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Clan History Archive

Scottish American Society

For information on any of the past featured clans not found below, please contact:  margaretfrost63@gmail.com
 
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Clan Histories featured in past articles on this web site:

Agnew, Anderson, Armstrong, Arthur, Barclay, Baxter, Buchanan, Boyd, Boyle, Brodie, Brown, Burns, Cameron, Campbell, Chattan, Chisolm, Clark, Craig, Crawford, Cumming, Cunningham, Donald, Douglas, Drummond, Dunbar, Dundas, Elliot, Farquharson, Ferguson, Forbes, Forsyth, Fraser, Gordon, Gregor, Graham, Grant, Gray, Gunn, Guthrie, Haldane, Hall, Hamilton, Hannay, Harvey, Hay, Henderson, Hepburn, Hogg, Home, Hope, Horsburgh, Houston, Hunter, Inglis, Innes, Jardine, Kennedy, Kincaid, Kinnaird, Kinnear, Kinnimont, Kirkpatrick, Kittle, Lamont, Learmonth, Leask, Lennox, Leslie, Lindsay, Little, Livingstone, Lockhart, Logan, Lumsden, Lyle, Lyon, MacAlister, MacAlpin, MacArthur, MacAulay, MacBean, MacBeth, MacBrayne, MacCallum, MacCorquodale, MacCullough, MacDougall, MacDowell, MacDuff, MacKenzie, MacLaren, MacLean, MacLeod, MacNab, Morehead, Morrison, Ross, Routledge, Sinclair, Somerville, Stuart, Stuart of Bute, Sutherland, Urquhart.

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 CLAN AGNEW

There are at least two possible derivations of this name. Firstly, from the Norman French barony of d'Agneux, via England and Liddesdale in the Scottish Borders. Secondly, from a branch of O'Gnimh, who were the hereditary poets of the O'Neils in Antrim, Ireland. The name was written in English as O'Gnive, then O'Gnyw and later O'Gnew.

Whatever its origins, the family became established in Wigtownshire in south-west Scotland. Andrew Agnew was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Wigtown in 1451 and his descendants hold that office to this day. Lochnaw Castle was their base with another branch in Lochryan. Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547.

The family prospered and there were a number of judicious marriages with other wealthy families in the area. The 5th Baronet, Sir Andrew, commanded a regiment at the Battle of Dettingen, Bavaria in 1743, when King George II commanded the English and Hanoverian troops against the French (the last monarch to do so directly). When the king commented on the way the French cavalry had penetrated Sir Andrew's troops he replied "Yes, please your Majesty, but they didna win back again". Sir Andrew later held Blair Castle in Perthshire against the Jacobite forces.

The 6th Baronet married the daughter of the Irish Lord Kingsdale and the 7th Baronet inherited the title and estates. He set about rebuilding Lochnaw castle (though it is now no longer in Agnew hands). A number of Irish Agnews emigrated to the American colonies, especially in Pennsylvania. The 11th Baronet, Sir Crispin Agnew of Lochnaw, is one of Scotland's leading heraldic experts and is the Rothesay Herald at the Court of the Lord Lyon.

CLAN ANDERSON

The Sons of Andrew: A History of the Anderson Name
By Nadine Anderson,
former Clan Anderson Genealogist

Surnames

The use of surnames started in France around the year 1100 AD, The Norman invaders brought the practice to Scotland nearly 100 years later. However, the use of surnames was not common for some 50 years or more after this time, or around 1155AD. Prior to this, Malcolm Ceannmor (1057-1093), spouse to Queen Margaret of Scotland directed his subjects to adopt surnames after their territorial possessions. Such was the origin of the first earls of Scotland, such as Leslie, Gordon, Shaw, and Abircrumby among others. Written references to actual surnames are first found during the time of David I, who reigned from 1124-1153AD. One such reference is found for Robertus de Brus (Robert the Bruce).

In light of this understanding about the use of surnames, one can appreciate that the name ANDERSON would not be a Scandinavian name, as the Danes invaded Britain between 997-1014 AD, some 150 years prior to the use of surnames. However, we do recognize that some Scandinavians may also bear the name.

Anderson means "Son of Andrew". Typically, the intent was to denote "servant of Andrew", Andrew being the patron saint of Scotland. The Gaelic form of the name is Gillanders. The Andersons are a diverse group, with no specific place from which the name is derived. Most likely, the name cropped up all over the country over a period of time, with one group of Andersons not necessarily related to another group of Andersons.

Anderson or Ross or Donald?

Occassionally, the Anderson name is affiliated with Clan Ross, which creates some confusion among Andersons. The first five earls of Clan Ross bore the name "Aindrea", and not Ross. They too were "Servants of Andrew". As the title passed to descendants of the female line, the name, Ross, was assumed by the male representatives of the earls as it referred to their territorial origin. The name "Ross" is actually derived from the District of Ross, and is therefore a territorial name. In fact, the Ross's first referred to themselves as do the Andersons: "Andrew's Servants". It is also possible that some descendants of Highland Andersons rightfully share a heritage with what today is the Ross Clan.

Some other Highland "Gillanders" (Servants of Andrew) may be associated with Clan Donald, also through the female line. The Lord of the Isles (Clan Donald) assumed the title of Earl of Ross. In fact it was Donald MacGillandrish who accompanied Moira McDonald of Clan Donald when she became the wife to a McIntosh chief in the 1400's. their descendants became known as MacAndrew (son of the servant of Andrew). This is the origin of the affiliation with Clan Chattan.

A Clan in its own Right

According to the Lord Lyon, there was an Anderson of that Ilk in the 1500's. This specific Anderson is unknown to us today. But this reference verifies that the Andersons are a clan in their own right, despite having a shared ancestry with other groups. The Anderson name shows up in many forms: Andrews, Andirsoone, Andersonne, Andersoun, Andersoune, Andison, Andreson, Andherson, MacAndrews, Endirone, and many other

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Clan Arthur
 

The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros" meaning keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name is now known around the world as a result of the legendary King Arthur who may have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record of the name is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain named his son Arthur, also in the 6th century.

The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the legendary King Arthur, are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs and the Devil". The more established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old kingdom of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch Fyne.

The clan was at its peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader, Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.

When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the 15th century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions. The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the end of the clan; unlike others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands, though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.

For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells. Charles MacArthur, piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald of Islay.

Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century, a number of MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous and as a result of a skirmish on Loch Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the situation and appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.

In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon rose to be a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers of MacArthurs fought on both sides during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the '45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.

John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia in 1790. He was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino breed from South Africa). His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.

In more modern times, US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from Glasgow in Scotland, became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son, General Douglas MacArthur, became even more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.

The last clan chief of the MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no obvious male heir and so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87 at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan members. The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich. The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure (blue) background". The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur Chief's shield, has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical to the description given in ancient manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated in April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.

The MacArthur clan motto is "Fide et opera" which means "By fidelity and labour".

Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan are limited to Arthur.

Clan Baxter
 

Motto: Vincit veritas (Latin: Truth prevails)
Names associated with the clan: BAXTER BAXTAR BACSTER BAXSTARE BAXSTAR BAXSTAIR BAKSTER BAXSTER MACVAXTER MAKBAXSTAR MACBAXTAR MACBAXTER BAKER

 

This is an occupational name derived from the Old English word "baecestre" meaning a female baker and later Middle English "bakstere" which was applied to both male and female bakers. In early Latin charters the name is rendered as "pistor" - the Latin word for baker. In that form the name is found as early as the 12th century.

Baxters are found all across Scotland but those in the west are generally regarded as dependents of the Clan Macmillan.

In Fife, they were a prominent family in their own right and witnessed important documents in the 13th century. Between 1200 and 1240 a Reginald Baxtar witnessed a gift of a church of Wemyss in Fife. The name is still found frequently in Fife and the Baxters of Earlshall in northern Fife lived in a baronial castle there. Kilmaron Castle was a mansion built for a Baxter family near Cupar in Fife, around 1820.

In 1296 Geffrei le Baxtere of Lossithe in Forfar took an oath of allegiance to the king. Baxter was (and is) a common name in Angus as Forfar was at one time a royal residence and the first Baxters there may well have been royal bakers.

The Baxters of Kincaldrum were the first to bring power-weaving to the City of Dundee. They prospered as a result and gifted Baxter Park to the city. They endowed a college which eventually became the University of Dundee.

In more modern times, the Baxter family in Fochabers on the river Spey in Morayshire have built a successful business creating quality soups and produce from local suppliers. And Stanley Baxter has had a long career as an actor and comedian.

The Baxter clan motto is "Vincit veritas" which means "Truth prevails".

MacBaxter is regarded as a sept (sub-branch) of the McMillan clan.

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CLAN HALDANE

Clan Chief: The current chief of Clan Haldane is Martin Haldane of Gleneagles.

Origins of the Haldanes of Gleneagles

[The following text is copied verbatim from The Haldanes of Gleneagles, General Sir J. Aylmer L. Haldane, 1929, William Blackwood & Sons, Ltd., London and Edinburgh, which book is in the Public Domain since 2004. While this text may appear on some message boards, it is NOT a copyright violation. Contact John Haldane for more information.]

HISTORIANS and genealogists have ascribed various origins to the family Haldane. Sir James Dalrymple, Nisbet, and others have suggested its descent from a Danish chief called Haldanus, or from an Anglo-Norman, Brien1 by name, whose son Bernard came to Scotland during the reign of King William the Lion (1165-1214), and was given by him a manor on the Border.2 The legend of Danish descent, which probably arose from the resemblance of the family name to that of this chief, is not borne out by the Kelso charters. In one of these,3 which is dated between 1165 and 1171, Bernard son of Brien is recorded, with some circumlocution, as granting to the monks of Kelso Abbey a carucate4 of land, ' which they have in the town of Hauden, and which they had before I came to Hauden in perpetual alms by the same boun¬daries by which they had the same before I came to Hauden.' A later charter from Bernard's nephew to the monks, which confirms the earlier gift, is couched in precisely the same words.5 A perusal of these two documents shows unmistakably that before Bernard obtained his lands on the border, they bore the name of Hauden, and proves that his surname - or rather that of his successor and his descendants, for he himself never dropped his designation of 'son of Brien ' - was derived from the title by which the lands were known, and from it alone.

This Bernard, son of Brien was the undoubted founder of the Haldane family in Scotland. He was a frequent witness to royal and other charters, and these, through their being dated at different places, show that he belonged to the royal retinue and probably filled some post near the person of the King. That he was a man of birth and consequence is obvious from the fact that he appears as a witness in company with some of the most important persons in the kingdom. Take, for example, the charter by King William to the abbey of Scone, dated at Dunfermline between 1165 and 1171.6 This charter, which confirms to the abbey all liberties that had been granted to it by the King's elder brother Malcolm IV., was witnessed, amongst others, by Nichol, the Chancellor of Scotland Duncan, 5th Earl of Fife, who was Justiciar of the northern kingdom for more than twenty years, and who, 'as in the case of former Earls of Fife, is given precedence over the other Earls of Scotland as witnesses to the King's charters;' 7 Walter Fitz-Alan, the first High Stewart of Scotland, who had great possessions in the lowlands ; David Ollifard, godson of David I., and the earliest known holder of the high office of Justiciar;8 a Richard Cumin, ancestor of the Red Comyn, who fell by the hand of Bruce ; Robert de Quincy, who through marriage owned estates in Fife, and whose son, Sair de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, was one of the twenty-five celebrated barons who were appointed to enforce the observance of Magna Charta ; and last on this list of notables comes Bernard son of Brien.

Apart, however, from the inference to be drawn from the royal charters, it is otherwise clear that Bernard son of Brien was a man of good birth, and one who knew who his ancestors were. This emerges from the fact that both he and his nephew, also called Bernard, in not less than six charters, refer to their 'ancestors and successors' - an expression which, though it is to be found in other deeds of the time, more particularly in deeds of mortification or bequests to religious houses, is not without significance.9

The question of Bernard's descent from a Danish source has been shown to be unfounded, and as regards the suggestion that he was of Anglo-Norman extraction no evidence has been found to substantiate it. It may, however, be mentioned that his father's name Brien was a common one in the family of the Counts of Brittany, who, though not Normans in the strict sense of the word, were nominally vassals of the Conqueror, and fought under his banner at Hastings. The dates associated with one of them, known as Brien Fitz-Count, a son of the head of that family, coincide closely with those of Bernard's father. This alone might count for little, but the facts that Margaret, a sister of King William the Lion, was the wife of Conon IV Duke of Brittany, and that Bernard was in that king’s retinue, and was given a manor by him, lend colour to the possibility of a connection with that nominally Norman family.  [please refer to Clan Haldane for further information]

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CLAN HALL

Motto: "Vive Ut Vivas" - Live, So That You May Live
Arms: Three black Talbots (a species of hound) heads

Septs: Halle, Haule, Haul, Hal, De Aula, Hale, Haw, Collingwood, Crispin, Fitz William, MacHall.

History:  The history of Scotland, shrouded by the mists of time, indicates that the name 'Hall', is a Norman surname. The name 'Hall', was found in Lincolnshire [England] where they were granted lands after the Norman Conquest in 1066.

Upon entering England with the Norman Conquest, the Hall's were actually 'FITZ WILLIAM'S', they being settled in Greatford Hall in Lincolnshire, and being directly descended from Wentworth, Earl FitzWilliam. The younger son of this noble house, Arthur FitzWilliam, was called 'Hall', to distinguish him from his senior brother. Hence Arthur Hall would be the first on record about the year 1090 AD. The line continued in Lincolnshire, and intermarried with the Crispins, and the Earls of Chester. In Cheshire [England], the Hall's were a cadet branch of the Kingsley Hall's of that county. By 1340 AD, the name had moved northward at the invitation of Earl David of Huntingdon, later to become King David of Scotland. In Scotland, they were granted lands in Berwickshire, specifically the lands of Glenryg in the barony of Lesmahagow.

 

The Hall's were one of the sixty (60) major riding families of the Anglo-Scottish border and were involved in reiving as other border clans were. During one of the 'Day of Truce' occasions, a Robert Spragon 'fyled' a complaint against two Halls that had rustled 120 sheep. The traditional homes of the Hall's were at Redesdale in England; East Teviotdale, and Liddesdale, in Scotland. Some notables in the Scottish East March were: John Hall of Newbigging; George Hall (called Pats Geordie there; Andrew Hall of the Sykes, and Thom Hall in Fowlscheils. Other Hall's lived in Aynstrother; Glenryg, in the barony of Lesmahagow; Garvald; Irvide; Glasgow; Sancharmvr, in Preswick; and Perth.

By 1600 AD, many branches had developed in England and Scotland: Lord Llanover, Sir John Hall, Bishop Hall of Bristol, Bishop Hall of Wearmouth, and at the same time, continuing their interest and seats at Skelton Castle, Yorkshire, Greatford Hall in Lincolnshire, and Gravell House in Middlesex. Notable amongst the family at this time was Hall of Berwickshire.

 

[This information courtesy of W. Wiseman of New Zealand]

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CLAN HAMILTON

 

Motto: "Through".
Badge: An oak tree, penetrated by a frame saw, standing above a ducal coronet.
Names associated with the clan: Hamilton, Hammeltoune, Hammyltoune, Hamyltoune, Hammyltoun, Hamyltone, Hamulthone, Cadzow.

 

HISTORY

Origin of the name:

In Old English "hamel dun" meant "bare hill" and there were a number of places in England with names derived from these words. Walter de Hameldone, owned property in near Paisley in Renfrewshire in 1294. In the War of Independence in 1290-1305, he was initially loyal to King Edward I of England but later supported Robert the Bruce. He was granted further lands by Bruce in Lothian and Lanarkshire, including lands at Cadzow (which was later renamed Hamilton). Walter's son, David, fought for King David II at the Battle of Neville Cross in 1346.

 

In 1474, James Hamilton married Princess Mary, daughter of King James II and was made Lord Hamilton and their son, who was in line of succession to the throne, was made Earl of Arran. The family built Brodick Castle as a Highland home (it is now National Trust property). The second Earl of Arran was made Regent of Scotland during the childhood of Mary Queen of Scots and proposed that his son should marry her. However, she married the Dauphin (heir to the throne) of France instead. Nevertheless, the Earl of Arran was created Duke of Chatelherault, a French title. Later, the Earl tried to save Mary after her ill-fated marriage to Lord Darnley and sheltered her at Cadzow after her escape from Loch Leven.

 

The fourth Earl of Arran became Chancellor of Scotland and in 1599 and he was advanced to the rank of Marquess. His brother Claud was created Lord Paisley and then Lord Abercorn and this branch prospered, becoming a dukedom in 1868, with a seat in Ulster.

 

The third Marquess supported King Charles I and he was made Duke of Hamilton in 1643 and the premier peer of Scotland. His daughter, Annie, married William Douglas, Earl of Selkirk. The foundations of a palace, near Hamilton in Lanarkshire, were laid at this time. The palace was later demolished because of mining subsidence but the magnificent hunting lodge named Chatelherault still survives in a public park. The seat of the Duke of Hamilton is now Lennoxlove, in East Lothian.

 

Other Hamiltons of note in Scottish history include Patrick Hamilton who was martyred for his Protestant beliefs in 1528 and the grandson of the 3rd Duke who climbed Vesuvius 22 times and married Emma, Lord Nelson's beloved. The 14th Duke was the pilot of the first plane to fly over Mount Everest (in 1933).

 

The Hamilton clan motto is "Through".

