of King Edward VII).

The direct line of the ancient house is in dispute and supposedly continued in Wemyss, and moreover, in the northern territories, families of Clan Duff emerged with no proof of royal descent. For this reason of non-proof of headship, MacDuff is still Armigerous.


Law of Clan MacDuff

The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, and could find remission by paying compensation to the victims family.

The chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Destiny. When the Stone of Destiny was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, the Earl of Fife's sister.

In 1425 the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded. The Clan MacDuff hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland then passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, and as consequence bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Angus Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton



Plant Badge: European Cranberry

Slogan: Loch Sloy (Loch Sloidh-The Loch of the Host)

Motto: This I'll Defend

Crest: A demi-savage brandishing in his dexter a broad sword Proper and pointing with his sinister to an Imperial Crown or standing by him on the wreath.

Arms of the Chief: Argent, a saltire engrailed between four roses Gules

Supporters: (on a wavy compartment) Two Highlanders armed with bows and arrows, all proper.

Chief:  Armigerous*



The MacFarlane homeland is located in the Highlands at the heads of Loch Long and Loch Lomond. For over five centuries this area, the feudal barony of Arrochar, was held by the chiefs of Clan MacFarlane and before them by their ancestors the barons of Arrochar. The family is Celtic in the male line and native to their beautiful Highland homeland of tall peaks and deep lochs just above the waist of Scotland.

A Saxon male line ancestry was first proposed for this family in Crawfurd’s Peerage nearly three hundred years ago, but that is incorrect. The best source is the Complete Peerage which follows the Scots Peerage which, in turn, follows Skene’s Celtic Scotland in giving the true Celtic descent of this family. All of these sources base their statements on the old Celtic genealogy of Duncan, eighth Earl of Lennox, who was executed in 1425, and the coming of age poem composed for Alwyn, last Mormaer and first Earl of Lennox in the twelfth century. This Alwyn was the son of Murdac (son of Maldouen son of Murdac) and his wife who was a daughter of Alwyn MacArkil (son of Arkil son of Ecgfrith in Northumbria). When the first earl died his children were still minors so the king warded the earldom to his own brother David, Earl of Huntingdon. By 1199 Alwyn, the second Earl of Lennox, had finally succeeded his father. The second earl may have had as many as ten sons. Among the youngest (maybe seventh) was Gilchrist who obtained a charter to the barony of Arrochar from his eldest brother Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox. Along with Clan Donnachaidh, the MacFarlanes are said to have been the earliest of the clans to hold their lands by feudal charter.

In short, the MacFarlanes are descended from Alwyn, Celtic Earl of Lennox, whose younger son, Gilchrist, received lands at Arrochar on the shores of Loch Long at the end of the 12th century. Gilchrist's son, Malduin, befriended and aided Robert the Bruce during his fight for independence from the English. The MacFarlanes are reported to have fought at Bannockburn in 1314. The clan takes its name from Malduin's son Parlan..

The name, Parlan, has been linked to Partholon, "Spirit of the Sea Waves", in Irish myths and legend. More usually, it is considered the Gaelic equvalent of Bartholomew. Gaelic grammar requires changes within a word to indicate possession. A "P" is softened to a "Ph", and an "i" is added to the last syllable. In this way, "son of Parlan" becomes Mac (son) Pharlain (of Parlan).

The lands of Arrochar were first given by charter to Gilchrist circa 1225. Iain MacPharlain received a royal confirmation to Arrochar in 1420. Duncan, the last Celtic Earl of Lennox was executed by James I.

Although the MacFarlanes had a valid claim to the earldom, the title was given by the Crown to John Stewart, Lord Darnley. The MacFarlanes sought to oppose the Stewarts, but they proved too powerful and Andrew MacFarlane the 10th Chief, married a younger daughter of Lord Darnley, forging a new alliance. Thereafter the MacFarlanes followed the new earls of Lennox in most of the major conflicts of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The 11th Chief and many of his clansmen fell at Flodden in 1513. The MacFarlanes later opposed the English at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 where Duncan the 13th Chief and his uncle were killed along with many others. After the murder of Henry Darnley, Mary Queen of Scots' second husband, the MacFarlanes opposed the Queen and were noted for their gallantry at the Battle of Langside in 1568.

Andrew, 14th Chief, is said to have captured no less than 3 of Mary's standards. The valour of Andrew and his men was rewarded by the Regent, James, Earl of Moray, with the Clan's original crest and motto. The crest and motto alludes to the defense of the Crown and Kingdom. Since Mary had abdicated previously in favour of her infant son, she was in rebellion against the Crown, Moray, and James VI during these times.

For much of their history, the MacFarlanes were a very turbulent lot. Their rallying cry, "Loch Sloy", signalled many a night raid to "collect" cattle from their richer neighbors to the south and east. Their march-piobaireachd " Thogail nam Bo theid sinn" (To Lift the Cows We Shall Go) gives ample notice of intent. They were so competent that the full moon was known as "MacFarlane's Lantern".

In 1592, the clan was accused of slaying the Colquhoun of Luss and were outlawed. Later chiefs were quieter.They established homes on the islands of Inveruglas and Eilean a' Bhuth (now called Island IVow). This last was burned out twice during the Cromwellian invasions in the 17th century.

Walter, the 20th Chief, (mid-18th Cent.) was a renowned scholar and antiquarian. At the site of his home now stands the Landmark Cobbler Hotel which contains an inscribed stone taken from the original house over the main doorway. The clan lands at Arrochar were sold off for debt after Walter's death in 1767, and the direct male line of the chiefs failed in 1886.

At present, the Clan Chiefship is dormant.


Clan MacFie

Clan Macfie Motto: "Pro Rege" ("For The King")
Our Badge (Plant): Scots Pine (Giuthas), Darag (Oak) or Dearca Fithich (Crowberry)

Clan Macfie is one of the oldest Scottish Clans with a history going back before records were kept. The ancient name for our Clan is Macdubhsith. While literally meaning “dark man of peace”, sithe is also the term used for supernatural beings that populated the islands and the highlands and the term dubh or dark also had mystical and supernatural connotations. The ancestral homeland for the Macfies is the islands of Colonsay and Oronsay in the Western Isles of Scotland.

In 1623, Malcolm, the last Chief of the Clan Macfie, was captured by the infamous Colla Ciotach MacDonald. He was tied to a Standing Stone, known as Carraig Mhic a’ Phi at Balaruminmore, on our ancestral island of Colonsay, and summarily shot. The Clan Macfie was dispossessed of its lands and dispersed as a “broken” Clan.

That is, until 27th May 1981, when the Clan was reactivated and again formally recognised as an “active” Clan by the Lord Lyon. Macfies all over the world celebrate that date as Clan Macfie Day - new ‘birthday’ for the Clan Macfie. As no hereditary Chief has been traced, a Ceann-Cath, or Clan Commander, was appointed to head the Clan. The current Clan Commander is Alexander (Sandy) C. McPhie who resides in Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

The Clan Commander recognises the historical links Clan Macfie had with the Macdonald Lords of the Isles, Clan Cameron in Lochaber and a branch of the MacNicol family in Glenorchy. More recently, the close links established with Clan Macfie by the Thorburn family in Sweden and the Brew family in New Zealand are also acknowledged by the Clan Commander.



Motto: Peritia Et Honore. (Skill and Dignity)

Anciently:  In Gaelic the name was Mag Eachaidh (son of Eachaidh).

Variations on the Name:  MacGeachie, MacGeachy, MacKeachie. From Ir. Mag Eachaidh, an Ulster variant of Mag Eochadha. M'Gachie in Bordland, 1684. Neil M'Gechie in Portadow, Kilchenzie parish, 1686 (Argyll). Robert M'Keachie in Darnow 1711 (Wigtown). MacKeachie, MacEachaidh. Robert M'Keachie in Darnow, 1711 (Wigtown). In 1684 the name appears as McCeachie, McCheachie, McKeachie, McKeachy (and without Mac as Keachy, Cachie, Ceachie, Kaachie, Kachie, Kechie).



MacGahey:  the Irish name Eachaid or Eachadha is also derived from a Gaelic word for horse, and is often used interchangeably in the annals for Eochaid or Eochadha. As Eochaid became anglicized as Oghy, Eachaid became anglicised as Aghy and in Edward MacLysaght's write up of MacGahey, he says: “Mac Eachaidh. The personal name Eachaidh, anglicized as Aghey, is a variant of the older Eochaidh—Oghy. McGahey is an Ulster name akin to MacCaughey.”

According to Patrick Woulfe, McGahey (with its variant MacGaughy etc.) is Mag Eachaidh in Irish, this being another form of Mag Eochadha McGahey is definitely an Ulster name. Other surnames that, according to Woulfe, stem from Each are MacGagh (mag eacaro), MacGaugh (mag eacada), MacGeagh (mag eacada).

McCaughan an Anglicized form of the Old Gaelic MacEachain, son of Eachain. An Ulster surname, recorded in the Counties of Antrim, Down, Londonderry and Tyrone. Some families of Mc Caughen changed their name to MacCaughey, itself an Anglicized form of the Ulster name Mac Eachaidh, son of the Horseman or Horse Lord.

The Scots names MacGeachie and MacGeachy are also derived from Mag Eochaidh.

There was a M'Gachie recorded in Bordland in 1684, and a Neil M'Gechie in 1686, in Portadow, part of the Kilchenzie parish in Argyll. There is also a Robert M'Keachie recorded in Darnow, Wigtown, in 1711.

McGachy, McGeachy. An anglicized version of the Gaelic 'Mac Eochaidh'. A surname in both Ulster and Scotland. William McGaheye settled in York, Virginia, in 1653, and Alexander McGeachy, from Argyll, emigrated to America around 1783.

MacGeachie, McGachen a version of MacEachan, they derive from the Gaelic MacEachann - "son of Hector". traditionally from Hector, second son of Roderick, 3rd of Macdonald of Clanranald .[12]

Roland MacGahen (del counte de Wiggeton) Wigtown signed the Ragman Rolls of 1296 & 1291 swearing allegiance to King Edward I of England.

The McGachen's of Dalquhat or Dalwhat - Alexander McQuuichin of Dalquhat was outlawed in 1528. Pont's Manuscript of 1624 gives arms for McGachen of Dalquhat as Or a Dexter hand, Gules. Sir James Balfour, 1st Baronet - Lord Lyon King of Arms (1630–1658), McGahan of Dalqwhat Or, a Hand, Gules. Alexander McGeachie of Dalwhat is mentioned in 1694 kirk session records for Glencairn Dumfriesshire. According to John Corrie, "the third rivulet on the north side is Dalwhat Water where stands the dwelling place of a linage of the name M'Gachen descendant of one M' Gachen, a private standard-bearer in the Bruce wars, and doth yet continue the name



Clan MacGillivray

From the Gaelic: Mac Gille bhreith -or- Mac Gille bhrath
(Son of the Servant of Judgement)

Motto: "Touch Not This Cat"

"Septs" or Name Variants

MacGilvray, MacGilvary, MacGillivary, MacGilvry, MacGillvray, MacGillivrey, MacGillavry, MacGillvary, MacGillveary, MacGilvery, MacGillavery, MacGillvrey, MacGillivry, MacGillivoor, MacGillviray, MacGilveray, MacGilvreay, MacGilvry, MacIlbra, MacIllevorie, MacIlvory, MacIlvoray, MacIlvray, MacIlvrae

Chief:  The Vacant Chiefship. This actually occurred quite recently, within the 20th century. The last Chief to own the chiefly seat of Dunmaglass was Capt. John William MacGillivray, 13th Laird, who was obliged to sell it in 1890. He himself ultimately died without direct heirs in 1914. Without lands attatched to it, the Chiefship itself then passed nominally to a cousin of his, John Farquhar MacGillivray, KC, a tax official in Toronto, Canada. He held the Chiefship, rather quietly, for 32 years before he too died without heirs in 1942. From that point, no heirs of his, or any other related lines, have surfaced or been definitely traced. And no other MacGillivray has succeeded in establishing a right to the Chiefship up to the present.