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CLAN HANNAY
Names Associated with Clan Hannay:  Hannay · Hanna · Hanney ·  Hannah Clan Chief:  Ramsay William Rainsford Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk, Chief of the Name and Arms of Hannay, Died 10 January 2004 – Gatehouse-of-Fleet, Scotland and was succeeded by his son, Dr. David R Hannay.
Origins of the clan: The name Hannay may have originally been spelt Ahannay, possibly deriving from the Gaelic word 'O'Hannaidh' or 'Ap Shenaeigh'- "Son of Senach". The family can be traced back to Galloway in South-West Scotland. The name 'Gillbert de Hannethe' appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296, submitting to King Edward I of England. The Hannay's lands of Sorbie in Wigtownshire were reportedly acquired by the same Gillbert de Hannethe.
Unlike many Scottish nobles and clans the Clan Hannay did not support Robert the Bruce but instead supported John Balliol because he was more local to them through his descent from the Celtic Princess of Galloway.

15th & 16th centuries:  In 1488 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Later in 1513 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field which was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1532 Patrick Hannay was acquitted of the murder of Patrick McClellen as he had killed him in self defense.

James Hannay, the Master Gunner in the reign of James V led the clan at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 which were part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The family began to spread and a tower built at Sorbie in 1550 which commanded views their ever increasing territory.  The ancient clan seat, Sorbie Tower is owned by the members of Clan Hannay International and in 1965 received grants from Historic Scotland.

17th century  Patrick Hannay had a distinguished military career and was patroned by Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James VI and sister of Charles I. After the death of Queen Anne who was the wife of James VI in 1619 Patrick Hannay composed two eulogies and in return had many published on his own death, one of which said: 'Go on in virtue, aftertimes will tell, none but Hannay could have done so well'.  Sir Patrick (3rd) Privy Councillor of Ireland, and Master of the Chancellery in Ireland, died at sea in 1625.

Possibly the best known Hannay was James Hannay, the Dean of St Giles' in Edinburgh who had the claim to fame of being the target of Jenny Geddes' stool. In an infamous incident in 1637 the Dean had begun to read the new liturgy when with a cry of "Thou false thief, dost thou say Mass at my lug?" was heard and a stool came flying from the congregation, thrown by an incensed Jenny Geddes. The incident began a full scale riot which took the town guard to control. Sir Robert Hannay of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia In 1630, and from the Sorbie roots the Hannays of Grennan, Knock, Garrie and Kingsmuir also evolved.

Clan conflicts  The fortunes of the original Hannays of Sorbie were seriously dented in the seventeenth century when a long running feud with the powerful Clan Murray of Broughton resulted in the Hannays being outlawed. The clan has also had previous feuds with the Clan Kennedy and Clan Dunbar. After the feud with the Clan Murray the famous tower at Sorbie fell into disrepair and was lost along with the neighbouring lands around 1640. Many Hannays moved to Ireland, in particular Ulster and the name can still be found there and in many surrounding counties, particularly in the form "Hanna".

Another form of the name, "Hannah", is particularly common amongst the descendants of those that remained in Scotland.  Another variation of Hannay is "Hanney". In Oxfordshire, England, there are two villages called East Hanney and West Hanney.  Yet another version of Hannay is "Hanner". Although less common, Hanner, like Hanna, is found amongst the descendants of those who moved to Ireland.

The modern Clan Hannay  Sir Samuel Hannay, who had served within the Habsburg Empire. He returned to Scotland having amassed a considerable wealth and built a great mansion house which was said to be the inspiration for Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Guy Mannering. Sir Samuel's baronetcy became dormant on his death in 1841 and the estates passed to his sister, Mary, then further to her nephew, William Rainsford Hannay, on her death in 1850. From this direct line comes the present chief Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk.

One branch of the family begun by a younger son of the Sorbie Hannays, Alexander Hannay took lands at Kirkdale, by Kirkcudbright. The line established by his son John Hannay of Kirkdale is now recognised as the chiefly one.

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CLAN HARVEY
 

Motto:  "Veritas Vincit" which means "Truth conquers"

Chief:  The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Kintore

Names Associated with Clan Harvey:  HERVEY/HERVIE/HARVEY/HARVIE.

HISTORY

Origins of the name:

This ancient surname, well recorded in Scotland, has two possible sources, the first being from the Breton personal name "Aeruiu" or "Haerviu", composed of the elements "haer", meaning battle, and "vy", - worthy. The 1086 Domesday has various references to followers of William the Conqueror, including Herueu de Berruarius of Suffolk, and later Heuei de Castre of Lincoln, in 1157. These were not surnames, although in fact the first surname recording was only just behind. The second source is Irish. It is said that a Galway clan called originally the O'hAirmheadhaigh, did 'anglicise' their name to Harvey or Harvie.

The Gaelic translates as 'the descendant of the son of Airmed'. The surname is generally recorded as Harvey, Harvie, Hervie and Hervey, and early recordings include William Hervy of Essex in 1232, Warin Harvi in the Pipe Rolls of Cambridge for the year 1273, and John Hervy, burgess of Aberdeen in 1398. The roll of famous namebearers includes William Harvey (1578 - 1657), who discovered the circulation of the blood in 1616, whilst Edmond Harvey, a Parliamentarian Colonel, was one of the fifty three regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles 1st in January 1649. Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey was one of the 1798 leaders of the Irish rebellion, whilst curiously Robert Hervie of Scotland was a member of the Huntly Volunteer force, raised to combat a possible French-Irish invasion. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of William Hervi, which was dated 1190, in the 'Calendar of Abbot Samson of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk', during the reign of King Richard 1, known as "The Lionheart", 1189 - 1199.

CLAN HISTORY

There are those who could argue that the Keith Clan name more correctly would be Harvey.In the time of David I, King of Scotland (about 1160), a Scottish Knight named Hervey is said to have obtained a grant of the north-west portion of the lands of Keith, in East Lothian (near Aberdeen). From the owner, it was called Keith-Hervey. It was this Hervey who held the office of King's Marischal under Malcom IV and William the Lion. The title Marischal became hereditary, and was passed to his grandson Philip upon Hervey's death in 1196. As was the custom at the time, the family became known by the name Keith, after the lands they possessed. The Keiths were a very powerful Celtic family in the far north of Scotland and their chiefs continued to hold the important office of Marischal of Scotland for six hundred years. Numerous Earl Marischals used the name Hervey or Harvey throughout their history. Famous episodes of their chronicles are a bloody and treacherous battle with their Norse neighbors, the Gunns, in 1464 and the rescue in Cromwell's time of the Scottish Regalia which the sixth Earl Marischal hid safely at Dunottar Castle.

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CLAN HORSBURGH

Crest:  A horse's head coupled Argent.  Motto:  Aegre De Tramite Recto (With difficulty along the right path)  Chief:  Armigerous*

 

HISTORY

The lands & barony of Horsburgh lie near Innerleithen in Peebleshire.  The ruins of the tower of the same name still stand, and according to Black, the first of this race is believed to have been an Anglo-Saxon designated horse or orse, who settled on the north bank of the River Tweed and there built the castle which communicated the present surname to his descendents.

 

The earliest name on record is Simon de Horsbrock, who witnessed a charter by William Purveys of Mospennoc to the monks of Melrose Abbey in the reigh on Alexander II.  William de Horsboroch is recorded in 1283.  In the diocese of Glasgow in 1287, he is lited as a Notary Public.  In 1297 Simon de Horsbrok was in the foreigh service of Edward I and had his lands restored in the same year.

Alexander Horsbrock of that Ilk is recorded in 1479. and another Alexander Horsbruik was served heir to John Horsbruik, his father, in the lands and mill of Horsbruik (1550). Lady Horsburgh of Horsburgh was the last Horsburgh to hold the barony, which, upon her marriage, passed into the Chinnery family.

The arms recorded by Nisbet of a silver horses head on a blue shield are clearly a pun based on the family name.

James Horsburgh, a fellow of the Royal Society, was a distinguished hydrographer at the beginning af the nineteenth century. In 1810 he was appointed hydrographer to the East India Company. He published numerous works on maritime subjects, which were to become standard authorities in that field.

The name is still found in the Borders and around Edinburgh..

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CLAN HAY

 

Chief:  Rt Hon Merlin Hay, 24th Earl of Erroll and Lord High Constable of Scotland.

 

Badge: A falcon flying. The coat of arms shows farm implements which, legend has it, were weapons by which the Hays repelled a Danish invasion at Luncarty.

 

Motto: Serva jugmen - "Keep the yoke".


Names associated with the clan:

Alderston, Arroll, Aue,Ay, Aye, Ayer, Beagrie, Con, Conn, Constable, da Hay, Da Haya, D'Ay, D'Aye, de Hay, de Haya, de la Hay, De la Haye, de Plessis, Delgatie, Dellahay, Des Hay, Deshays, Drumelizior, Dupplin, Erroll, Garra, Garrad, Garrow, Gifford, Hawson, Hay, Hayburn, Hayden, Haydock, Haye, Hayens, Hayes, Hayfield, Hayhoe, Hayhow, Haylees, Haylor, Hayne, Haynes, Haynie, Hays, Hayse, Hayson, Hayston, Haystoun, Hayter, Hayton, Haytor, Hayward, Haywood, Hea, Hey, Heyes, Kellour, Kinnoullm Laxfirth, Leis, Leith, Lockerwort, MacGaradh, MacGarra, MacGarrow, MacHay, McArra, O'Garra, O'Garrow, O'Hay Aue, O'Hea, Peebles, Peeples, Peoples, Slains, Turriff, Tweeddale, Yester. Also certain families of: Ritchie, Ley, Watson, and King.

 

HISTORY

 

The first record of the name Hay, Norman in origin, is William de Haya, Cupbearer of Malcolm IV of Scotland, who arrived in this country around 1160 and married a Celtic heiress. He was one of the hostages held in England with William the Lion and on his return was granted an extensive manor in Erroll. His younger brother Robert was progenitor of the Earls of Tweeddale. Tradition has it that Thomas the Rhymer prophesied that an oak tree, covered by mistletoe would fall during a strange Hay ritual which took place every Halloween. When this prophecy became fact, the estate of Erroll was sold in 1636. The 3rd Baron, Gilbert was Co-Regent of Scotland, Sir Gilbert the 5th chief featured prominently in the Scottish War of Independence and was given Slains castle in Buchan and made Hereditary Lord High Constable of Scotland by Bruce. (A post which the family retains and is the highest ranking position in Scotland after the Royal family) The 7th chief married the King's daughter, while William, 9th chief was created Earl of Erroll in 1452. At the Battle of Flodden in 1513, the 4th Earl, William was killed along with 87 other Hays. In 1594 the Royal forces under Argyll were defeated by the Earl of Huntly in alliance with the 9th Earl of Erroll. In revenge King James personally blew up Slains Castle. Sir William Hay of Delgaty, Montrose's Chief of Staff was beheaded with him in 1650. The 13th Earl, Charles helped to organise the 1708 Jacobite attempt and was imprisoned after the Rising. His sister Mary who succeeded him as Countess of Erroll in 1717 raised her clan for Prince Charles during the '45. The Border branch of the Hays became Lords Hay of Yester in 1488 and are now represented by the 11th Marquis of Tweed-dale.

 

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CLAN HENDERSON

 

Henderson Gaelic Name: Mac Eanruig

Motto: Sola virtus nobilitat (Virtue alone ennobleS)

Badge: Cotton grass

Lands: Caithness and Glencoe                                                                   

Origin of Name: Henry's son

Clan Chief

The Chief of Clan Henderson is Alistair Donald Henderson of Fordell, an environmental engineer specialising in air pollution control who lives in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Chief is recognized by Lord Lyon, King of Arms, and is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs (SCSC).

 

HISTORY

 

Origins of the Clan

Clann Eanruig (pronounced KLAHN YAHN-reegk) is the Gàidhlig (Scots Gaelic) name for the Scottish clan known as "the Hendersons" in English. The words "Scot," "Scots" (not scotch), "Scottish," and "Scotland" derive from the Latin word "Scotus" meaning a Celtic inhabitant of Hibernia (Ireland) at the time of the Roman occupation of southern Britannia (Great Britain), i.e., an Irishman. The Scots of Caledonia flourished and soon outnumbered their Pictish neighbors.

The ancient Picts and Scots followed the Celtic custom of matrilineality. This meant that sons could not depend on their father's status, but instead had to establish domains of their own.

Pictish prince Eanruig Mor mac Righ Nechtan (Big Henry the son of King Nechtan) established a distinguished family line. The descendants of Prince Henry were known collectively as “clann Eanruig” meaning the “family of Henry.” The males of the clan took the surname “mac Eanruig” meaning “son of Henry,” which was later translated into English variously as “Henryson,” “Henderson,” “McHenry,” “McHendry,” “MacKendrick,” and such. The females of the clan took the surname “nic Eanruig” meaning “daughter of Henry.” A woman normally kept her own clan surname after marriage, and she could usually depend on her clan's support in a dispute with her husband. Families could give children the clan surname of either their mother or father. Over time, the descendants of other prominent Henrys also took the family name "clann Eanruig." Eventually, the most prominent of these families coalesced into a single clan identity.

 

Alliances

Though a small clan, the Hendersons rose to prominence in Caithness, Glencoe, the Shetland Islands and Fordell in Fife. In Caithness, Clan Henderson associated with Clan Gunn. In Glencoe, Clan Henderson forged a close alliance with the powerful Clan Donald. A separate family grouping arose in Liddesdale and Ewesdale, being one of the smaller families of Border Reivers.

The Hendersons known for their size and strength became the personal body guards of the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe. In 1692, King William III, suspecting the loyalty of Clan Donald, secretly set the Clan Campbell upon the MacDonalds and Hendersons in the Massacre of Glencoe. Standing six feet and seven inches tall, the powerful "Big Henderson" of the Chanters was the MacDonald chief's piper and protector, and fell with the chief in the cold February night of 1692. After the Massacre, many Henderson families emigrated to Ulster ,North America and mid wales.

 

Highland Clearances

During the Highland Clearances from 1746 to 1822, many more Henderson families left Scotland for Ireland, England, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and other lands.

 

Hendersons in the Modern World

In 1934, British statesman Arthur Henderson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for world disarmament. Epidemiologist Dr. Donald Ainslie "D.A." Henderson led the World Health Organization's successful effort to eradicate smallpox throughout the world.

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CLAN HEPBURN 
Hepburn is a family name of the Scottish-English border area.  It is associated with a variety of famous personages, places, and things. Although usually a Scottish name, the origins may be just south of the border in the north of England. It may have derived from the Northumberland towns of Hebron or Hebburn. It is perhaps the same as Hebborne, from the Ancient English words heah ("high") and byrgen ("burial mound"). Alternatively it could mean something along the lines of "high place beside the water.  A "burn" is a word meaning "river" in both English and Scots.  ,

The remains of a Bastle Tower can be found near Chillingham Castle.  This is where the family originated. This was the seat of a line of the family until the eighteenth century when that branch died out having left only a female heir. The Hepburn family is perhaps best remembered because of the Earl of Bothwell, a husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.  Katherine Hepburn, the famous American actress is another well remembered part of this family.  A branch of the family originated in Lothian.  A Hepburn was granted land for having saved the Earl of March from a horse that had lost control.  Subsequently they became the Lords of Hailes and were ultimately rewarded by being granted the Earldom of Bothwell.  

There were also Hepburns of Waughton, thought by some to have branched off from the Hailes line, thought by others to predate it. Another line was the Hepburns of Beanston, and yet another was the Hepburns of Athelstaneford. Primarily located in East Lothian, all of these families were prominent in various ways at various junctures of Scottish history.

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CLAN HOGG
 

Names Associated With Clan Hogg:  Hogg, Hogge, Hogue, Hoig

Chief:  Armigerous*

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

 

Taken from a person who was very tall. From the Germanic element hoch meaning 'tall'.  This is a hereditary surname of Nickname Origin.  Nicknames were derived from a physical feature, character, a favoured style of clothing or from animals, birds, flowers or a colour. Naming was borne thousands of years ago and at first there were just first names.

Around the 11th century the Normans introduced the first hereditary surnames taken from their estates in France. By the 15th century they had spread to England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and the rest of the European countries. They consisted of a store of Baptismal, Locality, and Occupation names with Nicknames being formed from the Norman originals and Old Norse terms.

In these early centuries Coats of Arms were borne. The knights wore heavy armour from head to foot and the only means of identification for his followers was the emblem on the shield and on this surcoat. The Coat of Arms for this surname is one of the first granted from the very early centuries.

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CLAN HOPE
Clan chief: The chief of Clan Hope is Sir John Hope of Craighall, Baronet. The chiefly line of the Hope family survives through the Baronets of Craighall.

Motto: At Spes Infracta [Yet My Hope is Unbroken]

Origins of the clan: Hope is a native Scottish name. However, in middle English it means 'small valley'. Another suggestion is that it derives from 'oublon', which is French for 'hop' and could be from the family de H'oublons of Picardy.

HISTORY:  The Clan Hope was a Scottish border family and their name is among those found on the Ragman Rolls giving the oath of fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.

16th century: The principal line can be traced back to John de Hope, who travelled from France with Magdalen the first wife of King James V of Scotland. John settled in Edinburgh and became commissioner for Edinburgh to the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1560.

17th century:  John de Hope's grandson Sir Thomas Hope was Lord Advocate as appointed by King Charles I. The family became 'Hope of Craighall' after acquiring the estates of the same name in the parish of Ceres in Fife. Sir Thomas Hope's contribution to the Scottish legal profession was immense and his works are still referred to by Scottish lawyers today. He saw two sons raised to the Supreme Court Bench and was created Baron of Nova Scotia in 1638. He also drafted the National Covenant. After his death in 1646 his eldest son took the title 'Lord Craighall'. Lord Craighall became a trusted advisor to Charles II, his advice proved particularly useful in his dealings with Oliver Cromwell.

18th century: The younger son of the great Sir Thomas Hope founded the Hopetoun branch of the family and settled in West Lothian. His son was lost at sea when the frigate Gloucester sank. There is a story that he died saving the Duke of York, James VII of Scotland. Sir Thomas's grandson was a young member of parliament for Linlithgow, rising rapidly to the Privy Council and by 1703 was made a peer; Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie and Lord Hope. Around this time the magnificent Hopetoun House, one of William Adam's best known houses, was built for the family.

In 1792 the Craighall estates were sold on by the sixth Baronet to the Earl of Hopetoun, Sir Thomas Hope. The eighth Baronet is best known for turning former plague pits in Edinburgh into the 'Meadows' park.  The Earl of Hopetoun's estates grew rapidly in the 18th century with most of West Lothian, and parts of East Lothian and Lanarkshire.

19th century:  The fourth Earl, who had a notable military career, particularly during the Peninsular War, worked with Sir Walter Scott in welcoming George IV during his visit to Scotland in 1822. Hopetoun House was used to host a lavish reception for the monarch.

20th century:  The name John Adrian Hope is well remembered on the other side of the world; the seventh Earl was first Governor General to the Australian Commonwealth in 1900. Two years later he was made Marquess of Linlithgow. The second Marquess was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. The family still live at Hopetoun House.

Clan Castle: The seat of the Clan Hope is at Hopetoun House. Hopetoun House is the traditional residence of the Earl of Hopetoun (later the Marquess of Linlithgow). It was built in 1699 and was designed by William Bruce, and extended in 1721 by William Adam. The house is located near South Queensferry to the west of Edinburgh, Scotland.

Classical musical recitals are occasionally put on at Hopetoun House. During the summer months, the castle is open to visitors. It can also be rented for weddings, conferences, and as a film set.

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Clan Houston

Chief: A living member of the clan, Josh Houston, has taken up the case with the Court of the Lord Lyon to be instated as the Chief of the Houston Clan. The Court has yet to reach a decision. Until then the clan will be considered as armigerous.*

Motto: In Vicis ("In Time").

HISTORY

Origins of the Clan: The name is territorial in origin, derived from an old barony of the name in Lanarkshire. Hugh de Padinan, who is believed to have lived in the twelfth century, was granted the lands of Kilpeter. By about the middle of the fourteenth century, these lands had become known as Huston. Sir Finlay de Hustone appears on the Ragman Roll swearing fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.

The castle of the de Hustones was built on the site of an ancient Cistercian abbey. The family also acquired a substantial barony near Whitburn, West Lothian, where Huston House, which was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, still stands today. Sir Patrick Hustone of that Ilk, who was probably the eleventh chief, married Agnes Campbell of Ardkinglas.

16th & 17th Centuries: During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Sir Peter Huston fought with the Earl of Lennox on the right wing at Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, where he was killed. His son, Sir Patrick Huston of Huston, was a companion of James V of Scotland and Keeper of the Quarter Seal. He intrigued with Lord Lennox against the king, and was slain at the Battle of Linlithgow. The next Sir Patrick, his grandson, was knighted by Mary, Queen of Scots, and accompanied her when she visited Lord Darnley in Glasgow.

The nineteenth chief was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles II in 1668. His son, Sir John, was falconer to Queen Mary and her husband, King William of Orange.

18th & 19th Centuries: The fifth Baronet was a prosperous merchant who had substantial interests in United States. His son, who was educated in Glasgow, made his home in Georgia (U.S. state), and he and his brother greatly increased the family’s colonial estates. They are reputed to have owned over eight thousand slaves when the thirteen American colonies broke from Great Britain and declared their independence. The Hustons renounced their Scottish titles in favour of their American wealth. From this family descended General Sam Houston, born in 1793, who fought for the independence of Texas from Mexico. He was first president of Texas and later a United States Senator. Sir Robert Houston, descended from a Renfrew branch of the family, was a prominent Victorian ship owner who was created a baronet of the United Kingdom. He is credited with developing the theory of convoys first used during the Boer War

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CLAN INGLIS

Crest:  A demi lion rampant Argent

Chief:  Armigerous*

Motto:  Nobilis Est Ira Leonis (The Lion’s Anger is Noble)


Names associated with the clan: Englis, Ingles, Inglis, Ingalls, Ingals

HISTORY

The name Inglis is believed to have come from the old English for 'Englishman'.  An Early (12th century) mention of the name (Richard Anglicus) is found in the witnessing of a charter of David I to Melrose Abbey.

In 1296, when Edward I invaded Scotland, the names of John de Inglis, Walter de Inglis and Philip de inglis are recorded as owning a great deal of land.

During the early 14th century there was an Inglis family living in Douglasdale, Lanarkshire, along with the
Douglases.  Douglasdale was at this time being frequently invaded and held by the English.  The Inglises did the Douglases a great service when one of them overheard an English plot to take the castle, and sent a warning at great personal risk.  The Inglises were asked to name their reward, and were granted a part of the local church, St Brides, as their family burial place.  The Inglis coat of arms can be seen on the wall of the south transept to this day.

During the reign of Robert the
Second and Third, in 1395, Sir William Inglis duelled with Sir Thomas Struthers, killing the English champion.  As a reward, the family was given the Barony of Manner by royal charter the following year, thereafter tracing their descent from Sir William.  The family had for some time been followers of the Douglases, and now strengthened this association by adding the three Douglas stars to their own coat of arms.

The Barony was finally sold in 1707, when Chiefship was given to Charles Inglis of Craigend, an edinburgh lawyer who died in 1743.


A prosperous branch of the family lived in Crammond, Edinburgh, since purchasing land from the Bishop of Dunkeld in 1624.

In 1680 John Inglis built Crammond House near the Bishop's palace, and a short time later, in 1687, Sir James Inglis received a baronetcy.  Sir James's son later became Postmaster General of Scotland until 1725.

 

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CLAN INNES

Motto: Be Traist (Be Faithful) Crest: A Boar's Head Plant: The Great Bullrush Accepted spellings: Eanes, Ince, Inch, Innes, Ennis, Inness, Innis

Septs of the Clan Innes (sub clans of the Clan Innes):
MacTary, Milnes, Marnoch, Mitchell, Maver, Oynie, Mavor, Redford, McInnes, Reidford, Middleton, Thain, Mill, Wilson, MacRob, Milne, Yunie

Chief:  Armigerous*

 HISTORY

Origin of the Name

The clan takes its name from the lands of Innes in Moray, Scotland. It dates back to 1160 AD when King Malcolm IV conferred the Barony of Innes on one of his knights, Berowald of Flanders. The Barony was located on the outskirts of Elgin in Morayshire. It stretched for over 6 miles along the shore of the Moray Firth between the Spey and Lossie rivers. The name derives from the Gaelic, Innis, which means meadow, greens or island, all descriptive of this area. The Innes' grew to become one of the most powerful families in the province of Moray, dominating the parishes of Urquhart, Lhanbryde and the surrounding district. Innes House was built on the Barony by Sir Robert Innes, 20th chief of the Clan Innes, between1640 and 1653.

Sir James Innes, 22nd chief, married Lady Margaret Ker in 1666 and as a result their great grandson, Sir James Innes, inherited the Dukedom of Roxburghe in 1805 when the Ker family line died out. Today Sir Guy David Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe is the 30th Baron of Innes in direct descent from Berowald of Flanders. He resides at Floors castle near Kelso in the Scottish borders.

 

During the latter part of the 14 century Kinnairdy came into the ownership of the Innes family when Sir Alexander Innes married Janet, daughter of Sir David de Aberkerder, the lineal descendant of the Thanes of Aberkerder An imposing structure overlooking the river Deveron in rural Aberdeenshire, this ancient fortress has stood sentinel over the surrounding valleys since the 12th century, the present stone construction replacing a wooden structure known as a Motte & Bailey, in the 14th century.

 

The Tower of Kinnairdy Castle, which occupies the present site is believed to have been built by Sir Walter Innes (son of Sir Alexander Innes, 9th of that ilk) around 1420. For the next two centuries Kinnairdy remained in the hands of subsequent Clan chiefs who took a full part in the tumultuous history of Scotland.

 

The break with the Innes Clan came in 1627 when Sir Robert, the 20th chief sold the lands of Kinnairdy, in part as a result of his political activities and close association with the Court of Charles, many lawsuits and also in order to concentrate on the original Innes lands in Morayshire which was the home territory of Sir Roberts wife, she being Lady Grizel Stewart, 3rd daughter of the "Bonny Earl of Moray".

 

In 1923 Kinnairdy was again restored to the Innes family when it was purchased by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms 1945 - 1969. The author of many learned papers on Scots Peerage Law, Heraldry and Ceremonial, he was deeply interested in the family history. He set about restoring Kinnairdy with the help of his sister Miss Helen C. Innes of Crommy, a very able and astute lady who assisted with many of the more mundane tasks and who's advice was invaluable during restoration of the interior.

 

Following on from Sir Thomas' work, his son Sir Malcolm Innes, (Lord Lyon King of Arms, now retired) continued to restore the building which is now nearing completion under the guidance of the present owner, Mr Colin Innes.

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CLAN JARDINE

 

Chief: Sir Alexander Maule Jardine of Applegarth, 12th Baronet and Chief of the Name and Arms of Jardine.

Chief's crest: A spur rowel of six points Proper

Chief's motto: Cave adsum (Latin: Beware I am present)

Plant badge: Apple blossom

Names & Septs Associated with Clan Jardine:  Jardine, Jardines, Gardino, Gardin, Gardinus, Garden, Jardin, Jardane, Jerdane, Jerden, Jerdone, Jarden, Jardyne, Jarding, Jardyn, Gerden, Gerdain, Gairdner, Gardynnyr, Gardynsr, Gardnsrd, Gardinare, Gardinar, Gardenar, Gardenare, Gardnare, Gardener, Gardennar, Gardnar, Gardiner, Gardner.

Origins of the clan:  The Clan Jardine is believed to be of French origin. The French word jardin means garden or orchard and it is presumed that the Jardine family originally came from France. Members of the Jardine family travelled with William during the Norman conquest of England in 1066. However records of the name Jardine do not appear in Scotland until 1153 with the name Wmfredus de Jardine appearing on several charters.

The first mention of the name Jardine is contained in Hollingshead's Chronicles of England as one of the Normandic knights that fought for William at the Battle of Hastings (AD 1066). There is also evidence that may suggest that the Jardines were of Norse extraction that migrated to Normandy with a warrior named Rollo prior to 1066.

At some point in time the name or its meaning appears to have been translated into English. Patrick de Gardinus was chaplain to the Bishop of Glasgow and there is a signature on a document from 1245 of Sir Humphrey de Gardino. To add to the confusion Jorden del Orchard's signature appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296. Later Humphery de Jardine's name appears on a charter drawn up by Robert the Bruce.

Wars of Scottish Independence:  Unlike many Scottish clans during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Jardine are said to have fought against William Wallace and in support of the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 and the Battle of Falkirk (1298). However the Clan Jardine supported King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1311 where they helped the Scottish King defeat the English.

During the 14th century the Clan Jardine settled in Applegirth in Dumfriesshire. There they built Spedlins Tower which was the family's seat until the 17th century when Jardine Hall was built on the opposite banks of the River Annan.

16th century and Anglo Scottish Wars:  The border region between England and Scotland was a difficult place to live. There were constant raids and incursions by both sides. Chief Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegirth led the clan when they met an advancing force of English near Carlisle in 1524 where they took hundreds of English prisoners during the Anglo-Scottish Wars.

In 1547 the tables were turned when Alexander's son, the next chief, had to deal with over 5,000 English who overran the area, sacking the Jardine lands and forcing John Jardine of Applegirth to yield. John later sought assistance from the French and along with the Clan Jardine fell on their English oppressors taking many lives.

The Clan Jardine also supported the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, however her scandalous marriage to Bothwell after the suspicious murder of Lord Darnley turned the Jardines along with many other Scots to support her infant son James's claim to the throne.

In 1573 the King confirmed the grant of lands to Sir Alexander Jardine of Jardinefield in Berwickshire; Applegirth and Sibbaldbie in Dumfrieshire; Hartside and Wandel in Lanarkshire; and Kirkandrews in Kirkcudbright. It is recorded that he had to muster 242 men to fight for the King if required. It was these retainers who then had no surnames who became known as "Jardine Men" and adopted Jardine as their surname

17th century:  A later Sir Alexander Jardine forged a link to the powerful Clan Douglas through marriage to Lady Margaret Douglas, sister of the first Duke of Queensberry. They had a son, Alexander, in 1645, who was later created a Baronet of Nova Scotia.

The chief of the Clan Jardine and his family were reportedly forced to move from their seat at Spedlins Tower to Jardine Hall because of a grisly family secret; A miller had been left to starve to death in the dungeon of the tower and his ghost had driven the family from their home.

18th century:  The fourth Baronet was a Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta, taking a vow of celibacy. When he died in 1790 the title passed to his brother, Sir William. Jardines also made their mark on the literary world. Reverend John Jardine, born in 1716 mixed in the intellectual heart of Edinburgh during the Scottish Enlightenment had the good fortune to be part of a society that included great Scots such as economist and writer Adam Smith, philosopher David Hume, and the painter Allan Ramsay. He was one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review. His son, Sir Henry Jardine, was one of those present when the Honours of Scotland were re-discovered in 1818. He was knighted in 1825 and later made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Clan seat:  The seat of the Chief of Clan Jardine was at Spedlins Tower. Spedlins Tower is situated by the River Annan, 4 miles (6.5 km) northwest of Lockerbie. It is a 15th century fortalice which was abandoned by the Clan Chief when he built a new mansion nearby. The tower fell into ruin. In the second half of the 20th century its ownership changed hands three times. The present owner bought Spedlins Tower in 1988 from her predecessor who had restored it.

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CLAN KINCAID

 

Motto: This I'll Defend Origin of Name: the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’

Clan Chief: Madam Arabella Kincaid of Kincaid

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

 

The name Kincaid, it is supposed, is territorial in origin, or possibly from ‘ceann cadha’, the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’ but could also be ‘of the head of the rock’, or even ‘the head of the battle.’ The lands of Kincade were granted to Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox by Alexander III in 1238 the Earl then passed these lands to Sir William Galbraith, the fourth chief. The direct male line ended in three sisters which resulted in the partitioning of the estate. One sister married a Logan and were confirmed lands of Kyncade by the fourth Earl of Lennox. The family took their surname from the area which was around 30,000 acres

Kincaids were present during Scotland's wars of independence; one family member fighting against Edward I and recapturing Edinburgh castle in 1296. A Kincaid was made constable of the castle and Robert the Bruce granted that the castle to be added to their arms as a recognition of their achievements.

The family estates grew in the sixteenth century, through marriage they gained the estate of Craiglockhart near Edinburgh, the estate of Bantaskin by Falkirk, Blackness Castle and the fields of Warriston, now in Edinburgh.

Malcolm Kincaid was involved in a battle against the Stirlings of Craigbarnet in 1563 were he lost his arm, he was also fighting with the Lennoxes of Woodhead in the 1570 before finally being dispatched by a Stirling of Glovat in 1581.

in 1600 John Kincaid of Warriston was murdered. His wife and one of his own grooms were implicated. both were put to death for their crimes, the wife beheaded and the groom 'broken on the wheel' a particularly grizzly punishment.

Kincaids supported the royalists during the civil war and suffered for this during the 'protectorate', prior to the restoration of the monarchy with many of the clan emigrating to America. They also supported the later Stewart cause, also costing them dear both during the 1715 and '45 rebellions with several Kincaids escaping to Virginia.

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the Kincaids became closely linked to the Lennoxes through marriage. The two families grew close, in complete contrast to the situation that had existed between them 200 years earlier.

Madam Heather Kincaid of Kincaid was the first chief of the name to sit on the Council of Chiefs and was succeeded in 2001 by her granddaughter Arabella.

For more information - especially in Ohio - you may contact bkincaid@cinci.rr.com

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CLAN KINNEAR

 

Crest: Saltire shaped by two anchors.

 

Motto: I LIVE IN HOPE

 

Chief: The Clan, although not ruled by a Chief, has a senior male in the way of Malcolm MacIntyre Kinnear.  It may be considered as Armigerous.*

 

Names Associated with Clan Kinnear:  Kinneir, Ceanniar, Kyner

 

History:

In the reign of Malcolm IV (1153-65) a family of Norman origin was established in the north of Fife as vassals of the priory of St Andrews. Symon, son of Michael, gave land from his holdings at Cathelai to the church of St Andrews earlier than 1164.  His descendants took their family name from the rest of the holdings. The head of the family took his surname from the lands of Kinnear (probably Gaelic ceann iar - 'west headland') now represented on the map only by a farm name.  It is located near Wormit, in Fife.

By 1296 Sir John de Kyner was important enough to have his name included in the Ragman Roll. He was listed as “submissive to Edward I.”

Henry Kinnear of that Ilk was appointed commendator of Balmerino Abbey in 1574, while John Kinneir was appointed its baillie . By this time the family had the lucrative monopoly of ferry crossings of the Tay at what is now Newport.

George Kinnear was an Edinburgh banker at the end of the 18th century, into the early 19th century.  His lovely wife was painted by Raeburn. His son, James, began a family legal tradition which carried into the twentieth century.

The name, now found all over Scotland, may tend to be confused with Kinnaird.

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CLAN KITTLE

 

Motto:  Bono Vince Malum [Overcome evil with good. ]

Names Associated with the clan:  Kettle, Ketley, Kettles, Ketill, and others.

 

HISTORY:

 

The family is first found in Perthshire, where they were seated from very ancient times.  Some say this family was there well before the Norman Conquest and the arrival of Duke William at Hastings in 1066.

 

The descendents of Viking settlers in Ancient Scotland were the first to use the name Kittle.  It was derived from the old Norse personal name of Ketill, or from the Danish personal name of Ketil. 

 

Some of the first settlers in America by this name were: 

 

Peter Kettell settled in Boston in 1635

Edith Kettle settled in Nevis in 1653 along with William Kettle

Ralph Kettle settled in Virginia in 1698

Margarita, Sarah and Wennell Kettle arrived in Philadephia in 1733.