There have been claimants, though. The most recent of these, Col. George B. Macgillivray, a Canadian, formally petitioned the Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland, who is authorised to settle such claims, a total of three times between 1953 and 1989. While apparently not confident enough of Col. Macgillivray's proofs to grant the Chiefship outright, Lord Lyon instead commissioned him as Commander of the Clan, conveying the authority of Chiefship, but without hereditary rights, for the purpose of rallying MacGillivrays as a Clan under temporary leadership. Col. Macgillivray's tenure as Commander was short, only five years before he passed away in September 1994. But it was decisively important, giving the Clan new momentum from renewed interest by clansfolk around the world resulting from his leadership. Currently the clan would be considered as armigerous.*

History:  Origins of the clan. The MacGillivrays were a principal clan even before King Somerled, progenitor of the MacDonalds drove the Norsemen from the western Isles. The Clann Mhic Gillebràth were dispersed after King Alexander II of Scotland subdued Argyll in the year 1222.

14th century & clan conflicts: The Clan MacGillivray eventually joined the Chattan Confederation which was headed by the chief of the Clan Mackintosh. The clan have always distinguished themselves by their prowess and bravery. One of them, Ivor MacGillivray was killed at Drumlui in a battle with the Clan Cameron in about the year 1330. Ivor was the son of chief Duncan MacGillivray. This Duncan married a natural daughter of the sixth Clan Mackintosh chief.

15th century: A hundred years later, in about the middle of the fifteenth century, the chief of the MacGillivrays appears to have been a certain Ian Ciar (Brown). At any rate, when William, fifteenth chief of the Mackintoshes, was infefted in the estate of Moy and other lands held from the Bishop of Moray, the names of a son and two grandsons of this Ian Ciar appear in the list of witnesses. Other Mackintosh documents show the race to have been settled by that time on the lands of Dunmaglass (the fort of the grey man’s son), belonging to the thanes of Cawdor.

16th century: Ian Ciar MacGillivray was apparently succeeded by a son, Duncan, and he again by his son Ferquhar, who, in 1549, gave letters of reversion of the lands of Dalmigavie to Robert Dunbar of Durris. Ferquhar’s son, again, Alastair, in 1581 paid forty shillings to Thomas Calder, Sheriff-Depute of Nairn and chief of Clan Calder for " two taxations of his £4 lands of Domnaglasche, granted by the nobility to the King."

It was in his time, in 1594, that the MacGillivrays fought in the royal army under the young Earl of Argyll at the disastrous Battle of Glenlivet.

17th century: Alastair’s son, Ferquhar, appears to have been a minor in 1607 and 1609, for in the former of these years his kinsman Malcolm MacBean was among the leading men of Clan Chattan called to answer to the Privy Council for the good behaviour of Clan Chattan during the minority of Sir Lachlan Mackintosh its chief; and in the latter year, when a great band of union was made at Termit, near Inverness, between the various septs of Clan Chattan, responsibility for the " haill kin and race of the Clan M’Illivray" was accepted by Malcolm MacBean, Ewen M Ewen, and Duncan MacFerquhar, the last-named being designated as tenant in Dunmaglass, and being probably an uncle of young Ferquhar MacGillivray. The Macgilivrays were one of the oldest and most important of the clans of the Chattan Confederation, and from 1626, when their head, Ferquhard MacAllister, acquired a right to the lands of Dunmaglass, frequent mention of them is found in extant documents and registers.

18th century & Jacobite Risings: As Episcopalians they were persecuted by Calvinist and Presbyterian neighbours yet fought both in the 1715 and 1745 Jacobite uprisings including the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715 and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). Chief Alexander MacGillivray led the Chattan Confederation where he was killed at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. A wall at Culloden where he fell still bears his name. He is perhaps the best known of the heads of this clan. He was fourth in descent from the Ferquhard who acquired Dunmaglass in the 17th century . This gentleman was selected by Lady Mackintosh to head her husband's clan on the side of Prince Charlie in the '45, even though the chief of Clan Mackintosh was loyal to the government. Lady Mackintosh ensured the Mackintoshes and their allies supported the Jacobites.

The MacGillivray chief was shot through the heart. His body, after lying for some weeks in a pit where it had been thrown with others, was taken up by his friends and buried across the threshold of the kirk of Petty. His brother William was also a warrior, and gained the rank of captain in the old 89th regiment, raised in about 1758. After the Battle of Culloden the clan emigrations began across the Atlantic. Some of the MacGillivrays emigrated to Nova Scotia between 1792 and 1812 where they settled primarily in Antigonish County. Members of the Canadian MacGillivrays can be found in settlements such as Maple Ridge, Bailey's Brook and Arisaig, Antigonish County where they were able to maintain a Gaelic speaking culture well into the twentieth century. According to recent Canadian census material, the surname MacGillivray is the third most common surname in Antigonish County and many more MacGillivrays can be found throughout Cape Breton.



Branches: MacInnes of Kinlochaline, MacInnes of Malagawatch, MacInnes of Morven, MacInnes of Rickersby
Tartan: MacInnes
Motto: Irid ghibht Dhe agus an Righ (Gaelic : Through the grace of God and the King)
Septs of the Clan: Angus, MacAngus, MacCainsh, MacCansh, MacMaster.

Chief:  Armigerous*


Origins of the name

From the Gaelic MacAonghais (Sons of Angus). Mac or Mc (as they are interchangeable) means son or family of, aon means one or unique, and gusa means choice. Therefore Unique Choice or Choice One. Mac does not imply strict bloodlines, but could reflect kinship, dependent allies or tenants. This name first appears in the seventh century Scottish Senchus fer n-Alban (The History of the Men of Scotland).

Arrival in Scotland

Clan MacInnes' ancestors were among the early inhabitants of Islay, Jura and the Kintyre peninsula in Scotland, generally part of the region known as Argyll. These Scotti, a Celtic, Gaelic-speaking people, first appear there as settlers from Ireland in c.500 when Fergus Mór, king of the north Irish kingdom of Dál Riata, and his two brothers, Loarn and Óengus, expanded their lands into southwestern Alba.

Óengus had already established a colony on Islay and/or Jura and was the master of ships for the new Kingdom. Óengus (Angus) is considered to be the first of the MacInnes Clan and is thought to be buried on Iona. Dalriada quickly grew in influence and strength, and eventually overran the indigenous Pictish peoples and their culture. The area then became known as Scotland after these Scotti immigrants

It is believed that MacInneses lived on Iona with Columba. Oengus and his descendants would have exploited their seagoing skills and ventured to Iona at an early time. Iona is the final resting-place of many with our name and lore says that Columba selected the site whereupon the Kiel Church now stands in Lochaline near Kinlochaline Castle, the castle built by the MacInneses.

During the 9th century the clan moved out of the western isles and into Argyll (Morvern and Ardgour). This was most likely as a result of constant Viking raids in the islands.

By the early 12th century MacInnes people were well established in all of Morvern (the peninsula bounded by Loch Sunnart and Loch Linnhe and adjacent to the Isle of Mull). The traditional seat of the Chiefs of Clan MacInnes was established there in Kinlochaline Castle. As the Viking raids continued to terrorize their lands the MacInneses became members of an alliance known as Siol Gillebride (Seed of the Servant of St. Bride) along with MacGillivrays, MacMasters and MacEachearns somewhat in the manner of Clan Chattan, under the leadership of the Celtic-Norse warrior Somerled (killed in 1164, often referred to as Somerled MacGillebride, and his father was believed to be a MacAonghais Chief). Somerled’s grandson was the first of Clan Donald (McDougall and McDonald clans).

How the clan entered into this alliance is told as follows:

Chief of MacInnes sought Somerled to seek his aid. A skilled warrior, Somerled agreed to help them if they would follow his directions completely. He told them to kill and skin a herd of longhaired highland cattle, and to then march their normally kilt-clad fighters in plain sight of the invading Vikings. Next they were to dress in the cowhides with the long hair turned outwards and march again before their enemies; then a third time they were to march in front of the Vikings, but this time wearing the hides turned skin side out. The MacInnes men followed his advice. The Vikings were fooled into thinking the MacInneses had three times their actual fighting strength. They turned and fled the “overwhelming numbers” and many were slain. In thanks to Somerled, the MacInnes’ vowed to become his vassals.

In mid 14th century, the last chief of the Clan MacInnes was killed along with his sons by order of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles(who was the great-great-grandson of Somerled). Chief MacInnes had advised John to divorce his wife and marry the daughter of future king Robert II of Scotland. John's former wife got revenge by telling John that MacInnes had complained that when he stayed at John's house, his quarters stank because they were used as a dog's kennel. John was enraged. Clan MacLean carried out the murders in the Castle of Ardtornish on the Sound of Mull and as a reward were deeded the lands and castle of Ardgour. Clan MacInnes remains without a Chief, and many of the clan scattered to Appin, Craignish, Lochaber and Skye, but some of the clan continued to occupy the castle.


In the 16th Century, many of the MacInnes Clan moved to Sleat on the Isle of Skye. Five longships are said to have made the journey, each holding a family group. From these five families are descended the five lineages of the name of MacInnes on the Isle of Skye. Some of these MacInnes men became the hereditary bowmen to the Mackinnon of Strath. The bowmen were known as Sliochd Neill a’ bhogha (The Line of Neil of the Bow). Others of the dispossessed Clan had joined with Clan Dugall Craignish and some went to Perthshire and joined with the MacGregors, leading to an ill-informed present-day claim that MacInnes is a Sept of MacGregor. It should be also noted that Clan Innes is unrelated to MacInnes having arisen in Moray east of Inverness at a later date.