Peter Kittle who arrived in Pennsylvania in 1755

George Kittle who arrived in Washington County Pennsylvania in 1854

 

 

*Septs or branches of a clan.  When a smaller clan or family group declared allegiance to the chief of a more  powerful or prominent clan they became a sept or branch of that clan.  Clans also had many associated families through marriage.  During difficult times, it was often advantageous for smaller clan or family group to ally with a larger clan for protection from enemies and/or other feuding clans.  This practice which often included paying homage to the Clan Chief at important events was effective in building respect, devotion, and familiarity between different families within the same clan.

 

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CLAN KINNIMONT

 

Motto:  Stabo (I shall stand)

Crest:  An oak tree Vert

Names associated with Clan Kinnimont:  Kinninmont, Kinnimonth, Kinnimund, Kinnimmund, Kynemuthe, Kynninmond, Quinemont

Chief:  Armigerous*

 

History:

The name Kinnimont has a regional origin, with the name deriving from the lands of Kinninmonth in Fife. William I of Scotland granted a charter for those lands to Odo, a seneschal to the Bishop of St. Andrews, between the years 1189 and 1199. 

An 1841 publication tells us that on the original charter, it is the first time that we see the family name in the form of S'Iohannis de Kinimmund. 
 Elias de Kynninmond is recorded as a witness to a Fife charter in 1228 and Helya de Kynninmond witnessed a charter of lands to Johanni Lambini in 1290. Names were recorded in these ancient documents to make it easier for their overlords to collect taxes and to keep records of the population at any given time. When the overlords acquired land by either force or gifts from their rulers, they created charters of ownership for themselves and their vassals.

On the 1296 Ragman Roll, William de Kynemuthe's name is present, along with many other Scottish nobles, declaring allegiance to Edward I of England.

Other examples of this name were found in the person of Alexander de Kinnemunt who appears as Canon of Brechin in 1322 and Archdeacon of Lothian in 1327.

In 1329 an Alexander de Kininmund became the Bishop of Aberdeen, whilst in 1352, a different Alexander de Kininmund became the Archdeacon of Aberdeen, and later on, in either late 1354 or early 1355, he too, became the Bishop of Aberdeen. Jamys of Kyninmond asserted his right to the office of bailie, steward, and marischel under the prior of St. Andrew in 1438.

With no male heirs left to carry on the direct line of Kininmonts of that Ilk, the chief line came to an end with the sole heiress marrying Murray of Melgund.

A more recent notable Kinninmont was the late Sir William Kininmonth (1904-1988), a well known Scottish architect.

CLAN KIRKPATRICK

Motto: Touch And I Pierce (First used by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick during the Wallace Campaigns); I Mak Sikkar (the current motto bestowed by King Robert Bruce for Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's support of Robert Bruce's claim to the crown, secured by Sir Roger Kirkpatrick's action at the Grey Friar's Church in Dumfries, Scotland.

This is an armigerous* clan, located in the lowlands.  The clan is recognized by the Lord Lyon, but doesn't currently have a recognized chief.  It takes it's name from the church of St. Patrick which is located in the parish of Closeburn in Dumfriesshire. 

The first record of the clan is in the 12th century, when Ivone de Kirkpatrick was listed as a witness in a Bruce Family charter. Alexander the second confirmed by charter the lands of the same Ivone. Roger Kirkpatrick was attendant to Robert the Bruce during the time when Bruce brutally murdered the Red Comyn. Clan Kirkpatrick legend has it that their motto is derived from Bruce's killing of Comyn.

Bruce fled from the church to his escorts and told them, "I doubt I have slain Comyn." , Kirkpatrick drew his sword shouting, "I MAK SICCAR" ("I'll make sure"), whereupon he finished off the wounded Comyn. Sir Roger Kirkpatrick hid with Robert Bruce for three nights to escape Comyn's family. This event is memorialized in the clan's crest, which contains a hand holding a bloody dagger; and the shield: three pillows on a shield bearing the Saltire with the Scotland colours, or the St Andrews Cross, reversed (i.e. Kirkpatrick wears a blue saltire on a white ground). It is also memorialized in the Clan's motto, "I make sure".

In 1314 the Kirkpatricks were rewarded the lands of Redburgh. In 1355, Sir Roger Kirkpatrick captured both Caerlaverock and Dalwinston Castle from the English. Two years later, in 1357, Sir Robert Kirkpatrick was murdered by Sir James Lindsay in a private argument. The title passed from Roger to his Nephew, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, who had a charter for the lands of Closeburn and Redburgh given to him in 1409 by Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. In1542, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick was captured at the Battle of Solway Moss.  The estate then passed to a cousin. In 1685 Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn was named a Baronet of Nova Scotia. The Kirkpatrick estate of Closeburn was finally sold by the 4th baronet, Sir James Kirkpatrick.

Closeburn Castle is the former stronghold and seat of the Chiefs of the clan.  It is a tower house, probably 14th century (possibly older) and is one of the oldest continually inhabited houses in Scotland.  The castle is located 1 km east of the village of Closeburn in Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland.

Alexander the Second granted the lands of Closeburn to the Kirkpatrick family in 1232.  The tower house was probably built in the late 14th century, although some sources give a date as early as 1180 or as late as 1420. In the 17th century the Kirkpatricks moved out of Closeburn to an adjacent, newly built manor house. However, this burned down in 1748, with the castle sustaining some damage. Renovations were made to the castle, and the family moved back in. The Kirkpatrick family finally sold Closeburn in 1783 to a local minister, Dr James Stewart-Menteith. It has since changed hands several times, but is still occupied as a dwelling house. Today it has been bought back into the family by Luis Kirkpatrick from Spain.

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Clan Learmonth

Motto: Dum spiro spero

Translation: While I breathe I hope

Chief:  Armigerous*

 

Variants:  Learmont, Learmond, Leirmonth.

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

 

The name Learmonth arises from lands in Berwickshire and the Learmonths of Ercildoune in the Merse were the earliest family of note.The family established the principal line of the family in that county through marriage into the Dairsies of Fife.

 

Many of the ancient manuscripts of Scotland feature this name. Examples of such are a William de Leirmonth who was a juror on an inquest held in Swinton in 1408 and Alexander Leyremonth was clerk of works of the town and castle of Berwick in the year 1434.

 

In 1446 Sir James Learmouth of Dairsie was Master to the Household of James V and provost of St. Andrews. The Learmonths acquired the lands of Balcomie in Fife and in 1604 Sir James Learmonth of Balcon was a commissioner appointed to consider possible political union with England.

 

Other examples of this name were found in the person of William of Learmonth who was summoned in 1479 to answer to Parliament for treason and other crimes and John Learmont who published a volume of Poems in Edinburgh in 1791. 

 

Alexander Learmonth was a highly succesful merchant in Edinburgh and Leith. The Learmonths acquired the estate of Parkhall at the beginning of the nineteenth century and latterly assumed the compund surname of Livingston-Learmonth. They still, however, use the ancient Learmonth arms.

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CLAN LEASK

Motto:  Virtute Cresco - is the ancient motto of the Leasks, meaning “By Virtue I Grow.”

Chief:  Jonathan Leask, 23rd chief of Clan Leask

 HISTORY

Origin of the Name

There is more than one theory as to the origin of the name Leask. One is from the Anglo-Saxon word lisse which means happy. Another is that it comes from the Norse meaning of stirring fellow. Another is that it comes from Liscus which was the name of the chief of a tribe called the Haedui. The Haedui were a tribe of Gauls as described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Another theory concerns the Castle of Boulogne, once the possession of Charlemagne, at one time belonged to a family called de Lesque. William de Laskereske's signature appears on the Ragman Roll of 1296.

14th century

Later William Leask was granted the lands of Leskgoroune by King David II of Scotland, son of Robert the Bruce. William was also the first known chief of the Clan Leask. The second chief was baillie of the barony of Findon. He inherited lands from Henry de Brogan, Lord of Achlowne, in 1390, later in the 1400s another branch of the family sprung up on Orkney after Jamis of Lask, younger son of Thomas de Lask of that Ilk settled there.

16th century

During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the clan suffered when they fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Both William, the fifth chief of the clan and his eldest son Alexander were killed. William's younger son also called William became the 6th chief of the clan. William Lesk of that Ilk, the seventh chief supported the infant King James VI of Scotland in opposition to his mother Mary, Queen of Scots after the murder of Lord Darnley and her scandalous marriage to Bothwell.

17th century

Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some sort between the Leasks and the neighbouring Clan Gordon. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men.

Also in the seventeenth century the Leasks suffered terribly by investing heavily in the Darién scheme. The venture was a disaster with a vast amount of Scotland's wealth being lost which in some part led to the union of Scotland and England Alexander Leask of that Ilk, the thirteenth chief was forced to give up his estates which were taken over by Robert Cumming.

The clan today

In 1963, a descendant managed to buy back a portion of the family lands and established the Leask Society with the support of other prominent Leasks such as Lieutenant General Sir Henry Leask, sometime governor of Edinburgh Castle and General Officer commanding the Army in Scotland. In 1968 Moira Anne Helgesen was granted the chiefship of the clan by the Lord Lyon, where upon she changed her name and became: Madam Anne Leask of Leask. She died in April 2008 and was succeeded in the chiefship of the clan by Jonathan Leask, the 23rd chief of Clan Leask

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Chief: Edward Lennox of that Ilk and Woodhead, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lennox.

Arms: Argent, a saltire between four roses Gules.

Crest: Two broadswords in saltire behind a swan's head and neck all Proper.

Motto: I'll defend.

Plant Badge: A rose slipped Gules.

Names associated with the clan: Levenax, Levinax, Levynnax, MacCorc, MacGurkich, MacGurgh, MacGurk, MacKork, Lenox, Lennox, MacCork

 

HISTORY

Origins of the name :  The name Lennox in gaelic comes from the place of the same name. The clan name comes from the title of Earl of Lennox which commanded the vale of Leven between the 12th and 15th centuries.

15th century:  In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colquhoun of Luss of Clan Colquhoun took advatage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox.

Sir John Stuart of Darnley was created 1st Earl of Lennox of the new line by King James III of Scotland in 1473.

Malcolm the fifth Earl of Lennox led Clan Lennox into England and besieged Carlisle Castle.

16th century:  A clan battle took place between the Clan Kincaid and the Clan Lennox of Woodhead in 1570.

Henry Stuart (1545-1567) Lord Darnley and the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was also the father of King James VI of Scotland. The King promoted the 8th Earl of Lennox to Duke of Lennox in 1581.

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CLAN LESLIE
 

Gaelic Name: Mac an Fheisdeir

Motto: Grip fast

Badge:  Rue

Chief:  The Hon. Alexander Leslie

Names associated with the clan: Lesslie, Leslie, Lesly, Lesli, Leslei, Lessley, Lessely, Lesley, Achindachy, Achyndachy, Bartill, Abbernetti, Aburnethe, Abrenythie, Abirnythy, Abirnethy, Abirnethny, Abirnethie, Abernethy, Abernethny, Abernethie, Abernethi, Aberneathy, Abernythe, Abernathy, Abernathie, Habernethi,  Bartelmew, Bartholomew, Bartilmew, Bartholomew, Bertholmew, Bartilmew, Bertholomei, Bertillmew, Abernyte, Abirnyte.

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

 

The family name comes from the Leslie lands of Aberdeenshire and was to become famous in Germany, Poland, France and Russia. A Flemish noble named Bartholf settled in this area and in the 12th century one of his sons obtained a charter for the Barony of Lesly from William the Lion.

 

15th Century & Clan Conflicts
Sir Andrew de Lesly was one of the signatories when the Declaration of Arbroath was sent to the Pope in 1320 asserting Scotland’s independence.
16th Century Clan Conflicts & Anglo-Scottish Wars
During the Anglo-Scottish Wars George de Lesly was the Leslys' first Earl. His grandson, the 2nd Earl was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the third Earl, also George, carried out a private family vendetta on the life of David Beaton, cardinal Archbishop of St Andrews.

One of the most highly respected Leslies is said to be John Leslie, the Bishop of Ross, who was born in 1526. He was the most loyal of Mary Queen of Scots supporters during the turbulent times of 1562. It was John Leslie who wrote for her the famous ‘History of Scotland’.
In 1571 the Clan Leslie joined forces with the Clan Gordon against their bitter enemies the Clan Forbes. The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone.
17th Century & Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years' War General Alexander Leslie of Balgonie fought for Gustavus Adolphus, the King of Sweden. He achieved great fame across Europe for his skills in war and returned to Scotland a Field Marshal.
17th Century & Civil War
Commanding the Covenanters Alexander Leslie captured Edinburgh Castle with a thousand men.
With the Scots Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went into England in 1640 and defeated the King’s soldiers at the Battle of Newburn. For this he was created Earl of Lewis by King Charles I. In 1642 Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went to Ireland and held command alongside Robert Munro (d. 1680) of the Scottish Army. They were sent to put down a rebellion of Irishmen who had killed Scotts in Ulster.



In 1644, Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven commanded Scottish Covenanter forces to victory over English Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. This battle was the largest battle of the English and Scottish Civil War, and one of the most decisive. It resulted in a Parliamentarian victory, which meant that the north of England was effectively lost to King Charles for the rest of the war.
During the Civil War General David Leslie is victorious commanding his Scottish Covenanters force against a Scottish Royalist force at the Battle of Philiphaugh in 1645. The Royalist army of James Graham, the 1st Marquess of Montrose was destroyed by the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the power of the Committee of Estates.


18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings
During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Leslie supported the British government. The 9th Earl of Rothes now the Duke of Rothes was Vice Admiral of Scotland and governor of Stirling Castle. He commanded a British regiment of cavalry at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715 where he helped defeat the Jacobites.

Castles & Clan Seat
The Clan Leslie held several castles including Balgonie Castle in Fife, and Fetternear Palace in Aberdeenshire, as well as Leslie House in Fife until 1919, and Balquhain Castle, Aberdeenshire.

The Irish Leslies still reside at County Monaghen Ulster in their 17th-century family home Castle Leslie and it's surrounding 1000 acre estate. The Castle is no longer private, and is now open guests. While visiting they enjoy beautiful vistas, great food and mild ecentricity. The Castle is also used for functions, weddings and now boasts a brand new Cookery School and Day Spa.

 

Earl of Rothes
From 1457 the Clan Chief of Clan Leslie also held the position of Earl of Rothes. It is currently held by James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes (b. 1958).

 

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CLAN LITTLE

 

CLAN CREST BADGE
Strictly speaking, as the Clan Little has had no chief since the 17th. century and is therefore a 'heidless' clan, it cannot have a clan crest badge, as these were handed out to his followers by their chief.  It is, therefore, armigerous.*

As a compromise, the black demi-lion of David Little within a buckled strap bearing the motto 'Concedo Nulli' is being used as the Littles' clan crest badge until such time as a chief shall be recognized.  The clan crest badge may be worn on the person of members, but must not be used in any other way (for example on stationery, banners, etc).

Motto: Concedo Nulli  (no surrender, no retreat, yield no ground)

Alternative Mottos:  Fidei Coticula Crux"  (The Cross is the Test of Truth) or “Magnum in Parvo” (Great in Little) or “Multum in Parvo” (Much in Little)

Names associated with the clan: Litel, Litil, Litill, Litle, Littell, Littil, Littill, Little, Littyll, Lityl, Lytil, Lytle, Lyttle, Lyttille

HISTORY

Origin of the Name

The first appearance of the surname Little (Lytle, or le Little) is in the period following the Norman Conquest, Richard Lytle being in line of descent from Robert FitzHugh, Lord of the Barony of Malpas in Cheshire, mentioned in the Domesday Book. (FitzHugh was related to a nephew of William the Conqueror.) A descendant of Richard Lytle came north to Scotland from Cheshire some 750 years ago.

1296/7 Edward Little, one of the descendants of Richard Lytle, and a nephew of William Wallace, assists his famous uncle in guerrilla warfare against Edward I of England, so-called 'Hammer of the Scots'.

1398 Nicol Little is one of the knights and 'squires' entrusted with the repatriation of English prisoners across the Border. He is one of the 'Conservators of the Peace for Lochmabenston' (the Lochmaben Stone, which still exists), the meeting place during the Border Wars for opposing forces to gather and negotiate.

1426 James I, King of the Scots, grants to Simon Litil, chief of the clan, his 'beloved Simon', tenure of the lands of Meikledale, Kirkton and Sorbie in Ewesdale. Simon thus becomes the first Laird of Meikledale.

16th. Century Clement Litil the 2nd. of Liberton (died in 1580) founds the Library of the University of Edinburgh.

1530 James V, King of the Scots, alarmed at the increasing power of the Border Clans - Armstrongs, Elliots, Littles , Irvins and others - invites 32 of their most important members to a parley. It is a trap~ they are seized and summarily hanged. Henceforth, the Littles and other Border clans, formerly loyal to the monarchy, abandon patriotism and concentrate on self-preservation.

1569 A force of over a hundred men of Clan Little joins with the Earl of Morton in a raid on Stirling.

1585 The Littles, and other clans involved in the Stirling Raid, are pardoned by James VI, King of the Scots. (This event is commemorated by a memorial window in the kirk of Bentpath in Dumfriesshire.)

1672 David Little, the Clan's last chief, and the last Laird of Meikledale, registers his coat of arms. With his death, Clan Little becomes 'heidless'.

1745 Matthew Little, last surviving descendant of David Little the last chief, goes to sea and is heard of no more.

1991 Dr J.C. Little of Morton Rig, having researched the history of the Littles in Scotland, founds the Clan Little Society (UK and Worldwide) on St. Andrew' s Day.

1994 Foundation of the Clan Little Society of North America.

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CLAN LIVINGSTONE

 

Livingstone Clan Crest: A demi savage, wreathed on the head and body, holding a club on the dexter shoulder and a serpent in the sinister hand.