Jacobite Uprisings

During the Jacobite uprisings most of the Clan MacInnes supported the British government however one branch of the clan fought for the Jacobite cause:

In the 1745 Jacobite Rising, MacInnes Clansmen took up arms on both sides. Some stood with the Campbells and the House of Argyll, but others (MacInneses of Morvern, Lochaber and Appin) supported Prince Charles Edward Stuart and fought beside Stewart of Ardshiel, who commanded of the Appin (Stewart) Regiment. A MacInness clansman, MacMaster of Glenaladale, raised Prince Charles banner at Glenfinnan. Four MacInnes men were killed and two wounded in the battle. Others may have been captured and subsequently hanged. Donald Livingstone, the 18-year-old son of Anna MacInnes of Morvern, saved the Appin Banner from Culloden and smuggled it home. The banner is now housed in the Museum of Scotland. These kinsmen are buried in the cemetery of Kiel Kirk in Lochaline. One John McGinnes helped row Charles to safety and when captured and flogged, refused to disclose the details.


The Highland Clearances

The Highland Clearances, from about 1790 to 1840s, drove many MacInneses from their homes, notably on Skye and Mull. These Clearances were designed to get the tenant farmers off the land to make room for profitable sheep herding. Poverty, crop failures and high rents also contributed to the tide of emigration that emptied the highlands during the 19th Century. Numerous parish cemeteries on Mull, Skye, Iona, Islay and across Argyll hold the remains of clansmen.



Kinlochaline Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan MacInnes.


Septs of the Clan: Angus, MacAngus, MacCainsh, MacCansh, MacMaster.
Names associated with the clan: Aengus Ainas Anegos Anegous Anegus Angas Anggues Angous Anguis Angus Anguss Aonas Aonghas Aonghus Canch Keanish Kenish Kenneis Kennish Kinnes Kinnis MacAinish MacAinsh MacAnce MacAngus MacAnish MacAnsh MacAonghus MacCainsh MacCance MacCanch MacCanish MacCaniss MacCans MacCanse MacCansh

Note: The name “Innes” is often inaccurately linked to MacInnes. Innes has a later origin in Moray.]


Edit Text

Another version of Clan MacInnes history was sent to me by Clinton McInnes.  I do not know the gentleman, but am including his version of the clan history for those who might find it more suitable. 

I have to correct a few facts that live on with others then believing them, when they are not true. You may have got a lot of your material from some other source, however, recent research makes a number of things you state about Clann MacInnes (mhic Aonghais), simply supposition or fiction. I have copied this to the Clan Mhic Aonghais Society in the US also...

Getting it right for others.. 

Clan MacInnes' ancestors were among the early inhabitants of Islay, Jura and the Kintyre peninsula in Scotland, generally part of the region known as Argyll. These Scotti, a Celtic, Gaelic-speaking people, first appear there as settlers from Ireland in c.500 when Fergus Mór, king of the north Irish kingdom of Dál Riata, and his two brothers, Loarn and Óengus, expanded their lands into southwestern Alba. 

Óengus had already established a colony on Islay and/or Jura and was the master of ships for the new Kingdom. Óengus (Angus) is considered to be the first of the MacInnes Clan and is thought to be buried on Iona. 

It is established that the first part is a fiction, Oengus was not a brother of Fergus and Loarn this has been an old fiction based on an Irish favoured triad establishment trying to get all things lined up to a common Irish genealogical source. Independent of that there is certianly no evidence that this Oengus was the founder of Clann MacInnes over 800 years later; nor is there any evidence that this Oengus was buried on Iona. It is all supposition based to a degree on Irish myth and others enthusiasm to make connections where none exist, and we keep on perpetuating the account as though it was true.

Dalriada quickly grew in influence and strength, and eventually overran the indigenous Pictish peoples and their culture. The area then became known as Scotland after these Scotti immigrants.

No it did not overrun the Picts or their culture… in fact it was the other way round in the 8th century when the purported Pict Oengus I  ruled over then as dis his descendants … and it is highly likely that by this time Oengus I and his lot weren’t Picts but an infusion of Irish Celt with Pict also. It was Christianity the Irish, Gaelic and the written word that wrote the Picts out of history, when they still existed, and do so in our bloodlines to this day. Its is another supposition, I am afraid, based on Irish myth.

It is believed that MacInneses lived on Iona with Columba. This again is conjecture without proof, but it could well be correct.

Oengus and his descendants would have exploited their seagoing skills and ventured to Iona at an early time.  …. but not the Oengus referred to and not from Islay as is inferred, and certainly not recorded or proven.

Iona is the final resting-place of many with our name and lore says that Columba selected the site whereupon the Kiel Church now stands in Lochaline near Kinlochaline Castle, the castle built by the MacInneses.

During the 9th century the clan moved out of the western isles and into Argyll (Morvern and Ardgour). This was most likely as a result of constant Viking raids in the islands. 

This is complete supposition and made up to create a link between Islay and Morvern. There is absolutely no evidence that this occurred, and it is highly likely it did not, and definitely not in the 9th century at the end of Dal Riata's days, when Pictish descendants (as an Irish Celt Pict) controlled the scene for a good period until a united Alba came into being. If their had of been there would have been some account of it in an Irish annal and a complete kindred do not just migrate leaving no one behind. Check a telephone book for Islay and then Morvern and you will see what I mean.

By the early 12th century MacInnes people were well established in all of Morvern (but not from Islay, they had been there all along)(the peninsula bounded by Loch Sunnart and Loch Linnhe and adjacent to the Isle of Mull). The traditional seat of the Chiefs of Clan MacInnes was established there in Kinlochaline Castle. 

No it was not.. Kinlochaline was a keep and not a residence castle as it is now, and it also probably wasn't built (according British Govt sources) until the 15th century before it was sacked by Colkitto. This was after the mhic Aonghais chief had been killed at Ardtornish Castle in 1390. He was mhic Aonghais of Ardgour also, and he lived in Ardgour, not Morvern; or specifically Lochaline.

As the Viking raids continued to terrorise their lands the MacInneses became members of an alliance known as Siol Gillebride (Seed of the Servant of St. Bride) along with MacGillivrays, MacMasters and MacEachearns somewhat in the manner of Clan Chattan, under the leadership of the Celtic-Norse warrior Somerled (killed in 1164, often referred to as Somerled MacGillebride, and his father was believed to be a MacAonghais Chief). 

Nowhere is there evidence that Somerled’s father was a mhic Aonghais chief. In fact he was not - DNA proves that Gillebride was of Norse blood. The clann name had not been established at that stage either. This is a complete fiction I am afraid as another wild imaginative association to connect Somerled to the mchic Aonghais bloodline, which by the way is predominant Celtic; as in Pict, Irish Scoti, and Irish.

Somerled’s grandson was the first of Clan Donald (McDougall and McDonald clans).

I dont dispute this last part...

Clinton McInnes


Clan Arms

The arms consist,Quarterly, 1st, a lion rampant Gules, armed and langued Azure; 2nd, Argent, a dexter hand couped fessways grasping a man's heart paleways Gules; 3rd, Azure, a boar's head couped Or, armed Proper and langued Gules; 4th, Or, a lymphad sails furled Azure, flagged and surmounted of her oars in saltire Gules.


War Cry: "Loch Moigh" (Lake of Plain)
Motto: "Touch not the cat bot a glove"  (Touch not the cat without a glove.)
Plant Badge: "Red Whortleberry"

Clan Septs
Adamson, Ayson, Aysons of N.Z. Clark, Clarke, Clarkson, Clerk, Crerar, Dallas, Elder, Esson, Glen, Glennie, Gollan, Heggie, Hardie, Hardy, MacAndrew, MacAy, MacCardney, MacClerich, MacChiery, McConchy, Macglashan, Machardie, Machardy, Machay, Mackeggie, McKillican, MacLerie, MacNiven, MacRitchie, Niven, Noble, Ritchie, Tarril, Tosh and Toshach.



History:  Probably the earliest authentic history of Mackintosh is traceable to Shaw or Seach MACDUFF, a Cadet son of the third Earl of Fife. The son of MACDUFF, for his support of Malcolm IV, was awarded the lands of Petty and Breachley in Invernesshire and was appointed Constable of the Castle thereto. Assuming the name "Mac-an-Toisch", which means "Son of the Thane or Chief", he began his own Clan. The Clan support of James I in 1429 resulted in large tracts of land in the valley of the river Findhorn, the lands of Petty being settled on the Mackintoshes. Clan Mackintosh was involved in the "Battle of the Thirty", a mass trial by combat, which was held under the judicial control of the King in 1396 on the North Inch of Perth, in which Clan Mackintosh regained all lands taken from the Shaws.


The chief and his clansmen supported Robert the Bruce, particularly against the Comyns and they also supported the Marquess of Montrose in his campaign on behalf of King Charles I

The 5th chief led his clan at the Battle of Largs in 1263, during the reign of King Alexander III. His son was raised by his uncle, the Lord of the Isles and he married the daughter of the chief of Clan Chattan in Lochaber, extending the clan lands to Glenloy and Loch Arkaig. After that, the Clan Chattan, which developed into a loose confederation of independent clans, was usually led by a Mackintosh (though challenged on occasions by the Macphersons).


Clan Mackintosh supported the King in the revolt of 1688, but in 1715, The Mackintosh gave its support to the Jacobite Rebellion. 800 clansmen supported the Jacobite cause then. Many Mackintosh clansmen were transported to America after the defeat of that uprising.


At the "45 Rising", Angus, who held a commission in the Black Watch, could not, in honor, raise the Clan for Prince Charles Edward. When Prince Charles Edward Stuart landed in Scotland in 1745, the clan chief was absent but his wife raised men for the Prince's army. During the retreat in 1746, Prince Charles was received by Lady Mackintosh at Moy and the Prince's bed is still to be seen in Moy Hall today.


The Chattan Regiment distinguised itself at the Battle of Culloden under the leadership of the Chief of the MacGillivray's and was one of only two Scottish Regiments which did not lose their colors.


In more modern times, Charles Macintosh invented a fabric waterproofing process in 1823 which became the Macintosh raincoat. Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928) was an innovative and influential architect, his works including the Glasgow School of Art, Queen's Cross Church and the Hill House in Helensburgh.                            


Plant Badge:"Fraoch Grom" Common heath or heather

Gaelic Name:  Mac an t-saoir means "son of the carpenter" or "wright" and is a 1,200 year old name

Motto: "Per Ardua"  Through difficulties 

War Cry: "Cruachan" A mountain near Loch Awe


The bards (folk tellers) of Scotland first recall Clan MacIntyre being on the Isle of Skye about 800 A.D.  They lived on lands held by the Donalds of Sleat, a part of the Clan Donald (MacDonald). Clan MacIntyre is a sept of Clan Donald.

About 1100 A.D. the MacIntyres left the Isle of Skye and made a home in Glen Noe on the shores of Loch Etive in Argyleshire. These were the lands of the Clan Campbell where they paid rent until around 1806 when the Clan Chief and most of the clans people left Scotland for America, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

In Gaelic, the name MacIntyre is rendered "Mac-anTsaoir", meaning son of the carpenter. A traditional account dates the origins of the name to the early twelfth century, when Somerled was establishing his lordship in the Western Isles. After Olav the Red, Norse King of Man and the Isles, resisted Somerled's ambitions, he then resorted to diplomacy, and sought the hand of the kings daughter, Ragnhild, in marriage. Somerled's nephew, Macarill or Maurice, assured his uncle that he could devise a scheme to win the bride. It is said that Macarill sabotaged Olav's galley by boring holes in the hull, which he then plugged with tallow. He contrived to be a passenger on the kings galley, and went well supplied with wooden plugs. Heavy seas washed out the tallow and the galley began to flounder, at which point Macarill promised to save the kings life if he would promise his daughters hand to Somerled. The pact was sealed, and the plugs used to stop the leaks. Macarill was thereafter known as the "wright or carpenter", and found high favour with his uncle.

Macarill's descendants later established themselves on the mainland where, according to legend, they were warned by a spirit only to settle where a white cow in their herd came to rest. The land they settled was the rich and fertile Glen Noe by Ben Cruachan on Loch Etive. By the end of the thirteenth century the MacIntyres were foresters to the Lord of Lorn, an office they held through the passing of the lordship from the MacDougalls to the Stewarts and finally the Campbells.

As the family records have been lost, the MacIntyre chiefs cannot be listed with any accuracy, but the first chief of record was Duncan, who married a daughter of Campbell of Barcaldine. Duncan died in 1695 and was buried in Ardchattan Priory in a tomb worthy of his rank. Through the Barcaldine connection, the MacIntyre chiefs claim descent from Robert the Bruce. The civil war in Scotland provided a convenient excuse for many clans to settle old scores. The Earl of Argyll was not only leader of the Covenanter faction in Scottish Parliament, but he was also the implacable foe of many clans whose fortunes had been eclipsed by the rise of the Campbells. The earl's lands were ravaged, but royalist forces commanded by Alasdair MacDonald, "Colkitto", spared Glen Noe on the grounds that the MacIntyres were kinsmen. Many MacIntyres subsequently joined Colkitto's army, including the chief's piper. The chief, however, was with Argyll at Inverlochy in February 1645 when the Campbells were surprised by Montrose and routed.

James, the third chief, was born around 1727. He was sponsored by the Campbell Earl of Breadabane and studied law, being regarded as a good scholar and poet. On his father's death he returned to Glen Noe. When Prince Charles Edward Stuart raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan in 1745, James would have joined him but for the influence of his Campbell wife and neighbours. Many clansmen, however, slipped away and fought under Stewart of Appin at Culloden. The great MacIntyre bard, Duncan Ban, fought for the house of Hanover at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746. A monument to the poet's memory was erected in 1859 near Loch Awe.

The MacIntyres originally held their lands by right of the sword, but they had acquired feudal obligations to the Campbells. The payments were purely symbolic until the early eighteenth century, when Campbell of Breadabane persuaded the MacIntyre chief to pay a cash rent. The rent was then progressively raised to a point where Donald, the fourth recorded chief, was unable to pay, and he emigrated to America in 1783, leaving his brother, Duncan, to manage the estate. Duncan struggled until 1806, when he, too, left the glen. The chiefly line continued to honour their Scottish origins in America, preserving the armorial great seal, signet ring and quaffing cup. In 1955 Alasdair MacIntyre of Camus-na-h-erie recorded arms in the Lyon Court as cadet of the chiefly house of MacIntyre. The shield was quite different from that which clan historians believed to be correct. This unhappy state of affairs was corrected in 1991, when James Wallace MacIntyre of Glenoe, ninth of recorded chiefs, matriculated the correct undifferenced arms. The MacIntyres once more take their seat on the Council of Clan Chiefs, and even Duncan Ban's lonely monument is more accessible, with a Forestry Commission stopping place from which it may be viewed.

MacIntyres who left Scotland and went to England, frequently 'anglicized' their name to fit in with the local population. Since MacIntyre means, son of the Wright or carpenter, they often removed the MAC and translated INTYRE or the Gaelic "an t'Saoir" into Wright or Joiner.

Septs of the Clan: Tyre, MacTear, Wright, McEntire

Names associated with the clan: MacCosham MacCoshim MacEntyre MacInteer MacIntire MacIntyir MacIntyr MacIntyre MacKentyre MacKintyre MacOisein MacTear MacTeer MacTeir MacTer MacTere MacTeyr MacTier MacTire MacTyr MacTyre MacYntyre Makintare Makteir Makter Maktyre Mteir Ryght Tire Tyre Wiricht Wirrycht Wirryht Wirycht Wrecht Wreicht Wreight Wright



Clan MacIver is an armigerous clan. (Recognized by the Lord Lyon, but without a recognized chief.)

The clan name of MacIver is of Gaelic origin, derived from an Old Norse personal name. It is the anglicized version of the Gaelic Mac Íomhair” which means  "son of Íomhar". The name Lomhar is derived from the old Norse “Ivarr.”   

Various forms of the surname MacIver are considered sept names (followers or members) of several historically large Scottish clans, such as clans Campbell and Mackenzie. There exists a Clan Iver society in Fife, Scotland.

The crest badge used by members of Clan MacIver contains the motto nunquam obliviscar ("i will never forget") and the heraldic crest of a boar's head. Both the crest and motto are very similar to the crest and motto of the chief of Clan Campbell. The tartan is thought to be of relatively recent origin and is very similar to that of the Clan Macfie.

Branches: MacIver of Asknish, MacIver of Lergachonzie, MacIver of Stronshiray

Names associated with the clan: Euer Evar Evir Ewar Ewer Ewers Horie Hurray Hurrie Hurry Ivar Iver Iverach Iverson Ivirach Ivor Ivory Iwur MacAver MacCowir MacCuir MacCur MacCure MacEiver MacEuer MacEuir MacEur MacEure MacEvar MacEver MacEwer MacEwir MacEwyre MacGeever MacGiver MacGlasrich MacGlasserig MacGlassrich MacIvar MacIver MacIverach MacIvirach MacIvor MacKeaver MacKeever MacKeevor MacKeiver MacKeur MacKever MacKevor MacKevors MacKewer MacKewyr MacKiver MacKivers MacKivirrich MacKuir MacKure MacQuay MacQue MacQuee MacQuie MacUir MacUre MacWade MacWha MacWhae MacYuir Makcure Makewer Makiver Orr Orre Oure Ure Urie Urri Urrie Urry Yvar Yvir Ywar

Origin, confusion and Campbells: According to some, it is very unlikely that there is a common origin for one Clan MacIver. Campbell of Airds maintains that Principal P. C. Campbell confused matters with his Account of the Clan Iver. Principal Campbell, at the time publication of his Account, was petitioning the Lord Lyon King of Arms to recognise him as "Chief of Clan Iver". Campbell was ultimately unsuccessful in his bid for chiefship. According to Campbell of Airds, the modern Clan MacIver is also a dubious concept because it encompasses all MacIvers regardless of their origin, and that the "modern game of clan-constructing is again being played.”

Campbell claimed that the MacIvers originated in Glenlyon, and settled in Argyll in 1222.[5] The Victorian illustrator R. R. McIan considered the MacIvers to have descended from Duncan, Lord of Lochow, making them descend from the same stock as the Campbells.[1] According to legend, a stronghold of the MacIvers was the ancient fort of Dun Mor (Dunmore)[1], located near Lochgilphead.

According to Ane Accompt of the Genealogie of the Campbells, the eponymous Iver was one of two illegitimate sons of Colin Maol Math (the other illegitimate son being Tavish Coir, from whom the MacTavishes claim descent). According to Ane Accompt, Iver's mother was to have been a daughter of Suibhne, who was the founder of Castle Sween, and is thought to be a member of the kindred of Anrothan who held lands in Cowal, Glassary and Knapdale (Suibhne is claimed as the eponymous ancestor of the MacSweens).

The MacIver-Campbells: The leading family of the MacIver Campbells were the MacIvers of Lergachonzie and Stronshira. A branch of the MacIvers were Captains of the Castle of Inveraray, where the standing stone in the grounds of the castle was said to have been the boundary between the lands of the MacIvers and the MacVicars. Other branches of MacIver Campbells include the MacIver Campbells of Ballochyle in Cowal, the Campbells of Kirnan in Glassary, the Campbells of Pennymore on Loch Fyne, south of Inveraray, and the Campbells of Ardlarach near Ardfern, Craignish.[Principal Campbell himself belonged to the Campbells of Quoycrook in Caithness. They were claimed to have descended from MacIvers of Lergachonzie. Campbell also claimed that the related families to this branch were the Campbells of Duchernan, the Campbells of Thurso and Lochend, and the Iverachs of Wideford in Orkney. Campbell of Airds notes that both the arms of the Iverachs and the Campbells of Duchernan display the gyronny prevalent in Campbell heraldry.

In June, 1564, at Dunoon, in an agreement between Iver MacIver of Lergachonzie, and Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, the earl renounced all calps from those of the name MacIver, in return for a sum of money, though the Earl reserved the calp of Iver MacIver and his successors. According to Campbell of Airds, it would seem that dating from this agreement many MacIvers began using the name Campbell or MacIver-Campbell.

Northern Macivers

Wester Ross: According to the traditions of the Mackenzies, a clan of Macivers were located in Wester Ross, across The Minch from Lewis. George Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Cromartie mentioned this family in his dubious 'history of the Mackenzies'. He claimed that the 'MacIvors', 'MacAulas', 'MacBollans', and 'Clan Tarlich' were the ancient inhabitants of Kintail, and were all descended from Norwegian families.

The Wester Ross Macivers have also been connected to the Battle of Bealach nam Broig (battle of "the pass of the brogue"), fought between various north-western highland clans from the lands of Ross, against the followers of the Earl of Ross.[ Today the date of the battle is generally given at about 1452.[8] Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun, writing in the early 17th century,[9] stated that the Ross clans consisted of "Clan-juer", "Clantalvigh", and "Clan-leajwe". The 19th century historian F W L Thomas translated these as "Clan-iver", "Clan-t-aluigh, i.e., Clan-Aulay", and "Clan-leaive, i.e., Clan-Leay". According to Gordon, a force of Munros and Dingwalls overtook the mentioned clans and fought them at "Bealligh-ne-Broig", between Ferrin-Donald and Loch Broom. Gordon stated that "Clan-Iver", "Clantalvich" and "Clan Laive" were "utterlie extinguished and slain".

Lewis: The early 20th century historian William C Mackenzie noted that The Highlands of Scotland in 1750 stated that "the most common inhabitants of Lewis are Morrisons, McAulays and McKivers, but when they go from home, all who live under Seaforth call themselves Mackenzies". Mackenzie considered that the majority of the Lewis Macivers seemed to have settled on the island with the arrival of the Mackenzies. The Mackenzies took control of Lewis in the early 16th century.

As tenants of the Earl of Seaforth, the inhabitants of Lewis followed Clan Mackenzie. William Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Seaforth decided to support the Jacobites forces in the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. Mackenzie stated that Seaforth drew up a list of officers to command his troops. Seaforth's list of officers contained 16 Lewismen: four captains, four lieutenants, and four ensigns. Of these, two were MacIvers: [Lieutenant] Kenneth Maciver, Bragar; and [Ensign] S. Maciver, Callernish.



Motto: Manu forti - "With a strong hand".
Badge: A hand holding a dagger.