Livingstone Clan Motto: Si Je Puis (If I can).

Livingston(e) Clan History

Legend has it that a Saxon of the name of Leving acquired lands in West Lothian in the 12th century under David I and representatives of the name Leving appear in documents of that period. Sir Archibald de Levingestoune rendered homage to Edward I of England in 1296.

Sir Archibald's son James was taken prisoner alongside David II at the Battle of Durham in 1346, but was later released.  As a Commissioner for the King's release from English captivity, he was given the Barony of Callendar, and in the following centuries the Livingston Family held the earldoms of Callendar, Linlithgow and Newburgh.

Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar was appointed a guardian of James II and his son, Sir James, became Captain of Stirling Castle and Lord Chamberlain of Scotland under the title of Lord Livingston. Alexander, 5th Lord Livingstone accompanied Mary Queen of Scots to France, where he died. In 1599, Alexander, 7th Lord Livingston, was created Earl of Linlithgow.

James Livingston, younger son of Alexander, 1st Earl of Linlithgow, was created Earl of Callendar by Charles I. The titles later merged, but following the Livingston's support of the Jacobite Cause during the 1715 Uprising, the titles were forfeit.

The small Highland Clan of Livingston originally bore a Gaelic name spelt in different ways – MacDunsleibh, Mac-an-Leigh or MacLea. The amalgamation came about when Sir William Livingston of Skirling, Keeper of the Privy Seal for Charles I, was given a 57-year lease on Achanduin Castle, on the island of Lismore, locally known as the 'Bishop's Castle.' The clansfolk of Lismore had hitherto tried to avoid becoming involved with the surrounding clans – the Stewarts of Appin, the Macleans and the Macdougalls - so rallied around Livingston of Skirling.

The Chief's Charter for lands dates from 1544 and confirms him as the Hereditary Keeper of the Pastoral Staff of St Moluag, an Irish missionary born around 520. On his death, the staff was entrusted to the family who had become almoners to Lismore Cathedral and subsequently Barons of Bachuil. In 1950, a Lyon Court judgement declared that the Custodian of the Staff is the Co-Arb of Saint Moluag and a Baron in the Baronage of Argyll and the Isles.

 

David Livingstone (1813-73) was born in Blantyre and joined the London Missionary Society. He  carried out explorations from Cape of Good Hope to Zambesi, then northwards into Central Africa. Charles Livingstone (1821-73), brother of David Livingstone, joined his brother on African expedition (1821-63) and emigrated to America.

Places of Interest:

Callendar, Falkirk, West Lothian. Lands held by Livingstons from the 14th century. A 15th century tower house remains part of the mansion house of a later date and gave its name to the Livingston earldom, although it is spelled differently.

Livingston, West Lothian. Almshouses were founded here by Henry Livingston in 1496. This is now the site of Livingston New Town.

Achandon, Isle of Lismore. 13th century Livingston stronghold. Now a ruin.

Bachuil, Isle of Lismore. Home of the Livingstons of Bachuil. St Moluag's Staff (also known as the Bachuill Buidhe), which ranks  among the oldest ecclesiastical relics on record, is held here.

Blantyre, Lanarkshire. David Livingstone (1813-73), the great explorer, was born here. There is a National Memorial open the year round.

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CLAN LOCHART
 
Motto: Corda Serrata Pando (I open locked hearts)
Crest: A boar's head erased argent, langued gules

Names associated with the clan: Lockhert, Lokhartt,Lockhartt, Lokkard, Lokert, Lokarte, Lockheart, Lockhart, Lokart, Lockhead

Clan Chief: Chief: Angus Hew Lockhart of the Lee, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lockhart

HISTORY

Origin of the Name

In early times this name was spelt 'Locard' or 'Lokart'. Like so many Scottish families, the Locards came from England where they were among those dispossessed of lands by william the conqueror. There were lands of Lockards near penrith in the 12th century and later in Annandale, where the town of lockerbie is said to be named after them. The family finally settled in Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, where they have held land for over 700 years.

The earliest paper in the family archives is a charter of 1323. By this Sir Symon Locard bound himself and his heirs to pay out of the lands of Lee and Cartland an annual rent of £10. Stephen Locard, grandfather of Sir Symon, founded the village of Stevenston in Ayrshire. His son, Symon, acquired lands in Lanarkshire and, like his father, called a village which he founded , Symons toun(today Symington) after himself. Symon, the 2nd of Lee, won fame for himself and his family fighting alongside Robert the Bruce in the struggle for Scottish Independence. He was knighted for his loyal service. Sir Symon was among the knights, led by Sir James Douglas, who took Bruces heart on crusade in 1329 to atone for his murder of John Comyn in the church of Grefriars in 1306. The crusade was ended prematurely when Douglas was killed fighting the Moors in Spain, but to commemorate the adventure and the honour done to the family, their name was changed from Locard to Lockheart, which afterwards became Lochhart. The heart within the fetterlock was from then on included in the arms of the family, and the dead is also commemorated in the motto.

As well as a new name, the family gained a precious heirloom on the Crusade: the mysterious charm known as the Lee Penny. Sir Walter Scott used the story of its acquisition by the family as a basis for his novel, The talisman. Sir Symon captured a moorish amir in battle in Spain, and received from the mans mother as part of his ransom, and amulet or stone with healing powers. The amirs mother told Sir Symon that the stone was a remedy against bleeding, fever, the bites of mad dogs and the sicknesses of horses and cattle. The amulet was later set in a silver coin which has been identified as a fourpenny piece of the reign of Edward IV.

The coin is kept in a gold snuffbox which was a gift from Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, to her general, Count James Lockhart. Such was the belief in the amulets powers that a descendant of Sir Symon, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, was charged with sorcery, an offense which could carry the death penalty.

After examining the accused the Synod of the Church of Scotland dismissed the case, because ' the custom is only to cast a stone in some water and give deseasit cattle thereof to drink and the same is done without using any words such as charmers use in their unlawful practices and considering that in nature there are many things seem to work strange effects whereof no human wit can give reason it having pleast God to give the stones and herbs a special virtue for healing of many infirmities in man and beast'.

Alan Lockhart of Lee was killed at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547. Sir James Lockhart of Lee, born in 1596, was appointed a gentleman of the Privy Chamber by Charles I and was knighted. In 1646 he was appointed to the Supreme Court Bench, taking the title of 'Lord Lee'. A zealous royalist, he was captured at Alyth in 1651 and conveyed to the Tower of London.

His son, Sir William, was a distinguished soldier who fought on the royalist side at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. He then campaigned on the continent, where he achieved such prominence that Cardinal Mazarin, successor to Cardinal Richelieu, offered to make him a mareschal of France. He died in the Netherlands in 1675. 

James Lockhart, who inherited the estates in 1777, also saw service on the Continent where he rose to be a count of the Holy Roman Empire, a Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa and a general of that empresses imperial forces. The title of Count became extinct when James's only son, Charles, died without issue. Although the family seat, Lee Castle, has been sold, the estates are still owned and managed by the present head of the family, Angus Lockhart of the Lee.

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CLAN LOGAN
 

Motto:  "Hoc Marjorum Virtus" which means "This is the valour of my ancestors".

 

The following is a partial list of names associated with Clan Logan: 

Lagan, Laggan, Leonerd, Loban, Lobban, Loben.Logane, Logen, Loggan, Loggane, Loggans, Loghane, Loghyn, Login, Logyn, Lopan, Lowgan, Lyndon, MacLennan.

 

Chief:  Armigerous*

 

HISTORY

 

The Logans in the Highlands are often linked to the MacLennans due to a colourful (but unreliable) legend about a chief of the Logans in Easter Ross who was killed in a feud with the Frasers. His wife gave birth to a child a few months later who later became a priest. His son was named Gillie Fhinnein (disciple of St Finnan) and MacLennan is the anglicised version of this name.

 

All the Logan/Logie names are probably derived from the Gaelic word "lagan" (little hollow) which became parts of place names in various parts of Scotland. One of the most important sources of the name was Logan in Ayrshire but there are examples of the name in Dryburgh in the Borders in 1204, Adam de Logan in Gowrie in 1226 and Thurbrand de Logan in Cunningham, Ayrshire. There were four landowners of that name who signed the "Ragman Roll" of King Edward I in 1296.

 

Two knights named Logan accompanied Sir James Douglas on his journey to take Robert the Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. They died with Douglas fighting the Moors in Spain in 1329.

There was a landed family of Logans in Forfar, Angus for hundreds of years until the last of the lairds died without issue in 1802. Other Logans were established in lands in West Linton (south of the Pentland Hills in the Scottish Borders).


 

Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig in Edinburgh married a daughter of King Robert II and was Admiral of Scotland in 1406. The family owned Fast Castle in Berwickshire but they fell from favour and the last Logan of Restalrig died an outlaw and the castle was taken over by the Homes.

Logie/Loggie were located in different parts of the country from Logan. Wauter de Logie also signed the Ragman Roll and Sir John of Logy is reputed to have been one of the nobles who conspired with King Edward II of England and the Earl of Warenne when they attempted an invasion of Scotland in 1320. A coat of arms was granted to Logie of that Ilk (signifying a clan chief) but they were never subsequently recorded in the registers of the Lyon Court.

 

"The Scottish Gael" was the first work in English to try to give a history of Highland dress and it was written by James Logan in 1831. In modern times, Jimmy Logan is the most famous of a large theatrical family.

 

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CLAN LUMSDEN

Motto: Amor patitur moras (Love Endures Delays)

Names Associated with the Clan:  Lumesten, Lumisdayn, Lumisdane, Lumsdean, Lumisdeyn, Lumsdaine, Lummisdane, Lummdane, Lummisden, Lummesdene, Lumisden, Lumisdeane, Lumysden, Lumsden, Lummysden, Lommestone, Blanerne.

HISTORY

Origins of the clan:  The name Lumsden derives from the old manor of Lumsden in the parish of Coldingham in Berwickshire. The earliest known recordings of the name appear between 1166 and 1182 when the brothers Gillem (William) and Cren de Lumsden witnessed a charter by Waldeve Earl of Dunbar to Coldingham Priory. The lands of Lumsden are first mentioned in a charter dated 1098 of King Edgar of Scotland and his son Malcolm Canmore. Gillem and his brother Cren are the first recorded owners of the land.

In 1296 Adam Lumsden and Roger de Lumsden were among the Scottish clan leaders who were forced to do homage to King Edward I of England with both of their names appearing on the Ragman Rolls.

FOURTEENTH CENTURY

Around 1328 Gillbert de Lumsden married an heiress of Blanerne and by 1329 had received a charter for the Blanerne lands by the Earl of Angus. By the mid fourteenth century offshoots of the Lumsden clan had charters and lands confirmed to them in Conlan in Fife and Medlar and Cushnie in Aberdeenshire.

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY  - Thirty Years' War and Civil War

Thirty Years' War

In the early seventeenth century during the Thirty Years' War the Clan Lumsden fought for the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in a famous unit called "Lumsden's Musketeers".


The Civil War

One of the Lumsden brothers, James Lumsden returned from the war in Europe with his men to fight in the Civil War which was taking place in England, Ireland and Scotland to support the Covenanters. They fought at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644 where King Charles I was defeated. They also fought at the Battle of Dunbar (1650) under David Leslie where the Covenanters were defeated by the Parliamentarians.

James Lumsden's brother Robert defended Dundee against General Monck but he was killed on its surrender.

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY and Jacobite uprisings

During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Chief of Clan Lumsden was Prince Charles Edward Stuart's secretary. After the Battle of Culloden the chief fled to Rome. He returned to Scotland in 1773 and was pardoned by the British government. His tartan waistcoat is preserved at Pitcaple Castle.

Castles and clan seat

  • Blanerne Castle in Berwickshire, was acquired in the fourteenth century and was the main clan seat.

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CLAN LYLE

 

CREST: A cock Or, crested and barbed Gules.

MOTTO: An I may

CHIEF:  Armigerous*

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

This name is Norman in origin deriving from D’Lisle meaning in Latin “of the island”. The name Lyle is part of the same stock as the Northumberland family of 'de Insula' (as it is in Latin) 'Lisle' (de Lisle, Delisle in French).

Ralph de Insula, or Radulphus, is the first of this name to appear in Scotland. A follower of the Steward, around 1170, he witnessed the church of Innerkyp being gifted by Baldwin de Birge, the sheriff of Lanharc (Lanark), to the monks of Paisley. Around the same time, de Insula also witnessed the giving of ferms of his mill at Paisley by Walter Fitz-Alan for the soul of Sir Robert de Brus.  He witnessed, at some point prior to 1177, the church of Cragyn (Craigie in Kyle) being given to the monks of Paisley by Walter Hose.

As early as the start of the 1200s a family of Lyles were barons of Duchal in Refrewshire.
William de Lile witnessed a charter to lands in 1222 and 1233. Alan de Insula witnessed many charters of Alexander, son of Walter the High Steward, prior to 1252.

Both John de Lille of Berwickshire and Richard del Isle of Edinburgh plead fealty to Edward I of England in the Ragman Roll of 1296.

They acquired the barony of Duchal in Renfrewshire, and extended their lands during the reign of David II, receiving a charter to the barony of Buchquhan in Stirlingshire.

Sir Robert Lyle was raised to the peerage as Lord Lyle by James II. The 2nd Lord Lyle was sent as ambassador to England in 1472.  He is said to have been present at the murder of James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. However, he appears to have been appalled at the actual murder of the king and joined the Earl of Lennox and other nobles to take up arms to avenge the kings death. However, this was not successful, and the title of Lord Lyle was forfeited the following year, 1489.

The estates were restored shortly after and Lyle enjoyed high status for the rest of his life. This title is now extinct.

Another family of Lyells received lands in Forfarshire around 1375.

This family produced a number of distinguished soldiers, Including Hercules Lyle who fought in the rising of 1745 and was killed at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.

A Hercules Lyle fought in the 1745 rising, but died at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.

 

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CLAN LYON

Motto:  In Te Domine Speravi (In Thee O Lord Have I Put My Trust)

Clan Chief:  The current Chief of Clan Lyon is Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne.

Gaelic Name:  Liobhunn

Septs:  Lion(s), Lyons, Lehane or Lehan

HISTORY

Origin of the name

Although Sir Iain Moncreiffe, perhaps the greatest herald genealogist, believed his family were of Celtic origin and descended from a younger son of the Lamonts, the generally accepted view is that they descended from a French family called de Leon, who came north with Edgar, son of Malcolm III, at the end of the eleventh century to fight against his uncle, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. Edgar was triumphant, and de Leon received lands in Perthshire which were later called Glen Lyon. Roger de Leonne witnessed a charter of Edgar to the Abbey at Dunfermline in 1105.

14th Century:

In 1372 Robert II granted to Sir John Lyon (called the White Lyon because of his fair complexion) the thanage of Glamis. Five years later, he became Chamberlain of Scotland, and his prominence was such he was considered fit to marry the king¹s daughter, Princess Joanna, who brought with her not only illustrious lineage, but also the lands of Tannadice on the River Esk. He was later also granted the barony of Kinghorne. He was killed during a quarrel with Sir James Lindsay of Crawford near Menmuir in Angus.

15th Century:

The family have descended in a direct line from the White Lion and Princess Joanna to the present day, and their crest alludes to this. His only son, another John, was his successor, and he strengthened the royal ties by marrying a granddaughter of Robert II. Sir John¹s son, Patrick, was created Lord Glamis in 1445 and thereafter became a Privy Councillor and Master of the Royal Household.

16th Century:

John, sixth Lord Glamis, was, according to a tradition, a quarrelsome man with a quick temper. He married Janet Douglas, granddaughter of the famous Earl Angus (also called Bell the Cat), and after his death she suffered terribly for the hatred which James V bore all of her name. Lady Glamis was accused on trumped-up charges of witchcraft and, despite speaking boldly in her own defence, her doom was preordained. She was burned at the stake on the castle hill at Edinburgh on 3 December 1540.

The eighth Lord Glamis renounced his allegiance to Mary, Queen of Scots, and served under the Regents Moray and Lennox. He was made Chancellor of Scotland and Keeper of the Great Seal for life, and his son, the ninth Lord, was captain of the Royal Guard and one of James VIs Privy Councillors.

17th Century & Civil War:

In 1606 he was created Earl of Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon and Baron Glamis. His son, the second Earl, was a close personal friend of James Graham the Marquess of Montrose and was with him when he subscribed to the National Covenant in 1638. He accompanied Montrose on his early campaigns in defence of the Covenant , but despite his great affection for the Marquess, he could not support him when he broke with the Scots Parliament to fight for Charles I. Lyon almost ruined his estates in supporting the Army of the Covenant against his friend.

In 1677, the third Earl of Kinghorne obtained a new patent of nobility, being styled thereafter Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon, Baron Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie. He paid off the debts he inherited from his father by skillful management of the estates and was later able to alter and enlarge Castle Glamis. John, his son, although a member of the Privy Council, opposed the Treaty of Union of 1707.

18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings:

His son was a Jacobite who fought in the rising of 1715 at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Tullibardine¹s regiment. He died defending his regiment¹s colours. In 1716 James, the Old Pretender. son of James VII, was entertained at Glamis. Thirty years later another king¹s son, but a much less welcome one, the Duke of Cumberland, stopped at the castle on his march north to Culloden. It is said that after he left the bed which he had used was dismantled.

Among the Jacobite relics now preserved at Glamis are a sword and watch belonging to James VIII, the Old Pretender, and an intriguing tartan coat worn by him. The youngest daughter of the fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne was the Queen Mother.

Likely came from the LYON charge from the coat-of-arms of Sir John de Lyon (Argent, Lion Rampant Azure, Riband Gules).

Clan Castle: The seat of the Chief of Clan Lyon is at Glamis Castle in Angus, Scotland.