Chief:  The current chief of Clan Mackay is Hugh Mackay, 14th Lord Reay. Also Baron Mackay van Ophemert and Zennewijnen, of the Netherlands. Also Baronet of Strathnaver

Castles: Varrich Castle was the ancient seat of the chief of Clan Mackay but the chief later moved to Tongue House.

Borve Castle, Sutherland was used by the Clan Mackay as an outpost for raiding other clans.




Origins of the Clan.


The Mackays are believed to descend from the ancient tribes that existed in Scotland called the Picts. However the name is also found from ancient times in Holland where the Mackays became noted for their many branches in the region. Each house acquired a status and influence that was envied by the princess of the region. The name Mackay is also found in Ireland from ancient times when several tribes from the northern area of Ireland, which was once part of one of the ancient Scottish kingdoms known as Dál Riata, moved across the sea to Scotland. The Mackays in Scotland were seated in Strathnaver north of Sutherland. Although the exact origin of the Clan Mackay is unknown it is generally accepted that they belonged to the early Celtic population of Scotland, although, from their proximity to the Norse immigrants, it is not at all improbable that latterly the two races became largely blended.

The most popular and accepted theory as to the origins of the chieftainship of the Clan Mackay, is that the chief was descended from the Pictish Royal House of MacEth. It is said that his clansmen were originally from Ireland, following two brothers deported after battle loss for the kingship in 335 A.D. They settled in Moray but were dispersed principally north to the Strathnaver region by order of King Malcolm IV of Scotland in 1160 who defeated Malcolm MacEth, Earl of Ross whose daughter Gormflaith married the Norse Harold, Earl of Caithness. Their son was called MacHeth who was raised to the chieftenship of his Clan Mackay in 1250

The name is a translation to English of the Gaelic "Mac Aoidh," meaning 'Son of Aodh.' or 'Son of Fire' The feminine form is "Nic Aoidh,' meaning 'Daughter of Aoidh.' or 'Daughter of Fire' The feminine prefix 'nic' is the genitive form of 'ni.' The genitive form of 'mac' is 'mhic' (pronounced 'vik'), but this is not usually prefixed to root names that begin with a vowel. Instead, a slender vowel (usually 'i') is inserted behind the principal vowel, and an 'h' is placed before the initial vowel when it is used on its own (without a prefix): Aodh (pronounced "ookh") > hAoidh (pronounced "hoo-ey" - which is why the personal name Aodh/Aoidh/hAoidh is translated as 'Hugh' and 'Huey'), but no 'h' when there is a prefix - Mac/Nic Aoidh (Aoidh, pronounced "oo-ey"). See end of next paragraph for details on pronunciation in the original Gaelic.



Records from the 12th century show Mac Aedh, Mac Aed, and Mac Heth. It should be remembered that all these form are basically attempts to render into Old Scots and Old English, as accurately as possible, the sounds of what was then the Scottish Celtic language, and was very different from Scots and English.


The variants Mackay and McKay are common, and M'Kay is found in older records. Other variants include Y, Aytho, MacIye, Makky, Macky, Maky, McKye, McKeye, Mackie, Mckie, Mackey, McKy, McAy, McCei, MacCay, McCay, Mackee, Makgie, Magee, McKee, MacHery, Mahery, Ison, Eason, Easson, MacQuoid, Quoid and many others.


Septs of the Clan: Allan, Allanson, Bain, Bayne, Kay, Key, MacAllan, MacBain, MacCaa, MacCaw, MacCay, MacGaa, MacGaw, MacGee, MacGhee, MacGhie, MacKay, MacKee, Mackie, MacPhail, MacQue, MacQuey, MacQuoid, MacVail, MacVain, MacVane, Morgan, Neilson, Nelson, Paul, Pole, Poleson, Pollard, Polson, Reay, Scobie, Williamson.

Names associated with the clan: Aue Ave Ay Aye Bain Baine Baines Bane Bayin Bayn Bayne Baynes Baynne Bean Beanes Beine Bene Bhaine Caw Coid Fail Fall Heth MacAllan MacAllane MacAoidh MacAth MacAw MacAy MacCa MacCaa MacCaidh MacCaoidh MacCaw MacCawe MacCay MacCey MacCoid MacCoy MacCue MacEda MacEth MacEthe MacFaell MacFail MacFal MacFale MacFall MacFaul MacFauld MacFaull MacFayle MacFoill MacFyall MacGaa MacGaw MacHeth MacIye MacKa MacKaa MacKaay MacKai MacKau MacKaw MacKawe MacKay MacKe MacKeay MacKee MacKeiy MacKew MacKey MacKie MacKphaill MacKy MacKye MacPaill MacPaul MacPhael MacPhaell MacPhail MacPhaile MacPhaill MacPhale MacPhaul MacPhaull MacPhayll MacPhell MacPhial MacPhiel MacQha MacQua MacQuade MacQuaid MacQuey MacQuhae MacQuid MacQuiod MacVail MacVale MacWhaugh MacWhaw MacWhey MacWhy MacYe Makaw Makay Makca Makcaw Makcawe Makcoe Makfaill Makfale Makfele Makie Makkaw Makkcae Makke Makkee Makkey Makkie Makphaile Maky Morgan Morgund Murgan Neelson Neillsone Neilson Neilsone Neilsoun Neilsoune Neleson Nelesoun Nelson Nelsone Nelsonne Nelsoun Neylsone Nickphaile Nielson Nilson Nilsone Nilsoune Nylson

Pal Paul Paule Paull Paulson Paulsoun Poilson Poilsone Poilsoun Pol Pole Poleson Pollsoun Polson Polsone Polsoun Polsun Polyson Polysoun Poulson Quaid Quay Quoid Reay Strathnaver Vail


Note:  Those of the name “MacCoy” hailing from Islay, Skye, Kintyre or Antrim and were originally MacKay’s of Islay, may be members of Clan Donald. 


Clan Mackie is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms therefore the clan is considered an armigerous clan, meaning that it is considered to have had at one time a recognised chief, or a chief who possessed the chiefly arms of the name, however no one at present is in possession of such arms.


The clan-name Mackie is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Aodha, meaning "son of Aodh". The Gaelic personal name Aodh is an old one and means "fire".


Clan Mackie was a prominent Galwegien family in the 16th and early 17th centuries. The Mackies of Larg were the principal family of the clan. At the beginning of the 17th century, Sir Patrick Mackie of Larg was one the original fifty Scottish undertakers of the plantation of Ulster. About 1,000 acres (4.05 km2; 1.56 sq mi) of his lands, near Donegal, were however later taken over by John, earl of Annandale. The Mackies of Larg acquired the lands of Bargaly in Kirkcudbrightshire and Auchencairn near Castle Douglas. Today there are still Mackies in Kirkcudbrigh


Clan Mackinnon

Origin of the name

Gaelic Name: MacFhionghuin
Motto: Audentes Fortuna Juvat (Fortune assists the daring)
Badge: Pine
Lands: Iona and North Mull
Origin of Name: Gaelic, ‘Son of the fair born’
Clan Chief:  Madam Anne Gunhild Mackinnon of Mackinnon.  38th Chief of the Name and Arms of Mackinnon


The surname MacKinnon is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic Mac Fhionghuin, which is a patronymic form of the Gaelic personal name meaning "fair born" or "fair son". This personal name appears in the Book of Deer, in the genitive form as Finguni.  In the Annals of the Four Masters, a Fínghin, described as "anchorite and Bishop of Iona", is recorded as dying in 966.  Middle Irish forms of the name are Finghin and Finnguine, while the Modern Irish is Findgaine. These names are thought to derive from the prehistoric Gaelic Vindo-gonio-s (translation: "fair-born"). The Anglicised MacKinnon has also been thought to derive from the Gaelic Mac Ionmhuinn, a similar patronymic name meaning "son of the beloved one". In consequence some "MacKinnons" have Anglicised their name to Love or Low, although very few of people with these surnames actually derive their name this way, and most have no connection with the Mackinnons

Clan Mackinnon or Clan Fingon is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the islands of Mull and Skye, in the Inner Hebrides.

Popular tradition gives the clan a Dalriadic Gaelic origin. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene named the clan as one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin - who according Skene could all trace their ancestry back to Alpin, father of Cináed mac Ailpín. Popular tradition has been until recently to consider Cináed mac Ailpín the first King of Scots and a Gael, however recent research has shown he was actually a Pictish king and likely a Pict himself. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk speculated that Clan Mackinnon belonged to the kindred of Saint Columba, noting the MacKinnon Arms bore the hand of the saint holding the Cross, and the several MacKinnon Abbots of Iona.

 Though little is known of the early history of the clan, it is likely to have served under the Lords of the Isles. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493 the clan would have gained some independence, and was at various times allied or at war with neighbouring clans such as the MacLeans and the MacDonalds. The clan supported the Jacobites in the 17th and 18th centuries, and tradition has the chief of the clan aiding in the escape of Bonnie Prince Charlie in his flight to France. Because of their support for the last Jacobite rebellion the Mackinnon chiefs lost the last of their ancient clan lands.


Little is known of the early history of the clan. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene gave the clan a descent linked to the clans of Siol Alpin. He claimed that the Finguine who appears in the MS of 1450 was the brother of the Anrias of whom the Clan Gregor claim descent from in about 1130. Because of the clan's early association with the Lords of the Isles there is no trace of early history of the Mackinnons as an independent clan. On the forfeiture of the last Lord of the Isles in the 1490s the clan at last gained some independence, though the Clan Mackinnon was always a minor clan and never gained any great power.

Myth and Legend

According to legend, the castle of Dunakin (today known as Caisteal Maol), near Kyleakin, was built by a Norwegian princess, known as "Saucy Mary", who married Findanus the claimed ancestor of Clan Mackinnon. The princess was to have collected the tolls of ships sailing through the narrows between the castle and the mainland, though Norse ships were exempt from her toll. To ensure that her taxes were paid a chain was stretched across the kyle. On her death she was buried beneath a cairn on Beinn na Cailleach (the mountain of the old woman).



Motto:  I Hope In God

The McKnights and Their Name.
The McKnights are descended from a certain Laird of Glenara, a chieftain of the MacNaughton clan (MacNaughtane, MacNaughton, or McNaghten). This is one of the three clans descended from the old Maomors of Moray, sovereigns of the Pictish race. The McNaughtons were in the ancient days a powerful family, and among their large estates were those called Glenara, Glenshire and Glenfire. In 1267 Gilchrist MacNaughtane of that ilk was by King Alexander III appointed veritable keeper of his castle and island of Frechelan, whence the tower was assumed as the heraldic insignia.
Sir Alexander McNaughtane of that ilk was knighted by James IV and
accompanied him on the fatal expedition into England, and was killed in 1513 on the field of Flodden. His son and successor Joh MacNaughtaine, had three sons: Alexander, who died without surviving issue; Malcolm, called Glenshira, who succeded his father and died in the reigh of James IV, leaving two sons – Col. Alexander, his heir and John, who married but had no issue.