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CLAN MacALISTER

 

Motto: Fortiter - "Boldly".
Chief:  St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox
Septs of the Clan: Alastair, Alexander, Alison, Alistair,Allison, Alister, MacAlasdair, MacAlaster, MacAlester,MacAlister, MacAllister, MacAllister, McAlister, McAlester, McAllister, McCallister, McCollister, McLister, Sanders, Saunders.

 

HISTORY

 

 

Origin  of the Name:

 

The Clan Alasdair descends from Somerled, 12th century Lord of Argyll, through his grandson Donald, who founded the mighty Clan Donald. Until the 15th century, they were, in fact, the senior cadet branch of the Clan Donald rather than an independent clan. Clan Alasdair was, and is, a West Highland clan, centered on the Kintyre peninsula and surrounding islands.

Clan MacAlister traces its descent from Alasdair Mor, son of Domhnall mac Raghnaill who was grandson of Somerled.  Somerled is claimed as the ancestor of the MacAlisters, MacDonalds and MacDougalls. Gaelic tradition gave Somerled a Celtic descent in the male line, though a recent DNA study has shown that Somerled may have been of Norse descent. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, and their variants it was found that roughly a quarter of MacDonalds, a third of MacDougalls, and forty percent of MacAlisters tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome found in Scotland has been regarded as showing Norse descent in the British Isles.

 

Birth of a clan

After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493, the MacAlisters seem to have formed into an independent clan of their own, and their chief, Iain Dubh (Anglicisation: Black John), lived at Ardpatrick (Ard Phadriue) in South Knapdale.[5] Later chiefs have styled themselves as Mac Iain Duibh, (sons of Black John) in reference to him.

The clan's lands were never very extensive, were located mostly in Kintyre. As early as 1481 a Charles Macallestar was made Steward of Kintyre. Later many MacAlisters were found in Bute and Arran. The principal family of the clan were the MacAlisters of Loup, and up to twenty years after the first record of Iain Dubh, Angus Macallaster of the Loupe who is called "John Dubh's son" is mentioned. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, the MacAlisters of Loup attached themselves for about one hundred years to the more powerful Clan Iain Vor. The "Laird of Lowip", the chief of the clan, appears in the General Band of 1587, in which Highland chiefs were held accountable by the Government for their tenants. In 1618 the Laird of Loup was one of the twenty barons who were made responsible for the good rule of Argyll during the absence of the Earl of Argyll.

Alexander MacAlister of Loup fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie, supporting the cause of the deposed James VII of Scotland, and also at the Battle of the Boyne. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Hector, though he died without issue and was in turn succeeded by Alexander's brother, Charles. Charles married the daughter of Lamont of that Ilk.

Charles, 12th of Loup, married Janet Somerville, heiress of Kennox, in 1792. In 1805 Charles assumed the name and Arms of Somerville along with his own, and from then on this family has been known as Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox.  

 

In 1846 Charles MacAlester of Loup and Kennox, was granted the right to take up Arms as Chief of the clan, by Lyon Court.  Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Godfrey Somerville MacAlester of the Loup and Kennox, succeeded him as Chief of Clan MacAlister is 1903.  His seat was Kennox in Ayrshire, though the seat of the clan as since been sold, and the current chief, William St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox, lives in England. Edit Text

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CLAN MACALPIN

Clan Chief: There is no question that, in 843AD, King Kenneth MacAlpin was our 1st Chief. He is the individual from whom our Clan subsequently took its name. However, ancient records are very few and almost nothing is known about persons living between then and about 1100 AD. Although we can probably presume that Kenneth's direct male line, which ruled Scotland for 200 years, represented the initial chiefly succession for our Clan, there is no clear picture of the succession following that time. By some point in time, probably by 1300 AD, Clan MacAlpine had become landless and the line of our Chief was lost; that is, we had become a "Broken Clan." Thus, our Clan has not had a Chief for more than 700 hundred years and it does not have one now.

In early times, a Clan Chief picked his successor in accordance with the Gaelic practice of "Tanistry." The Chief would select the most able candidate within the "derbhfine" (an extended kinship group normally consisting of the male descendants of a common great-grandfather) but, usually a close relative, such as a brother, son, cousin, nephew, etc. Today, Tanistry has given way to the practice of passing the title directly from father to eldest son, and so on. In addition, today, any person claiming to be Chief of a Scottish Clan must petition the Lord Lyon in Scotland for a Coat of Arms and legally prove in Lyon Court they are entitled to be recognized as Chief. In cases where the Chiefly bloodline has been lost, such as with Clan MacAlpine, Lord Lyon has established guidelines and procedures that can be followed to form an "Ad Hoc Derbhfine" and find a new Clan Leader (called a “Commander”) who might ultimately be recognized as Chief, thereby establishing a new Chiefly bloodline.

Given our Clan’s ancient and unrecorded history, it is not expected that any individual can prove to Lord Lyon's stringent requirements direct descent from our former Chiefs. Thus, we must follow Lyon Court's guidelines and procedures to form an Ad Hoc Derbhfine for the purpose of finding a new Clan Leader, a Commander, who might ultimately become our new Clan Chief.

Variant Spellings: Albain, Albanach, Albin, Ailpein, Allphin, Alpin, Alpine, Alpyn, Alpynsone, Calpin, Calpine, Culpen, Elphin, Galpin, Galpine, Gilpin, Halpin, Halpine, MacAilpein, MacAlipine, MacAlpan, MacAlpane, MacAlpeine, MacAlpeinne, MacAlpen, MacAlphine, MacAlpin, MacAlpie, MacAlpy, MacAlpye, MacAlpyn, MacAlpyne, MacApline, MacCalpin, MacCalpine, MacCapie, MacCappie, MacCappin, MacCappine, MacCappy, MacCapy, MacCarpin, MacColpin, MacColpine, MacCoplan, MacCoplin, MacCoppin, MacCoppine, MacCorpin, MacCorpine, Mackalpe, MacKalpin, Makalpe, Makcalpy, Makcalpyn, Malcalpyn, M’Alpen, M’Alpin, M’Alpine, M’Alpyn, McAlpain, McAlpan, McAlpane, McAlpe, McAlpen, McAlphin, McAlphine, McAlpie, McAlpien, McAlpil, McAlpin, McAlpine, McAlpion, McAlpon, McAlpy, McAlpyn, M’Calpin, M’Calppin, M’Calpy, M’Calpyne, M’Cappe, M’Cavpy, McCalpie, McCalpin, McCalpy, McCapen, McCawpyn, McCulpen, McKelpin, M’Kalpie, MkKalpy.

History of Clan MacAlpine:  The history of the Royal Clan MacAlpine is ancient. In fact, our Clan claims the distinction of being the most ancient and the most purely Celtic of the Highland clans. The Clan reached its peak of power and influence at a time when no written record was kept, leaving only the vague history of tradition. This has led some to conclude, erroneously, that the Clan MacAlpine never existed. Yet, the voices of the bards (ancient oral historians) cannot be silenced and evidence of the Clan’s existence and significance abounds.

Kenneth MacAlpin became the first King of Scotland in AD 843 when he united the Scots and the Picts. He was the son of King Alpin and the descendant of a long line of Dalriadic Kings. His direct male descendants ruled Scotland for the next 200 years and every Sovereign of Scotland since, including Queen Elizabeth II, today, has had his Royal blood coursing through their veins. It is from him that our Clan takes its name, and, thus, he is considered our first Chief. Of course, as King he was Chief of Chiefs and this is reflected in the name of our Society newsletter. But, certainly, he was the Chief of his own family branch, his “Clan.” From King Alpin and King Kenneth, several powerful branches emerged, eventually becoming formidable Clans in their own right. This group or family of related clans, of which Clan MacAlpine is certainly a part, is known as Siol Alpine.

The history of Clan MacAlpine is shrouded in Scotland's distant past; it is debated by scholars and will likely never be clear. The written history of the Clan is currently a work in-progress of the Society. In the mean time, we offer the following for your reading enjoyment.

Perhaps it was that King Kenneth’s brother, Donald, was the next Chief, to be followed by the succeeding Scottish monarchs of the MacAlpin dynasty through Malcolm II (1034 AD.) The line might then have vested with a distant male cousin that history has left unrecorded. Did they continue to exist as a family of power for a period of time? If so, there was no trace left by 1300 AD.

King Kenneth undoubtedly brought many of his family advisors and Clansmen with him when he moved his capital from Argyllshire, the traditional seat of the Clan, to Scone, in Perthshire, leaving behind others to look after the interests in Argyll. Perhaps thusly was ultimately created a Chiefship of Clan MacAlpine separate from the Kingship of Scotland. The Clan seat in Argyll may have become an outpost on the old frontier of a New Kingdom.

Perhaps potential successors to the throne were sent to Argyll as a Clan Chief, in order to sharpen their skills by managing the family interests there, before taking their successive turns as King. If so, it may have been that many were involved in the assassinations of sitting Kings, or the revenge thereof, as the history of MacAlpin descendants is littered with murder after murder, by one family member against another, in order to secure the throne. It may have been that several of these plots were launched from Argyll. Perhaps, after one such exchange, the Argyll Chief and his supporting clansmen were decimated in battle by a relative from Scone who sought to ensure that the Clan would be unable to pose a future threat but, also leaving it “broken.”

Or, perhaps disenfranchised potential successors were sent to Argyll by the sitting King to keep them at a safe distance, busy defending against Viking raiders with little support from the Palace in Scone, in an attempt to minimize threats from his competitors. The position of Chief of the Clan MacAlpine seat in Argyll may have come to be known as an undesirable assignment. As such, the powers in Scone may have viewed the Clan’s holdings there merely as a source from which to repay local clan Chiefs for political favors. With the lands exhausted and the Chiefship unwanted, the MacAlpine clansmen and their families would have had no choice but to offer allegiance to other local clan Chiefs.

Or, it might be that the Argyll Clan became broken as, at the urging of the MacAlpin King in Scone, various powerful family branches separated from the original line to establish strategic strongholds throughout the New Kingdom, each one, in turn, taking with it a share of clansmen. This may have been how the Siol Alpine family of clans was formed. The MacAlpine clansmen would have had to choose which faction to follow. As surnames were not in popular use in Scotland during ancient times, it is no surprise that it is the given (first) names of the progenitors (first Chiefs) of the various Clan MacAlpine branches that have survived to the present; each distinguishing a branch among the Siol Alpine Clans. Thus, MacAlpine clansmen would have had to indicate allegiance to one new branch or another, leaving behind his use of the predecessor name of Clan MacAlpine.

Whatever the actual use of the old Clan seat, it seems clear that with the move of the capital to Scone, the stage was set for the ultimate breakdown of the Clan in Argyll. As time went on, power shifted and the Clan lost its members to other, sometimes related, more powerful clans in the region, ultimately becoming landless with no recognized Chief. This condition has persisted for the past five hundred years, or more.

The following is a collection of some of what now makes up the written history of Clan MacAlpine: Writings of experts and old Gaelic sayings. We present them so that you gain an understanding of just how deeply these legends permeate Scottish history, remembering that most legends are based on fact.

In his book, “The Scottish Tartans,” Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms, refers to the claim that this Royal Clan is the most ancient in the Highlands. He states that the Clan MacAlpine is Celtic and that records indicate that, for 25 generations, the Kings of Scotland were of MacAlpine lineage. He also states that the ancient crest was a boar’s head, the war cry being “Cumbrich Bas Ailpein" or, "Remember the death of Alpin,” and that the traditional home of the MacAlpines was Dunstaffnage, near Oban, Argyll. This former Lord Lyon is one of the most respected Lyons to serve Her Majesty and, therefore, his description of the Clan, its history, and its symbols is considered to be authoritative.

There is an old Gaelic saying: “Cnuic `is uillt `is Ailpeinich” (“Hills and Streams and MacAlpine”, which signifies the origin of the MacAlpines was contemporary with the origin of the hills and streams, that is, the earth.)

“Tradition claims MacAlpin or MacAlpine as the oldest and most purely Celtic of the Highland Clans, of royal descent from the dynasty of Kenneth MacAlpin who united the Picts and Scots into one kingdom from the year 850, and transferred his capital to Perthshire from Dunn Add in Dalriada (beside Loch Crinan.)” (From “Scots Kith & Kin,” page 49.)

MacAlpine: One of the chief branches of the royal clan Alpin. Their seat is said to have been at Dunstaffnage in Argyll though they are now landless and without a recognized Chief.

Siol Alpine is a name given to a group of clans that claim descent from Kenneth MacAlpin. They are the Grants, the MacAulays, the MacDuffs, the MacFies, the MacGregors, the MacKinnons, the MacNabs and the MacQuarries.

Regarding the name MacAlpine, one of the earliest records of an early form of the name appears when John MacAlpyne witnessed a charter by Malise, earl of Stratherne, of the lands of Cultenacloche and others in Glenalmond, c. 1260 (Grandtully, I, p. 126.) Monaghe fiz Alpyn of the county of Perth rendered forced homage to Edward I of England in 1296. (From "The Surnames of Scotland" by George F. Black.)

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CLAN MacARTHUR

 

Clan Motto:  Fide Et Opera ("By fidelity and labour")

Chief:  John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk, who represents the clan as a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs.

 

HISTORY

 

Origin of the Name

 

The forename Arthur may owe its origins to the Greek word "arktouros" meaning keeper of the bears and in the Celtic world it came to mean "strong as a bear". The name is now known around the world as a result of the legendary King Arthur who may have been a Celtic chieftain around the 6th century. The first reliable record of the name is in Adomnan's "Life of Columba" which tells of a king of the Scots called Aedan mac Gabhrain named his son Arthur, also in the 6th century.

 

The MacArthur clan is believed to have the same roots as the Campbells, but claims that further back they are descended from the legendary King Arthur, are not provable. The clan is certainly regarded as ancient and there is a Gaelic saying "as old as the hills, the MacArthurs and the Devil". The more established records show that they originated from the district of Lennox, part of the old kingdom of Strathclyde and moved into Argyll. The clan seat was established at Strachur, on Loch Fyne.

 

The clan was at its peak in the 14th century when a MacArthur married the heiress of the progenitor of the Campbell lords of Loch Awe. The MacArthurs from Loch Awe supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Their leader, Mac-ic-Artair, was rewarded with land previously held by the MacDougalls of Lorne (who had supported the Comyns). The MacArthurs became keepers of Dunstaffnage castle.

When King James I attempted to subdue the Highland clans who were becoming too powerful in the 15th century, the MacArthurs were amongst those who bore the brunt of his actions. The clan chief, Iain MacArthur, who could summon 1,000 men, was executed in 1427 and most of the clan lands were confiscated. For all practical purposes that was the end of the clan; unlike others who suffered setbacks and managed to recover, the MacArthurs never regained their clan lands, though the name survived as many of the clan dispersed.

 

For a while, a sept of the MacArthurs were the hereditary pipers of the MacDonalds of Sleat, who were frequently at odds with the Campbells. Charles MacArthur, piper to Sir Alexander MacDonald, was a pupil of Patrick Og MacCrimmon. Another group of MacArthurs were armorours to MacDonald of Islay.

 

Towards the end of the 15th century, and into the 16th century, a number of MacArthurs held prominent positions in Argyll. Some of their neighbours became jealous and as a result of a skirmish on Loch Awe, Duncan MacArthur and his son were drowned. The Earl of Argyll ordered compensation to be paid but took advantage of the situation and appointed his nephew John to be leader of the Loch Awe MacArthurs.

 

In the 17th century, one of the MacArthurs of Milton in Dunoon rose to be a baillie in Kintyre and a chamberlain to the Marquess of Montrose in Cowal. Large numbers of MacArthurs fought on both sides during the Jacobite Uprisings in 1715 and 1745. After the '45, many emigrated to the West Indies and North America.

John MacArthur (1767-1834) came to New South Wales in Australia in 1790. He was one of the earliest sheep farmers there (he successfully crossed Bengal and Irish sheep and later introduced the Merino breed from South Africa). His sons planted the first vineyard in Australia.

 

In more modern times, US General Arthur MacArthur, whose parents came from Glasgow in Scotland, became Lieutenant-General in the Philippines in 1906. His son, General Douglas MacArthur, became even more famous in the Pacific and the Philippines during WW2 as commander of the US forces in the Far East.

 

The last clan chief of the MacArthurs died in India in the 1780s. He had no obvious male heir and so the hereditary chiefdom of the clan seemed to have died with him. But after a long gap, Canadian-born James Edward Moir MacArthur was recognized by the Lord Lyon in August 2002 as the Arthur clan chief. The new chief was 87 at that date and lived in Edinburgh. He had not sought the title - the research was initiated by a group of senior clan members. The genealogist had to go back to the 16th century to find a common ancestor for the last chief, Charles MacArthur of Tirivadich. The Lord Lyon further decreed that the Chief of Clan Arthur's shield should be "three antique crowns Or (gold) set on an Azure (blue) background". The silver cross molene which, up until now, was thought to form part of the Clan Arthur Chief's shield, has been omitted. James MacArthur's coat of arms now reverts to the earliest, original arms of Clan Arthur, a shield identical to the description given in ancient manuscripts for the legendary King Arthur's blazon. James MacArthur was officially inaugurated in April 2003 but the old chief died in April 2004.

 

Surnames regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the MacArthur clan are limited to Arthur.

Here are the most widely known variant spellings for MacArthur: Arthur        MacArthur          McArthur        McArthure       MacArther      MacArtur Carter            MacCarter          McCarter         McCartor         Makcairter      McKairtour MacArtor      McArtor               MacArter           McArter          MacArtair       McArtair McArtan        McArta                Maccart           Makarta           Magarta          Mcharter          Makkarthyre          Makarturicht           McCarthair           Makarthour

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CLAN MacAULAY


Names Associated with the clan:

Aulay,MacAlley,,MacAulay, MacAuley, MacAully, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, McAuley, McCallie, McCauley   Septs:  Lennox Clan, MacAll, MacCall, MacKail, MacKell, MacPhedran, MacPhedron, MacPheidran, Paterson, Patterson

Chief:  Armigerous*

 

HISTORY

 

Clan MacAulay has three distinct branches. They are the MacAulay's of Ardencaple, the MacAulay's of Lochbroom and Coigach, and the MacAulay's of Lewis.

 

The MacAulay's of Lewis come from a Celtic and Norse mixture that used the Celtic language and followed Celtic traditions. The earliest historical reference was to a Donald MacAulay of Lewis in 1610. Following a tradition of Calvinist ministry, the Reverend John MacAulay produced in his Grandson, Thomas, Lord MacAulay, one of the finest essayists and historians in England. Lord Thomas Babington MacAulay (1800 - 1859 Macaulay) is buried at Westminster Abbey in London in the famous "poet's corner" next to Byron, Shelley, Keates, and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lord Macaulay's father, Zachary Macaulay, was a businessman in Sierra Leon and an ardent abolitionist.

 

The MacAulay's of Lochbroom and Coigach were amongst the ancient inhabitants of Kintail. They were allied to Alexander II of Scotland (1214 - 1249) who granted them land in Lochbroom and Coigach for loyal services to the King. Their saga is closely entwined with Clan MacKenzie of Kintail whose stronghold Eilean Donan Castle was commanded and defended by Duncan MacAulay against the attacks of William, Earl of Ross. They also fought under King Alexander III against King Haco of Norway who invaded Ayrshire on October 2, 1262. Alongside of them in the thick of battle were their clansmen, the Ardencaple MacAulay's.


 

Aulay MacAulay of the Ardencaple MacAulay's first appeared in documents in 1296. In 1587, Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardencaple is included in the roll of landlords of Gaeldom, as a principal vassal of the earldom of Lennox. In May, 1591, Sir Aulay MacAulay entered into a formal bond of friendship (alliance) with MacGregor of Glenstrae recognizing that Clan MacAulay was a cadet clan of Clan Gregor. MacAulay folklore tells of the times that Rob Roy (MacGregor) stayed with the MacAulay's of Ardencaple to avoid capture by the authorities. Clan MacAulay's dress tartan is very similar to that of Clan Gregor.

 

Castle Ardencaple was on a hillside near the town of Helensburgh, Scotland. The remaining battle tower overlooks an inlet to the Firth of Clyde on one side and the shore of Loch Lomond on the other. The immediate area of Ardencaple is now HM Naval dependent's housing for the nearby Faslane submarine base. Loch Lomond and Helensburgh lie about 25 km northwest of Glasgow, Scotland.

 

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CLAN MacBEAN/MacBAIN


BADGE:  Touch not a catt but a targe.” (Don’t touch this cat without a shield)

PLANT BADGE: Lus nam Braoileag (vaccineum vitis idaea) Red whortleberry.
PIBROCH: Mo Run Geal Og.

Chief: James McBain of McBain, is the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean

 

Septs of the Clan: Bean, MacBain, MacBeath, MacBeth, Macilvain, MacVean

 

Our Clan History

Clan MacBean started when Dougal Dall, 7th Chief of Clan Chattan (pronounce Hattan) gave his daughter, Eva, heiress to his Chieftainship of Clan Chattan, in marriage to Angus MackIntosh, the 6th Chief of Clan MackIntosh in 1291. One of our ancestors came with Eva as part of her family that moved with her when she married. It was the custom that a new heiress would bring a following of her own kinsmen with her to her new married home. Her father was from the Royal family of Loern of the Ancient Celtic Kingdom of Dal Riad and this was also the family that Bean Macdhomhil Mor came from. "Bean" means lively one and "mor" means great.

 

When the Mackintosh granted him land, he rightly took his place as a clan chief. This is how Clan MacBean is considered part of Clan Chattan's Federation of Clans. We carry the blood of both Clans and as the MackIntosh was also the Chief of Clan Chattan, our families have always been close.

 

Eva came from Lochaber and after their marriage,they lived for some time at Tocastle in Glenloy, but due to the enmity of Angus Og of Islay, they withdrew to Rothiemurchus.

Our Lands were located on the south side of Loch Ness. There are several notible family groups, such as the MacBeans of Faillie, the MacBeans of Tomatin, the MacBeans of Pittanie, and the MacBeans of Kinchyle. It is the MacBeans of Kinchyle that the Chieftainship is passed through to our present Chief, James McBain of McBain - 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean.

In the late 1700's , after the loss at the Battle of Culloden, Donald MacBean - 15th Chief of Clan MacBean - was in the British Army and fighting in North America. Through taxation, the lands of Kinchyle were lost. William McBain - 16th Chief of Clan MacBean , immigrated to Canada in the early 1800's, bringing the Chieftain lineage to North America. Many clan members came to North America during the late 1700's and early 1800's. Some through the military, some through exploration, and some through transportation as prisoners.

 

In the mid-1900's Hughston McBain was interested in his heritage and started doing research. It was discovered that the Chieftainship had been vacant for almost 200 years. After several years of follow-up research and applications to the Lord Lyon, he became the 21st Chief of Clan MacBean. He wrote a book, An American Chief, that tells how it all came about. He was able to buy a small piece of the old lands of Kinchyle and has established a park that all clan members may visit. Although the original home of Kinchyle has been lost to the clan, it still exists and is in very good shape. It is not a castle by any means, but a good sized home and can be seen by driving down the road past the turn off to the park.

Hughston's son, James McBain of McBain , is now the 22nd Chief of Clan MacBean. He is married to Peggy, Lady of McBain and his son, Richard The Younger, is the Tanist (Next in Line).


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CLAN MacBETH/MacBEATH


Translation: A dragon was believed to possess a keen sense of sight and represents the most Valiant Defender of Treasure.
Motto: Conjuncta virtuti fortuna.
Translation: Fortune joined to bravery


This clan’s ancestor is MacBeth (1005-1057), Mormaer (High Steward) of Moray, whose mother Doada (or Donalda) was the daughter of Scotland’s King Malcolm II and Blanaid (who was the daughter of the Irish High King (Ard Ri) Brian Boru and his first wife Deidgre). He married Gruoch, daughter of Boedhe who was the son of Kenneth III. So MacBeth was the grandson of King Malcolm II and his wife was the granddaughter of King Kenneth III.


Under the ancient law of the Scots he had as much claim to the throne of Scotland as King Duncan I. He was commander for Duncan I, whom he defeated and slew, thereby becoming king. Macbeth was proclaimed king, and Scotland prospered during his reign. He was later defeated by Malcom, the son of Duncan.


It is a generally held opinion by Scotch historians that if MacBeth had not been killed by the future King Malcolm III, Scotland would probably have remained a separate nation until this day and might have conquered England. MacBeth was originally from Moray and records show that he used his power for the good of his country.


MACBETH / MACBEATH: Perhaps the best remembered is Shakespeare's arch-hero, and whose peaceful reign was far from the tale related by the 'bard' - although he did in fact die in battle, at Lumphanan - not when Birnam Wood moved to Dunsinane as is often believed. The name MacBeatha was also that of a family of physicians who served the Lords of the Isles, and such are thought to have originally come from Ireland in the train of a Macdonald bride. On the fall of the Lordship in 1493 they migrated to various locations along the western seaboard, but mainly to Pennycross on Mull, where they exercised their `physic' (medicine) under the Macleans.


Others duly removed to the shires of Inverness, Sutherland & Easter Ross and the name was also found in Moray where they had association with the Macbeans.


In Angus, 'MacBeths' received a charter from David II in 1369, but this family were of the ancestral line of the Fife Bethunes, who anciently held lands in the area. The later history of the MacBeths, the Highland Beatons and Bethunes has become hopelessly confused for, in the various lands with which they are associated, both forms were used, often referring to the same family, sometimes even to the same person.


Their story became even more complicated when many MacBeths anglicised their name to Beaton and became further confused with a lineage of Bethunes, who also had tradition of `physic' and practised in Skye. These latter were also of Fife ancestry, one of whom had been enticed north to pursue his healing arts.


Many former MacBeths now bear such names as `MacVeigh' (from Gaelic `Bh' = `V') - a common form on Mull, or `Leich', (from the popular name for their occupation). No chief has been recognized and tradition records that they held various affiliations with the Macdonalds, Macleans or Macbeans. Specific clan association should not be assumed without genealogical or geographical evidence, and in the absence of such the MacBeth tartan, now over 100 years old and based on the Royal Stewart pattern with a blue background edged with yellow, may quite appropriately be used by all of the name.




The Beatons: (a derivative of the MacBeth Clan)


The Beatons settled in Islay in the time of Angus of Islay, grandfather of John 1st Lord of the Isles, and became physicians and senachies to the Chief of MacDonald. Thiers was much advanced over what passed for medical science in much of Europe at the time. By the 15th century they possesed the teachings of Avicenna, the Persian physician, in Gaelic, well before they were translated into English.


The Beatons spread thier learning to Skye, Mull and the Outer Hebrides. A branch of the family moved to Pennyghael and became hereditary doctors for the Isle of Mull. They were also physicians and seneachies to the MacLeans


The family was renowned for their library, which contained many ancient volummes of poetry, history and legend, as well as many Greek and Persian medical text. The manuscripts ranged from the works of Hippocrates to ancient Irish legend to medieval French works. Among the volummes was the earliest account of the fall of Troy translated into any European language other than Latin. The library was last in the possession of the Episcopal minister Rev. John Beaton who moved to Ulster rather than conform to Presbyterianism. He died in Ulster in the 1690s or early 1700s and the library vanished with his death.


It should be noted that the MacBeath family has no connection to King MacBeth whose name was actually Maol Bheatha. However one renders his name it is his given name and not a surname.


Various branches of the family have, at one time or another, been adherents of the MacLeans, MacLeods, and the MacDonalds.

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CLAN ROUTLEDGE


Motto: ‘non sumus praeda’ – ‘We are not prey’

Chief:  Currently Non Armigerous

Names associated with Clan Routledge:  Rothlek, Roulluche, Routledge, Rutledge, Mulderrig,

 

 The Clan Routledge is of Liddesdale and Roxburgh on the Scottish border. Its earliest recorded mention is in the 14th Century before blossoming in Hawick and surrounding area in the early 15th Century. Living under the Douglas’ on their lands it was not long before they clashed with one of their rivals. In 1494 they sacked and burned the Scotts Castle at Buccleuch before Branxholme was destroyed by more Routledges in 1510.

    The Routledges of Liddesdale were Border Reivers and lived in the debatable lands. They lived, fought and raided alongside the Armstrong family often drawing attention with bold raids into Northumberland and Cumberland. In 1528 the English sent a force of 500 to try and ‘dislodge’ the Routledges from their home, but they simple withdrew to the head of the Tarras and the English force failed.

    In the previous century however, Routledges of Liddesdale had been rewarded by the would be Richard III and were granted the lands of Bewcastle and the castle in 1478. Their wealth was not to last as when Richard was killed in 1485 they were stripped of their lands and it was given to the Musgrave family. This meant that come the battle of Flodden in 1513 Routledges faced each other on the battle field, no more than a generation or two apart. They fought under Dacre of England and Douglas of Scotland.

    The Border battles played a significant part of the Routledges Scottish History and in 1543 at the battle of Solway Moss the Routledges once again would have faced each other when an English Routledge captured the Earl of Cassillis.

     The Chief of the Routledges in Liddesdale is named in 1543 as Alane Routledge when he pledges his son Jock, but alas neither would ever be recorded again, nor any further mention of a Chief. The Rough Wooings which broke out in 1544 and lasted for nine years destroyed the Routledge lands in Scotland and they fled, some to Northumberland and other to Cumberland where they had once raided. Others fled to Ireland. The Rutledges, as they became, of Ireland prospered and gained land and castles quickly, suggesting the Chief fled there too. Those in Northumberland settled in Kilham, but those in Cumberland initial became involved in inter family murders and strife. By 1583 a letter saw it fit to describe the Routledges in Bewcastle as every man’s prey for they had no allies in Scotland; this was not true.

     Hardly any record of the Routledges in Scotland survive after 1550 but despite this in 1569 they are named as outlaws and among the most notorious of Liddesdale so it seems members did survive, albeit not on the records

    Those Routledges still on the border suffered when the Reiver period ended in 1603 and they shared a fate of forced enlistment overseas, execution or plantation in Ulster. From Ireland the Routledges spread into the new worlds first arriving in America in 1635 and then Australia in the late 18th Century.

    Today the name hardly exists in Scotland but still thrives in Northumberland, Cumberland, Ireland and America. Without a Chief, Clan Routledge are unable to bare a Clan Crest or Badge but they do have the Rutledge tartan and the Motto ‘non sumus praeda’ – ‘We are not prey’.

 

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MacBrayne

Motto:  Fortis Ceu Leo Fidus (Brave As A Faithful Lion)

Gaelic:  Mac a’ Bhriuthainn

Chief:  Armigerous*The name MacBrayne comes from the Gaelic Mac a' Bhriuthainn, which means 'son of the judge'.

Recorded MacBraynes include a Eugenius MacBrehin who was a student at St. Andrews in 1525. There is also an
Anna MacBreynr in Gortenagor in 1672.

Archibald Mcbrain and Duncan Mcbrain were both noted rebels in Argyllshire in 1685.

An employee called MacBraine in Mackintosh's 'secret work' in the making of cudbear, sold the secret of manufacture to an English company around the end of the 18th century.

In 1878, a David MacBrayne became the owner of a number of vessels which provided ferry services to parts of the Western Isles. The company quickly expanded and became the main suppliers of both passenger and freight ferry services from the Scottish mainland to most of the islands. The company remained in the MacBrayne family until it went bankrupt in 1928, and ownership was spilt between a private company and a state owned company. By 1970 the whole company was state owned, and then at the beginning of 1973 it merged with Caledonian Steam Packet Company, and formed under the new name of Caledonian MacBrayne. Today it remains a major ferry company providing services to over 20 of the major islands in the Western Isles from the mainland
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CLAN MacCORQUODALE


Motto: Vivat Rex (Latin : May the King live)
Names associated with the clan: Kerkyll, MacCorqudill, Maccorquidall, MacCorquhedell, MacCorquodill, MacCorkle, MacCorquell, MacCorkindale, MacCorquidill, MacCorquidle, MacCorkill, MacCorkil, MacCorker, MacCorkell, MacCordadill, MacCorcadill, MacCorquodale, MacCorquydill,  MacCorcadale, MacCorcadail, MacKurkull, MacKorkitill,  MacKorkyll, Macorkill, Macorquodale, Macorquidill, Macorquidill, MacThorcadail, MacQuorquodale, MacQuorquordill, MacQuorcadaill, MacTorquil, MacTorquedil, MacThurkill, MacThorcuill, MacQuorquhordell, Makcocadill, Makcorquydill, Makcorquidill, Makcorcadell, Mikcorcadill, Thorcull Torquil, Corquodale, MacCorkie.

Chief:  Armigerous*

Origins of the name:  The name originates from Old Norse Thorketill (Thor's kettle), in Gaelic MacCorcadail, and the clan held lands in Argyll in the fourteenth century. From Ewen Mackcorquydill of Phantelan, of whom there is a record in 1434, descended Duncan MacCorquodale of Phantillans, and from him Sir Malcolm MacCorquodale (1901-71), 1st and last Lord MacCorquodale of Newton, created in 1955.

The name is often given as a sept of the MacLeod on no more evidence than that it is derived from 'son of Thorketill, or Torquil', the latter name being that of the progenitor of the MacLeods of Lewis. Such name is of Scandinavian origin meaning "Cauldron of the Thunder Spirit" and undoubtedly would have spread wherever the maurauding Norsemen stamped their influence. The traditional account of the MacCorquodales makes them of more ancient origin than the MacLeods, for the lands of Fionnt Eilean comprised, at one time, the northern shore of Loch Awe from Avich to Ard-an-aiseig, and such are said to have been granted to another Torquil, progenitor of the MacCorquodales, by King Kenneth MacAlpin. There is no evidence that this Torquil was of Clan Leod and the name MacCorquodale appears seldon, if ever, in the histories of that clan. It is evident by their Argyllshire habitat and title that the MacCorquodales ARE A DISTINCT CLAN, whose chiefs were the Barons MacCorquodale of Phantelane (The 'White Island' - Eilean-a-Bharain on Loch Tromlee). From their island castle they held Baronial power over the thousands of mountainuous acres which have been their domain since at least the 13th century. In 1428 Euan MacCorquodale and the chief of the Campbells were summoned to Court, with their charters in order that adjudication might be made in a land dispute with Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, who held the neighbouring lands of Glassary. Such was resolved when Euan's son, Malcolm, married the Constable's daughter in 1436. The Dean of Lismore's book of Gaelic poetry (collected 1514-1551) contains verses by Effric nighean Thorcaidill, poetess of the clan, and in 1542 the MacCorquodale lands were re-incorporated by royal charter as a free barony. In 1612, younger sons of the chief were charged by the Privy Council for consorting with proscribed MacGregors and the clan history and succession in the rest of that century is confused by two step brothers each contested the other's claim. The MacCorquodales supported the Campbells in the Civil Wars and 'Colkitto' MacDonald sacked their island home in 1645. Since the death of the last Baron in the 18th century the chiefship has been uncertain. 

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CLAN MacCULLOUGH


Motto:  Vi Et Animo - By Strength and Courage


Variations:  Culloch, Gulloch, McCulloch, McCullough, MacCoulaghe, MacChullach, MacAlach, MacCullaigh, MacCullough, MacClullich, MacLullich, MacLullick, Makcullocht


Chief:  Armigerous*


The family name McCulloch is one of the oldest in Galloway. It is of ancient Celtic origin and as such, the family can boast of a number of fanciful legends concerning its origin.