John, the third son, called Shane Duh (Black John) who went to Ireland as
secretary to his great uncle, the first Earl of Antrim and settled in
CountyAntrim in 1580, was succeeded by his son and heir, Daniel, and the latter by his son John McNaughtan of Benvarden, Co. Antrim, whose grandsons succeeded in the 18th century to the Chieftainship of the MacNaughtan Clan upon the extinction of the Scottish line descended from Malcolm.

The Laird of Glanara, Chief of the MacNaughtan Clan, was knighted in the reign of James IV. His son was locally styled McKnight (son of a knight), from which designation the change in the family name appears to have subsequently taken its origin. This was possibly influenced by the
circumstance that this branch of the family embraced the doctrines of the
Reformation at a very early period, while the main body of the clan remained staunch Roman Catholics to a comparatively recent date.

On the crushing of the Irish Rebellion under Sir Cahir O'Dogherty in 1607
King James of England divided the province of Ulster, Ireland into lots and encouraged it colonization. Due to the fact that the coast of Ulster was so close to that of Scotland, particularly Dumbarshire, Renfrewshire, Ayshire, Galloway and Dumfrushire, a steady stream of Scots crossed to Ulster Province and settled in County Down and Antrim. Members of the MacNaughtan Clan settled near Lisburn on the Logan River near Belfast. The name MacNaughtan in Ireland is spelled McKnight.

When the stream of emigration from the colonies to Scotland and Ireland took place about 1700 to 1750 those from Ireland (Ulster Scots) were the ancestors of the McKnights now in the United States. Those coming to the colonies directly from Scotland carried the name MacNaughton, MacNaught or McKnight."

The following is copied from "MacKnight Genealogy 1738-1981 & Allied Families", page 3. Written by Imogene Millican, at Denver Public Library (978.273M218m)

"Early History of the McKnight Family in Scotland"

The MacKnight fanily in Scotland was in early days a Sept (allied family) of the MacNaughton (MacNaghten) Clan. The following history of this clan is from The Clans and Tartans of Scotland (1964, William Collins Sons & Co., ): "The progenitor of this ancient clan is alleged to be Nachtan Mor who lived about the tenth century. The clan is supposed to be one of those transferred from the province of Moray to the crown lands in Strathtay by Malcoln IV.
About a century later the possessed lands bordered on Loch Awe and Loch Fyne (west Scottish Highlands). In 1267 Gilchrist MacNaughton and his heirs were appointed by Alexander III, keepers of the castle of Froach Eilean in Loch Awe. The MacNaughtons also held the castle of Dub Loch in Glen Shira and castle Dunderave between Loch Fyne and Loch Awe.

Donald Mac Naughton opposed Bruce and lost most of his possessions, but in the reign of David II, the fortune of the Macnaughtons were somewhat restored by the grant of lands in Lewis."

The fortresses in Lewis and Strathtay recall their wide ranged influence.
They eventually lost all but the picturesque castle of Dunderae on Loch Fyne, "Clan" was the name applied to a group of Kinsmen united under a chief, and claiming a common ancestor. They lived as one great family on the lands they possessed.

About the middle of the fifteen hundreds the MacKnight Family, which had been a Sept under Clan MacNaughton since the early twelve hundreds, met all regulations and requirements (four generations of ancestors who had been good citizens loyal and true to Clan and Country) the Chieftain of the fifth generation was eligible to apply to the Lord Lyon King of Arms at Edinburgh for matriculation as a separate clan. When all credentials were accounted by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms, they were registered in Court Records - and so - was born Clan MacKnight.

The Scots love for his clan and his country accounted for the slowness of
Scot emigration to America.

There is conflicting information of the design of the Coat of Arms. One
article gives the MacKnight Motto "Justum et Tenacem Porpositi" (Just and Firm of Purpose) another "I Hope in God".


Maclaine of Lochbuie 

Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie is a highland Scottish clan. This clan is NOT a branch of the Clan MacLean of Duart. The Maclaine of Lochbuie branch of the family are descended from Hector, the brother of Lachlan. Lachlan founded the Duart branch of the MacLeans.

Chief:  Lorne Maclaine of Lochbuie, 26th (and current) Chief is recognised by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs and Lord Lyon.

The Macleans of Duart and the Maclaines of Lochbuie are of the same family, but represent two different clans.

The Maclaines of Lochbuie spelled their name 'Maclean' until the mid 1700's. As a result, names spelled 'MacLean' are not automatically Duart, but may be Lochbuie.

Septs of the Clan:

Black, MacCormick, MacFadyen, MacFadzean, MacGilvra, Macilvora, Paton, Patton.

Clan Name: Mac'ill-Eathain Locchabuide (Gaelic) - "Maclaine of Lochbuie"

Origin of Name: MacGhille Eoin (Gaelic) - means "Son of the Servant of John". The clan takes its name from the son of (Mac) Gillean (Ghille Eoin).

Motto: Vincere vel Mori (Latin) - means "To Conquer or Die".

Lands: Lochbuie, Isle of Mull.

Arms : Quarterly: 1st argent, a lion rampant gules; 2nd or, a lymphad, sails furled, oars in saltire sable, flagged gules, in base vert a salmon naiant proper; 3rd or, a dexter hand fessways coupled gules, holding a cross-crosslet fitcée azure; 4th azure, a tower embattled argent masoned sable.

Translation: Upper Left - a silver background with a red lion, unrestrained; Upper Right - a gold background with a black galley, red flag, sails furled and oars crossed, in a green sea with a salmon fish; Lower Left - a gold background with a red armored right hand sideways, cut off, gripping a small blue cross; Lower Right - a blue background with a silver embattled tower, black mortar joints.

Clan Badge: a branch of laurel and a branch of cypress in saltire, surmounted of a battleaxe in pale, all proper.

Plant Badge: Blaeberry (also Bramble)

Tartan: Maclaine hunting, Maclaine dress, Mull District.

Pipe Music: Lament for Maclaine of Lochbuie.

Progenitor: Gillean-na-Taughe (Gillean of the Battleaxe).

Chief: Lorne Gillean Iain Maclaine, 26th Chief of the Clan Maclaine of Lochbuie and Feudal Baron of Moy.

Tanist: Angus Maclaine, "The Younger Lochbuie".






Motto: "Dominus provedebit" which means "God will provide".


The de Boyvilles were Anglo-Norman knights from Beauville, near Caen, who came to Scotland after the Norman conquest of England in 1066 - there is a record of a David de Boivil witnessing a charter as early as 1164. Henry de Boyville was the keeper of the castles of Dumfries and Galloway in 1291 (taking over from another, earlier, Boyville) and three de Boyvils signed King Edward's Ragman Roll in 1296.

For some time the name was confined to the south-west of Scotland where it was pronounced as "bowl". Gradually, pronunciation and spelling became one syllable, Boyll in 1367 and Boyle in 1482, although as with so many names, there were many other variants.

The family spread into Ayrshire and Largs and Kelburn Castle became the seat of the major line. John Boyle was a supporter of King James III and was killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. The family lands were forfeited but John's son managed to have them restored by King James IV. Support for Mary Queen of Scots and later, King Charles I, did not help the family fortunes. But during the 17th century the Boyle's grew rich through shipping and shipbuilding. John, the 3rd Earl of Glasgow, followed a military career in Europe and lost a hand in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and was wounded twice at the Battle of Lauffeldt in 1747. He later became Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. His widow built a monument to the Earl in the grounds of Kelburn Castle, which has survived to this day.


In 1869, the 6th Earl of Glasgow inherited Kelburn and land in Dalry, Stewarton, Corshill and Fenwick and the estate at Hawkeshead outside Paisley, plus estates in Dunbartonshire, Fife, Northumberland and the greater part of Cumbrae. However, he ran into debt building Episcopal churches all over Scotland, including a Cathedral in Perth and one in Cumbrae. By 1888 he was one million pounds in debt. His cousin, David Boyle of Stewarton, later Seventh Earl of Glasgow, sold his own lands to buy back the Kelburn Estate at auction. All the rest was lost to the family. The 7th Earl was a naval officer and became Governor of New Zealand from 1892 to 1897.

A branch of the Boyles from Kelburn became established in Ireland and eventually became the Earls of Cork The 10th Earl of Glasgow still lives at Kelburn Castle, land held by the family since the 13th century and Boyles from all over the world visit the estate, which is now a country park.




Motto: "Unite"
Badge: A hand holding a sheaf of arrows


In 1550 Chief Alexander Brodie, the rebel, and 100 others were denounced for attacking the Clan Cumming of Altyre. In 1562 Brodie joined the Earl of Huntly who raised the flag of rebellion. They attacked Mary Queen of Scots but were routed at Corrichie. Huntly was killed and Brodie, escaping, became an outlaw.

During the Civil Wars of the 17th century Alexander Brodie of Brodie was responsible for the destruction of Elgin Cathedral in 1640.
In 1643 Alexander Brodie of Brodie became a Member of Parliment for Moray and an Elder of the Forres Presbytety to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
In 1645 Brodie Castle was burnt down by Lewis Gordon 3rd Earl of Huntly and chief of Clan Gordon. This was part of the Covenanting conflict during the Civil War, as a result there are few surviving documents and little is known about the Clan Brodie.

Alexander Brodie was one of the six commissioners that were sent to The Hague to negotiate with Charles Stuart. They were there to persuade Charles II to sign the National Covenant and resume the Scottish Crown. On his return to Parliment he was made a Lord of Session (a senior justice).

Alexander Brodie's diplomatic career also included a summons by Cromwell to London in 1651 to consider a Scottish union with England. He resisted attempts to appoint him to judicial office, though Cromwell's death in 1658 forced the issue for him, and he was appointed Justice of the Peace. The consequence was royal disfavour following the Restoration, Charles II finding it hard to forgive men who had tried to force their Presbyerian beliefs upon him as the price of their allegiance. The Good Laird Brodie died May 5th, 1680.

While it is inferred that there were Clan Brodie Members on both sides of the 1715, 1719 and 1745-46 Jacobite conflicts, The Lairds of Brodie did not support the Stuarts or the Jacobites.
In 1720 Alexander Brodie became 19th Laird Brodie of Brodie. That same year he became Member of Parliment for Elgin.
In 1724 General George Wade (British Army) reports the Clan Brodie to be "well affected" to His Majesty's Government.
Alexander Brodie was appointed Lord Lyon, King of Arms in 1727.
In 1736 David Brodie of Muiresk became a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. He was Promoted to 'Master and Commander" in 1740.
During the Rising of 1745 The Brodie is reported to have spent time on board the Royal Navy Sloop Vulture patrolling the Moray Firth.
After the Battle of Culloden, Alexander spoke in Parliament to oppose the ban on wearing of the Kilt. Alexander died in 1754. Hs wife, Mary Sleigh, is credited with starting the flax industry in Scotland.
There are still Brodies present to this day in Scotland, England (lower Scotland), Europe, Canada, United States, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, China, Polynisia, and many other Countries. Clan Brodie is a World-Wide presence.






The surname of Burns comes from "Burnhouse" a dwelling near a burn or a stream. Although "burn" is a common word in Scotland for a stream, the word originated in Old English. The singular form "Burn" is found in Dumfries and Galloway in the 13th and 14th century.


The poet Robert Burns' father came from Kincardineshire on the east coast of Scotland and spelt his name Burness. Robert and his brother adopted the spelling "Burns" a form which first appeared in written records only in the 17th century.

1759 - Robert Burns Born Robert Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire on 25 January 1759.

His father was a gardener and tenant farmer, and the life he was brought up in made him acutely aware of society’s unfairness as he laboured hard yet lived in poverty.


In 1786 he published 612 copies of Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, the preface of which explains his early need to write to find ’some kind of counterpoise’ in his unhappy life. The book’s success changed that life.


He moved to Edinburgh and was welcomed into the literary circles. With the earnings from an expanded volume of his book, Burns began to travel around his country, drawing inspiration from the environments and people. As important to him as his own writing was the collecting of traditional works he came across.


In time he returned home to farming and trained to become a full-time excise officer in Dumfries. As well as editing volumes of James Johnson’s Scots Musical Museum from 1788 until his death on 21 July 1796, he wrote copiously and collected works with almost all his spare time.

With what remained of his spare time he socialised. Whether the women in his life brought to him his romantic words or vice versa, he wrote often of love and loved many women. His tolerant wife was Jean Armour.


With his eloquent identification of the injustices of society and his ability to describe the little sensations that make life bearable, such as the pleasure of drinking, the ‘Heaven-sent ploughman’ is held as a poet who belongs to the workers before the intellectuals, and his work still speaks for people all over the world today.


Clan Brown

Motto: (Colstoun) "Floreat majestas" which means "Let majesty flourish".

Branches: Broun of Colstoun

Brown is the second most common name in Scotland and is also found frequently in England and the USA as well as other parts of the world. It might be thought that a name such as this, which was spread so widely, would not have a specifically Scottish pedigree. But the Broun family (spelt thus) has a crest recognised by the Lord Lyon King at Arms and is included in the list of clans and families maintained by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. They also have a recognised tartan.


The French "Le Brun" appeared early in England (around 970) but did not arise in Scotland until the 12th century. Walterus Brown was involved with the church in Glasgow in 1116 and Richard de Broun and others with the same surname signed the Ragman Roll in 1296 when all the nobles and landowners were forced to swear allegiance to King Edward I of England.


A long line of Browns, which can be traced for 850 years, is the Brouns of Colstoun in East Lothian. The first of the line may have been Sir David le Brun who gave the land and witnessed the charter founding the Abbey of Holyroodhouse in 1128. These Brouns claimed that they were originally descended from the royal house of France - their arms bore the three gold lilies of France. The Broun arms registered with the Lord Lyon has a lion rampant holding a French "fleur de lis".


Sir John Brune was High Sheriff of Aberdeenshire in 1368. Patrick Broun of Colstoun was created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1686. The 13th Baronet is Sir William Windsor Broun who lives in New South Wales, Australia.

Robert Brown, who was born in Montrose in 1773 was a botanist who worked in Australia. His experiments on powder suspended in water resulted in a phenomenon known as the "Brownian Motion".


Agnes Broun was the mother of the poet Robert Burns and the name occurs frequently in Ayrshire. James Brown of Lochton was the provost (roughly the mayor) of Dundee in 1844-47.


George Brown of Edinburgh emigrated to Canada in 1843 and was influential in the purchase of the Northwest Territories by CanadaThe name Brown was adopted by a fair number of Highland clansmen when they wanted to get rid of their cumbersome (or at times politically incorrect) Gaelic names. John Brown, Queen Victoria's famous gillie may have been in this category. Additionally, it has been suggested by some researchers that at least some of Celtic origins may have been named after local judges who were called "brehons".   Browns are sometimes regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the Lamont or MacMillan clans.


Clan Cameron

Motto: "Aonaibh Ri Cheile" (Unite)
Badge: A sheaf of five arrows


The clan, settled in Lochaber since at least Bruce's time, later became an important branch of the Clan Chattan confederacy and their name, taken as Cam--shorn ('s' silent) "hook-nose", is reported to have fitted many Highland Camerons.  But Camerons also, from the Norman name Cambron, had for a century before Bruce been spreading widely from their Fife headquarters of the same name.  If the name in common is more coincidence, it is not the only one.


Among several branches of the Highland clan, hat of the Chief acquired their Lochiel property by marriage and made that name, with their motto "For King and Country" resound in the Stewart causes.  Then in 1793 under Cameron of Erracht they founded the 79th or Cameron Highlanders to serve with no less distinction.


The southern Camerons of the 17th century directed their zeal rather differently.  The scholarly John Cameron founded a protestant group in France called Cameronites; Richard Cameron, killed at Airdsmoss, 1680, a militant Covenanter, gave his name to the Cameronian sect and a later Lowland regiment.


Septs:  Chalmers, Chambers, Clark, Clarke, Clarkson, Cleary, Clerk, Dowie, Gibbon, Gilbertson, Kennedy, Leary, Lonie, MacAldowie, MacAlonie, MacChlery, MacClair, MacLeary, MacGillery, MacGillonie, MacIldowie, MacKail, MacKell, MacLear, MacCleary, MacLerie, MacMarti, Maconie, Macostrich, MacPhail, MacSorley, MacUlrig, MacVail, MacWalrick, Martin, Paul, Sorley, Sorlie, Taylor.



Motto: Feros ferio - "I am fierce with the fierce"
Badge: A hand holding aloft a boar's head on the point of a dagger.


Origins of the Clan

The early Scottish Chisholms were not to be found in the Highlands, but owned land near the English border. In 1296, in the Ragman Rolls, John de Chesolm (Chesehelm) was described as "of the county of Berwick" and Richard de Chesolm (Chesehelm) as "of the county of Roxburgh", while in 1335 Alexander de Chesholme was called "Lord of Chesholme in Roxburgh and Paxtoun in Berwickshire."

In Scottish Gaelic, the name is rendered "Sìosal" or Sìosalach".


Wars of Scottish Independence

Robert Chisholm fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, was taken prisoner with King David II and probably not released until eleven years later when his royal master returned to Scotland. In 1359 Robert Chisholm succeeded his grandfather as Constable of Urquhart Castle, and later became Sheriff of Inverness and Justiciar of the North. This Robert was the last Chisholm to hold lands in both the North and South of Scotland. He divided his estates among his younger children.


Clan Conflicts

Battle of John o' Groats; Hugh Freskin Sutherland is said to have strengthened the family's royal favor by ridding the north of a ferocious band of robbers lead by Harold Chisholm. Among the crimes, a number of Sutherland churchmen were tortured by nailing horseshoes to their feet and making them dance to entertain the followers before putting them savagely to death. On hearing of this outrage, King William the Lion ordered Hugh of Sutherland to pursue Chisolm to the death and a great fight ensued near John o' Groats. All of the robbers were either killed or captured. Harold Chisolm and the other leaders were given a punishment to fit the crime, horse shoeing and hanging. The rest were gelded to prevent any offspring from men who were so detestable. This seems to have been a frequent punishment of the time. The Chisholms became well known for cattle raiding. In 1498 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and others carried off 56 oxen, 60 cows, 300 sheep, 80 swine and 15 horses belonging to Hugh Rose of the Clan Rose. Later in 1513 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and Sir Alexander MacDonald of Glengarry were with Sir Donald MacDonald of Lochalsh on his return from the Battle of Flodden Field when he decided to invade the Clan Urquhart. Some sources say that Macdonald occupied Urquhart Castle for three years despite the efforts of Clan Grant to dislodge them.


Civil War

In 1647, Alexander Chisholm was appointed to the committee which arranged the defence of Inverness on behalf of the Covenanters against the Royalists. In 1653 the Chisholms stole cattle from the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser, they were however captured and brought to court where they were ordered to return all they had stolen and pay the Chief Munro of Foulis and Chief of Clan Fraser £1000 interest each.

After the Stuart restoration in 1660, Alexander followed his father as a Justice of the Peace, and in 1674 was appointed Sheriff Depute for Inverness. Once again his duties brought him up against the MacDonalds, for in 1679 he was ordered to lead a thousand men of the county to quell a disturbance created by some members of the clan, and in 1681 he was given a commission of fire and sword against them.


Jacobite Uprisings

During the Jacobite uprisings the Chisholms sided with their old enemies the Clan MacDonald in support of the Jacobites against the British Government. The Clan Chisholm took part in the Battle of Culloden in 1746.Another portion of the Clan was on the Government side at Culloden. After the battle, the officer leading the Government Chisholms was declared The Chisholm, the head of the Clan.


 Clan Chief

The present Chief is Andrew Francis Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm, Thirty-third Chief of Clan Chisholm




 The term "clericus" was originally applied to someone in a religious order but it was later applied to anyone who was a secretary, scribe, scholar as well as a cleric in the church. It is therefore not surprising that this occupational name became widespread when surnames began to be used. At the end of the 12th century, a Roger clericus held land in Kelso and in 1249 Alan clericus was a witness to a charter in Aberdeen. There were nine people from Scotland with that name who signed the "Ragman Roll" when King Edward I of England demanded in 1296 that all landowners had to swear allegiance to him. However, it is only after 1400 that we can be certain that it was being used as a surname rather than as a description of someone's occupation or status.

There was never a Highland clan of that name. However, it is frequently found among the Clan Chattan confederacy. Clarks appear to have been a sept (under the protection) of the MacPhersons (whose origins were also from the church, "Mac-a Phearsain" meaning in Gaelic "son of the parson" in the days when celibacy of the priesthood was not enforced). The name is common throughout the Lowlands and Highlands of Scotland. It is particularly prevalent in Caithness and there were important families of Clarks in places as far apart as Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Paisley and some have become landed families with baronetcies. Two unrelated Clarks reached high office in the Swedish navy in the 17th century and the name is found in Sweden and Finland in the form Klerck. The American explorer George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) was of Scottish descent. The tartan used by the Clerks is a variation of one called "Blue Clergy" which was worn by ministers, though it dates from the re-invention of tartan after the visit (orchestrated by Sir Walter Scott) of King George IV to Scotland in 1822. Clark is currently the 14th most frequently found name in Scotland. The name is also common in England where it is often spelt Clarke. Clark is regarded as a sept (sub-branch) of both Cameron and Macpherson



A "craig" in Scots is a cliff or an outcrop of rock (Ailsa Craig in the Firth of Clyde being a prime example). It followed that someone with the name Craig came from a place with that name or perhaps just a well-known crag of rock. The name is thus found across Scotland and was never identified with one specific area.

Landowners whose name was the same as the area they came from, were sometimes described as being "of that Ilk" - of the same name. Usually that title is applicable to only one person but in the 15th century were three "Craigs of that Ilk" in different parts of Scotland.

Johannes de Crag, a burgess of Aberdeen, held land at Rubislaw and his family and heirs occupied Craigston Castle at Kildrummy for over 250 years.

Richarde de Crag was the vicar at St Mary's in Dundee in the 1550s and John Craig at St Andrews University was imprisoned during the early stages of the Reformation for adopting Protestantism. He was sentenced to death but escaped and joined John Knox and survived to see the Reformation triumph.

Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton was a renowned writer on feudal law and his work "Jus Feudale" published in 1655 is still used by Scottish lawyers. Sir Thomas was admired by King James VI and was one of the Scots invited to attend the coronation of King James as king of England in Westminster Abbey in 1603.

The winner of the design for Edinburgh's New Town in 1766 was James Craig. Although his plans were modified, it is thanks to him that Edinburgh's 18th century Georgian architecture can be seen in all its splendour.

Sir James Craig took his family and followers to Ulster in 1610 during what was known as the "Plantations". A descendant, another James Craig, was a millionaire Irish whiskey distiller who organised the Ulster Volunteer Force against Home Rule for Ireland in the 1920s. He then became the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He later became Viscount Craigavaon and the new town of Craigavon in County Armagh was named after him.

The Craig clan motto is "Vive Deo et Vives" which means "Live for God and you shall have life".

Craig was the 55th most frequent surname at the General Register Office in 1995 but apart from descendants of those who emigrated from Scotland, is relatively unknown elsewhere.

Names associated with Clan Craig:  Crag, Craig, Craigie


Branches: Crawford of Auchinames, Craufurd of Craufurdsland, Craufurd of Kilbirnie
Motto: Tutum te robore reddam (Latin: I will make you safe with strength)

The early history of Clan Crawford is diverse and complicated. And like so many other Clan histories, competing theories of Crawford history are difficult to decipher looking back 900 years through 30 generations. However, by employing all we know about the secular and religious history of the period and using certain physical and biological rules [eg. a person can't be in 2 places at the same time, people 15- and 50+ years typically are not prolific reproducers, and nobody lived over 100 years] we can sort out competing theories.

One anecdote that keeps returning "like bad haggis" is the claim that the Crawfords derive from Alan, the 4th Earl of Richmond. This version was widely distributed in Burke's General Armory, a series of editions published between 1842 and 1884, and separately in Burke's History of the Commoners. The registration of the Arms of Colonel Robert Crawford of Newfield in the mid-1800's states the basis of the connection being "presumptive evidence" in reference to the similarity of Arms between the House of Crawford (gules, a fess ermine) and the Earls of Richmond (gules, a bend ermine). There are several problems with this formulation. The first styling of the unofficial "Earls of Richmond" did not come about until 1136, well after the establishment of the House of Crawford absolutely no later than 1127 (stag incident and first use of the surname). Second, Arms designs of England (Richmond) and Scotland (Crawford) were independent with no prohibition against similarity as registrations didn't begin until a few centuries later. Third, aside from Alan technically being the 1st Earl of Richmond (although he could be justified as the 4th), Alan wasn't born until 1116. The claim is that his younger son, Reginald, is the father of John and Gregan who saved King David from the stag. Therefore, Alan was the 11 year old grandfather of the valorous Gregan of 1127, conclusively debunking the anecdote.

In 1296 Sir Reginald Crawford was appointed sheriff of Ayr. His sister married Wallace of Elderslie and thus became the mother of William Wallace the great Scottish patriot. Needless to say, the Crawfords rallied to his cause.

The main branches of the family were Crawford of Auchinames (in Renfrewshire) who received a grant of land from Robert the Bruce and Craufurd of Craufurdland (in upper Clydesdale). Sir William Craufurd of Craufurdland was a brave soldier who was knighted by King James I and fought for King Charles VII of France. The castle at Craufurdland was much extended in the 17th century. The castle passed to the Howiesons in 1793 and was restored in the 1980s.

Other lines of Crawfords began in the reign of James III when descendants of Archibald Craufurd created the families of Auchenairn, Beanscroft and Powmill. Archibald's son John was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513.


In the 16th century, Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill was a member of the household of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots. During those turbulent times he captured Dumbarton Castle in 1571 with 150 men by scaling the supposedly impregnable rock and later received the surrender of Edinburgh Castle.

Lawrence Crawford (1611-45) fought for Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years War and returned to Britain to fight for the Parliamentary forces against King Charles I.





Branches: Cunningham of Auchinharvie, Cunningham of Coreshill, Cunningham of Craigends, Cunningham of Kilmaurs, Cunningham of Robertland.
Motto: Over fork over

This name is from an area in Ayrshire which in turn got its name from "cuinneag" meaning "milk pail" along with the Saxon "ham" meaning "village".

In the 12th century, the lands of Kilmaurs in Ayrshire were granted to a Norman named Warnebald. His descendants took the territorial name Cunningham and Harvey de Cunningham is reputed to have fought for Alexander III at the Battle of Largs against the Vikings in 1263.

The Cunninghams gave support to Robert the Bruce and received additional lands as a result. King James III created Sir William Cunningham as Lord Kilmaurs in 1462 and earl of Glencairn in 1488. But the first Earl was killed (along with his king) a few months later at the Battle of Sauchieburn when James was attempting to subdue some rebellious barons.

Alexander, the fourth Earl of Glencairn was a friend of the protestant radical John Knox and may have been responsible for vandalising the chapel at Holyrood after Mary Queen of Scots defeat at the Battle of Langside in 1568. During this time there was a feud between the Cunninghams of Glencairn and the Montgomery earls of Eglinton. The 4th Earl of Eglinton was later murdered by the Cunninghams in 1586.

The 8th Earl of Glencairn led an uprising in support of Charles II in 1653 and against General Monck, who was Governor of Scotland. He was captured but managed to stay alive until the Restoration in 1660 when Charles II appointed him Lord Chancellor. The title of Earl of Glencairn is now extinct.

The 14th Earl was a patron of Robert Burns (Burns named his fourth son James Glencairn Burns) and the poet wrote a lament on the Earl's death.

"The mother may forget the child
That smiles sae sweetly on her knee;
But I'll remember thee, Glencairn,
And a' that thou hast done for me."



Motto: "Honour is the prize of honesty".or “In Promptu” which means “In Readiness.”
Badge: A white horses head.
Septs: Clugston, Corbett,
Dunbar, Dundas, Edgar, Grey, Heryng, Home, Knox, Nisbett, Peddie, Strickland, Washington, Wedderburn


The name comes from the old barony of Dunbar, now in East Lothian. The name Dunbar itself comes from the Gaelic "dun" meaning "fort and "barr" meaning "summit". The lands were granted by King Malcolm III to the Earl Gospatric who had lived further south in Northumberland in the 11th century but had been forced to flee by William the Conqueror. Earl Gospatric in turn was descended from Crinan, the thane of Dunkeld whose grandfather was probably Duncan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld who died in 965.


Patrick of Dunbar married a daughter of King William the Lion in 1184. A later Patrick "Black Beard", 8th Earl of Dunbar, was one of those who competed for the crown of Scotland in 1291 when King Edward I of England volunteered to mediate in the argument. Later, the 9th Earl of Dunbar sheltered King Edward II at Dunbar after the flight of the English king from the field of Bannockburn in 1314.


During the 14th century, the 10th Earl enlarged his estates and became one of the most important nobles in Scotland. He accompanied the Earl of Douglas in his raids into England and fought at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 in which the Scots defeated Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but with the loss of the Earl of Douglas. But he fell out with the Douglas family when they disrupted his plans for his daughter to marry the son of King Robert III.


In the early 15th century, the 11th Earl of Dunbar became so powerful that he became perceived as a threat to King James I and he was imprisoned on a trumped up charge of treason so that the king could take over the large Dunbar estates. The last Earl died in exile in England in 1455.


In 1368 the Dunbars obtained lands of Glenkens and Mochrum in Dumfries and Galloway and the Dunbars also appear in Caithness around the middle of the 15th century, descended from the Dunbars of Westfield in that county. The present chief of the Dunbars is from the Mochrum line.


There have been a number of other Dunbars who have walked across the pages of Scottish history. In 1337, Agnes, Countess of Dunbar, known as Black Agnes, conducted a sturdy defence of Dunbar Castle while her husband was absent. She was the daughter of King Robert the Bruce's friend, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. She calmly dusted the stones off the battlements with her 'kerchief whenever the besieging cannons of the Earls of Salisbury and Arundel crashed into the castle walls. The siege lasted 19 weeks and was eventually abandoned. In the 16th century, the Archbishoprics of both Glasgow and Aberdeen were both held by Gavin Dunbars from the Mochrum line. The Archbishop of Glasgow was a tutor of King James V and became his Lord Chancellor.


Perhaps the best known member of the family was William Dunbar (1460-1513) who was a court poet to King James IV. While much of his poetry was composed by royal command, he also managed to include advice to his monarch! His works were meant to be read out loud and Sir Richard Burton listed Dunbar's "Lament for the Makaris" as one of his three favourite poems. William Dunbar may have died at the Battle of Flodden with his king.


In 1694, Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia and in his coat of arms he was allowed to use supporters "Imperially Crowned". The present line of Dunbar clan chiefs was established in a celebrated court case in 1990 which went all the way to the House of Lords.



Branches: Dundas of Arniston, Dundas of Fingask, Dundas of Inchgarvie
Motto: Essayez (French : Try)
Names associated with the clan: DASS DUNDAS DUNDASS

The name Dundas (the emphasis should be on the second syllable) is derived from a place name near Edinburgh which, in Gaelic was "dun deas" (south fort). The first record of the name is Helias de Dundas in the reign of William the Lion in 1200. He may have been a descendant of Gospatrick, earl of March. His descendants styled themselves as Dundas of that Ilk, signifying the head of a landed family and held their property until the 19th century.

In the reign of King James III, Sir Archibald Dundas was a favourite of the king and was sent on missions to England. James IV later gave a grant of lands to the Dundas family.

The main branches of the family can be found in Duddingston in Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Blair Castle, Arniston and in Fingask in Perthshire.

The 18th Laird of Dundas supported the cause of the Covenanters and was a member of the committee which tried the first Marquis of Montrose when he refused to support the extreme aspects of Presbyterianism. Sir James Dundas was knighted by King Charles I in 1641 and became a Member of Parliament. On the restoration of the monarchy (in 1660), he became a member of the supreme court, with the title Lord Arniston, in 1662. There were a number of further generations of Dundas (all confusingly named Robert) who became judges also.

William Dundas of Kincavel was a supporter of the Jacobites in 1715 and was afterwards imprisoned. The 23rd Laird joined the East India Company and died in a shipwreck off the coast of Madagascar in 1792.

The most famous Dundas was Henry, 1st Viscount Melville, who lived from 1742 to 1811. He held the office of Lord Advocate, Keeper of the Signet and Privy Seal and, by controlling political patronage in Scotland, he had considerable power in the Westminster Parliament. He was instrumental in taking over India (from the East India Company) and large numbers of Scots gained the opportunity to work there as a result. He was also the driving force behind the repeal of the Proscription Act which banned the wearing of tartan and the carrying of weapons (implemented as a result of the 1745 Uprising in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie). A Bill in 1784 also restored forfeited land to the Jacobites. His power as a politician was unequalled in his day and has not been matched since, lending his support to a succession of UK Prime Ministers. He built a house in St Andrew Square in Edinburgh. It was recently the head office of the Royal Bank of Scotland and is fronted by a statue of Viscount Dundas, designed by William Burn