According to one, the family is descended from Ulgric, the grandson of Owen Gallvus, king of the Cludienses, or Strathclyde Britons. Ulgric was killed leading the gallant but wild and undisciplined Gallovidians (natives of Galloway) in the van of King David's army at the Battle of the Standards in 1138. Ulgric and Douvenald were vice-sovereigns of Galloway, the McCullochs, Mackuloghs, or Culaghs holding sway over the lands of Ulgric, and the McDowalls over the lands of Douvenald.


According to another account, the name McCulloch derives from a warrior of earlier lineage. Gwallawc or The Hawk of Battle, a Gallovidian chieftain of the sixth century, whose battles were celebrated by the ancient bards and is reputed, in local legend, to have be buried beneath the Standing Stones of Torhouse. His descendants thus took the name Mac-Gwallawc.


Another legend claims that the McCullochs took their name from a warrior who in the Crusades carried the device of a wild boar (which in Gaelic is cullach) on his shield and distinguished himself in the Holy Land with his gallantry and daring. On his return, William the Lion, in reward for Cullach's martial prowess, granted him the lands of Myrton, Glassertoun, Killasser and Auchtnaucht. The grateful soldier adopted as his patronymic, the word cullach, his nom-de-guerre. His son Godfrey, named after Godfrey de Bouillon, the First King of Jerusalem and Knight Templar, was naturally styled Mac-Cullach. Although this story is the most plausible, it is probable that the king was merely confirming those lands in the name of the McCullochs as they are mentioned as being a prominent family in the area some 400 years before.


In the book, "The Surnames of Scotland" by George Black, of the "MacCulloch name he states: Much obscurity enshrouds the origin of this old Galwegian name, and no satisfactory pedigree of the family exists. They are said to be described in one of their charters as having their origin "ultra memoriam hominum." The name may be MacCullaich or MacC(h)ullach, "son of the boar". The name first appears in the Scottish records in 1296, when Thomas Maculagh del conte de Wiggetone (now Wigtown) rendered homage to Edward I. His family later held castles at Gatehouse of Fleet in Kirkcudbrightshir, and Creetown and Port William in Wigtownshire. Thomas Maculagh's seal bears a squirrel and S'Thome Macculi. He appears again in the same year as a juror on inquest at Berwick along with his brother Michal and is probably the Thomas Makhulagh, sheriff of Wigtown, 1305. Michel Maculagh and William Maculaghe also rendered homage. Sir Patrick McCoulagh and Gilbert McCoulaghe were charter witnesses in Galloway, 1354. Sir Patrick Macologhe had an annuity of 100 marks "in recompense of his sufferings, and loss of his lands in Scotland for his allegiance" to the king of England 1360 and in 1363 as Sir Patrick M'Owlache had restoration of his lands.
(Black goes on to describe some other MacCulloughs/MacCullochs. Here are some of the spellings of the name he brings up) Patrick Makcowloch (1480), Patrick Mackullouch (1482), Symon McKowloch (1500), David M'Ulloch (1643), MacLulich, Makawllauch (1414), McCoulach (1410), M'Coulaghe (1352), M'Cowlach (1476), Makcowllach (1482), M'Cullauch (1439), Maccullo (1546), M'Cullogh (1685), M'Kowloche (1495), McColloch, McCullie, McCullo, McCulloh, McCully, McKeulloch, McKulloch, M'Alach, Mackculloch, Makculloch, M'Hulagh, M'Kulagh, and Malrcowlach (1444).


The Argyllshire MacCullochs appear to have been identified with the MacDougall clan. R.C. MacLagan in <>says: The lands surrounding Balamhaodan forming the district of Benderloch are alleged to have belonged to Modan, who was the head, so runs the tradition, of the Clan MacLullich, as recorded in the local phrase, Clann Lulich o thulaich Mhaodain, the MacLullichs from the hill of Maodan.


Lullach was the stepson of the infamous Macbeth and ruled briefly as King of the Scots until killed by Malcolm III. He was the natural son of the Mormaer of Angus and was married to the daughter of the Mormaer of Moray. He had a son and daughter by this marriage and his son would have been styled "Mac-Lullach".


A final note on the origin of the McCulloch name which indicates it could also have been linked with that of Clan Donald is contained in a manuscript history of the MacDonalds written during the reign of Charles II (Gregory Collection). It states that Reginald MacDonald, son of Somerled, is said to have married MacRandel's daughter, or as some say to a sister of Thomas Randel, Earl of Murray...[Reginald] had by her Angus, of whom are descended ...the MacLullichs, who are now called in the low country Pitullichs. In actual fact, the said Reginald MacDonald married a daughter of Angus, Earl of Moray.


The McCullochs are considered to be a Clan Sept (or Sett). A Sept is a family name that is related to a Clan or larger family. A Sept may result from descendents of the Clan Chief through the female line who consequently bore a different surname usually through marriage. It may also have resulted by a small family seeking protection from a larger and more powerful neighbour.


Over time, many Septs have become clans in their own right. In the political turmoil that Scotland has seen over the centuries, many Septs also came to be related to more than one clan.


The McCulloughs were also allied with a number of larger clans, primarily the MacDougalls, the Rosses, and the Munros. To a lesser degree there were also some who allied with MacDonald of Sleat and with Gunn (MacCullie).


McCullochs are also associated with the Galloway District in Scotland. Galloway is also the location of the MacDowell branch of Clan MacDougall. In addition, there are many McCullochs that are from Ireland, primarily from the County Antrim and County Down areas of Ulster.

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Clan MacDougall


Mac means "son of" while the term "clan" comes from the Gaelic word for children. Thus, Clan MacDougall signifies the children of the son(s) of Dougall.
Dougal or Dugall or Dougall derived from the Gaelic word Dubh meaning Black or Dark, the Gaelic word Gall meaning Stranger or Foreigner. Hence Dougal would translate as "Black Foreigner" or "Black Stranger" which was the early Gaelic nickname for a Dane, later extended to Norsemen.
By the mid 12th century the name implied that the bearer likely had Norse connections in his ancestry. Dougall's mother and great grandmother were both of Norse descent.
Dougall's heritage from the Gael and the Norse is shown in the present arms of the MacDougall Chiefs which quarter the lion of the ancient Scottish Kingdom of Dalriada and the black royal galley of the Norse.
The MacDougalls of Lorn are the senior branch of the royal house of Somerled, King of the Hebrides and Regulus of Argyll. As a Highland clan, the MacDougalls are one of the three oldest in existence dating from 1164. In that year Dougall, Somerled's oldest living son and the clan's patronymic forebear, inherited the central portion of his father's kingdom upon the death of his father and step brother in the Battle of Renfrew with the forces of the King of Scots. This inheritance included the mainland kingdom of Lorn from Morvern to Knapdale along with the islands of Jura, Coll, Mull, Tiree, Kerrera, Lismore, and the surrounding smaller isles.
Dougall's son Duncan and grandson, Ewan, defended their vast territories through the construction of various castles including Dunstaffnage, Dunollie and Duntrune on the mainland and their islands, Aros, Cairnburgh, Dunchonnel and Coeffin. From their principal seats of Dunstaffnage and Dunollie Castles, the MacDougall Lords of Lorn and Chiefs of the clan exerted a major influence in what is now Argyll and in the islands to the west and were a strong sea power. This era of widespread power ended during the first years of the 14th century when the MacDougalls chose the losing side in the struggle for the Scottish throne.
Sir John the "Red" Comyn of Badenoch was the nephew-in-law of the Alexander the Fourth MacDougall Chief and a contender for the crown of Scotland. In the complex political forces at play during the time, the murder of the Red Comyn, by Robert the Bruce during a meeting in the Greyfriars Kirk at Dumfries in February 1306 started blood feuds and civil war.
In the warring which followed, the forces of the MacDougall Chief under the direction of Sir John of Lorn (Iain Bachach) nearly captured Bruce at Dalrigh in Strathfillan in June 1306. He was forced to leave his brooch in the hand of his dead attacker in order to escape. Thus the famous Brooch of Lorn along with his cloak came into in the hands of the MacDougalls. Less than two years later, Bruce, having consolidated his power, brought it to bear on the MacDougalls, whom he defeated in the Pass of Brander in the late summer of 1308. This resulted in the permanent loss of all the clan's island possessions except for part of the island of Kerrera.
The Lordship of Lorn was temporarily lost until it was restored to Ewan the seventh Chief of the clan some time after 1330. At the time of Ewan's death the Lordship of Lorn was a great Lordship extending from Ballachulish and Loch Leven in the north at least down to Kilmartin in the south. However the naval power of our seagoing clan had been drastically reduced by the loss of our island possessions, and their galleys and fighting men.
Ewan was the last MacDougall Chief to use Dunstaffnage castle as his main seat. After it and the Lordship of Lorn passed to the Stewarts through Ewan's daughters' inheritance, Dunstaffnage remained as the main seat of the Stewart Lordship of Lorn.
Around 1386 both of Ewan's children, daughters Janet and Isabella, married brothers who were Stewarts of Innermeath from Perthshire. Janet and Isabella inherited Lorn equally as females under the laws of primogeniture. Then Janet and her husband Sir Robert Stewart traded their half of Lorn to her younger sister Isabella and her husband Sir John Stewart in exchange for Sir John Stewart's inherited estate of Durrisdeer in Perthshire. Through Isabella the Lordship of Lorn then passed to her Stewart husband. These Stewarts of Innermeath became the Lords of Lorn and retained the Lordship until around 1468 when the Lordship of Lorn transferred to the Chief of the Campbells. Ewan died around 1375. Upon Ewan's death the Chiefship of Clan MacDougall permanently separated from the Lordship of Lorn. Iain of Dunollie became the next and Eighth Chief with his clan duthus at Dunollie castle.
Despite the loss of the Lordship of Lorn, the Clan continued to play an important role in Argyll. Clan MacDougall was a consistent supporter of the Royal House of Stewart.
The Clan suffered a large loss at Dunaverty castle in Kyntyre in 1647. It is estimated that one hundred men or one third of the clan's fighting strength was killed in the massacre of MacDougalls and MacDonalds and their followers, after their surrender to the Covenenter forces. There was only one survivor amongst those who had been defending at Dunaverty castle.
The Clan fought for the Royal House of Stewart under Viscount Dundee "Bonnie Dundee" at Killiecrankie in 1688, and again under its fighting 22nd Chief Iain Ciar at Sherrifmuir in the Jacobite Rising of 1715, and at Glenshiel in the Jacobite Rising of 1719.
Our 23rd Chief Alexander of Dunollie did not join the Jacobite Rising of 1745 in support of Charles Edward Stuart "Bonnie Prince Charlie" but his brother Duncan fought at Prestonpans and Culloden. Twenty MacDougalls were listed as prisoners of the Government forces after the '45 including three from the lowlands. After the 45' was over Alexander moved from Dunollie castle and built the manor house below the castle by adding to the original "laigh bigging" which stood there. The building is now known as Dunollie House. There he raised a large family and it became the home of our Chiefs ever since.
Through the following years the proud history of the clan has been reflected in the distinguished service of the MacDougall Chiefs to their country and in the pride they have taken in their stewardship of the old clan lands. Equal distinction has been shown by the clanspeople, many of whom left their homes to be pioneers in far off places and to bring their spirit, faith, and abilities to the building of new nations. But the link with Lorn and the tie to Clan and Chief have not severed. The heritage prospers and the old belonging takes on new dimensions in the Clan MacDougall Society of North America and our sister society in UK/Europe, and in Australia.
Our present Chief is Morag MacDougall of MacDougall, thirty-first Chief of the Clan, whose official residence is Dunollie House, close by the castle on its high cliffs.
For more information about individual clan Chiefs in Argyll or events during their time see The Chiefs of Clan MacDougall in Argyll).
During the centuries that Clan MacDougall was a powerful influence along the West Highland Coast, a number of families became associated with this clan. Those of these surnames whose ancestors shared in this connection are welcomed members of our Society.

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CLAN MacDUFF


Gaelic Name: MacDhuibh.

Origin of Name: Dubh (Gaelic) (Black).

Motto: Deus juvat (Latin) (God assists).

Badge: Red whortleberry.

Lands: Fife, Lothian, Strathbran and Strathbogie

 

Clan MacDuff is a Scottish armigerous* clan, which is registered with Lyon Court, though currently without a chief. Moncreiffe wrote that the Clan MacDuff was the premier clan among the Scottish Gaels. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Today the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the direct descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs

 

History

The Clan MacDuff were hereditary Abbots of the Celtic abbey of Abernethy.

The clan originates from the original Scotto-Pictish lines who created the Kings of Scotland and the Earldom or Mormaerdom of Fife. The direct male line of the Mormaer failed in 1353 after Edward I took Donnchadh IV prisoner in England. His aunt, Isabella, later gave the title to Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and Regent of Scotland. In 1425 the earldom was absorbed into the crown, not withstanding the clan retained it status as first among clans.

The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Madcap in 1759. Later Alexander William George Duff, 6th Earl of Fife and 1st Duke of Fife, married the Princess Royal, HRH Louise (daughter of King Edward VII).

The direct line of the ancient house is in dispute and supposedly continued in Wemyss, and moreover, in the northern territories, families of Clan Duff emerged with no proof of royal descent. For this reason of non-proof of headship, MacDuff is still Armigerous.

 

Law of Clan MacDuff

The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, and could find remission by paying compensation to the victims family.

The chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Destiny. When the Stone of Destiny was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, the Earl of Fife's sister.

In 1425 the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded. The Clan MacDuff hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland then passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, and as consequence bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Angus Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton

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CLAN BOYLE

 

Motto: "Dominus provedebit" which means "God will provide".

 

The de Boyvilles were Anglo-Norman knights from Beauville, near Caen, who came to Scotland after the Norman conquest of England in 1066 - there is a record of a David de Boivil witnessing a charter as early as 1164. Henry de Boyville was the keeper of the castles of Dumfries and Galloway in 1291 (taking over from another, earlier, Boyville) and three de Boyvils signed King Edward's Ragman Roll in 1296.

For some time the name was confined to the south-west of Scotland where it was pronounced as "bowl". Gradually, pronunciation and spelling became one syllable, Boyll in 1367 and Boyle in 1482, although as with so many names, there were many other variants.

The family spread into Ayrshire and Largs and Kelburn Castle became the seat of the major line. John Boyle was a supporter of King James III and was killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. The family lands were forfeited but John's son managed to have them restored by King James IV. Support for Mary Queen of Scots and later, King Charles I, did not help the family fortunes. But during the 17th century the Boyle's grew rich through shipping and shipbuilding. John, the 3rd Earl of Glasgow, followed a military career in Europe and lost a hand in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and was wounded twice at the Battle of Lauffeldt in 1747. He later became Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. His widow built a monument to the Earl in the grounds of Kelburn Castle, which has survived to this day.

 

In 1869, the 6th Earl of Glasgow inherited Kelburn and land in Dalry, Stewarton, Corshill and Fenwick and the estate at Hawkeshead outside Paisley, plus estates in Dunbartonshire, Fife, Northumberland and the greater part of Cumbrae. However, he ran into debt building Episcopal churches all over Scotland, including a Cathedral in Perth and one in Cumbrae. By 1888 he was one million pounds in debt. His cousin, David Boyle of Stewarton, later Seventh Earl of Glasgow, sold his own lands to buy back the Kelburn Estate at auction. All the rest was lost to the family. The 7th Earl was a naval officer and became Governor of New Zealand from 1892 to 1897.

A branch of the Boyles from Kelburn became established in Ireland and eventually became the Earls of Cork The 10th Earl of Glasgow still lives at Kelburn Castle, land held by the family since the 13th century and Boyles from all over the world visit the estate, which is now a country park.

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CLAN BRODIE

Motto: "Unite"
Badge: A hand holding a sheaf of arrows

 

In 1550 Chief Alexander Brodie, the rebel, and 100 others were denounced for attacking the Clan Cumming of Altyre. In 1562 Brodie joined the Earl of Huntly who raised the flag of rebellion. They attacked Mary Queen of Scots but were routed at Corrichie. Huntly was killed and Brodie, escaping, became an outlaw.

During the Civil Wars of the 17th century Alexander Brodie of Brodie was responsible for the destruction of Elgin Cathedral in 1640.
In 1643 Alexander Brodie of Brodie became a Member of Parliment for Moray and an Elder of the Forres Presbytety to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
In 1645 Brodie Castle was burnt down by Lewis Gordon 3rd Earl of Huntly and chief of Clan Gordon. This was part of the Covenanting conflict during the Civil War, as a result there are few surviving documents and little is known about the Clan Brodie.

Alexander Brodie was one of the six commissioners that were sent to The Hague to negotiate with Charles Stuart. They were there to persuade Charles II to sign the National Covenant and resume the Scottish Crown. On his return to Parliment he was made a Lord of Session (a senior justice).

Alexander Brodie's diplomatic career also included a summons by Cromwell to London in 1651 to consider a Scottish union with England. He resisted attempts to appoint him to judicial office, though Cromwell's death in 1658 forced the issue for him, and he was appointed Justice of the Peace. The consequence was royal disfavour following the Restoration, Charles II finding it hard to forgive men who had tried to force their Presbyerian beliefs upon him as the price of their allegiance. The Good Laird Brodie died May 5th, 1680.

While it is inferred that there were Clan Brodie Members on both sides of the 1715, 1719 and 1745-46 Jacobite conflicts, The Lairds of Brodie did not support the Stuarts or the Jacobites.
In 1720 Alexander Brodie became 19th Laird Brodie of Brodie. That same year he became Member of Parliment for Elgin.
In 1724 General George Wade (British Army) reports the Clan Brodie to be "well affected" to His Majesty's Government.
Alexander Brodie was appointed Lord Lyon, King of Arms in 1727.
In 1736 David Brodie of Muiresk became a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. He was Promoted to 'Master and Commander" in 1740.
During the Rising of 1745 The Brodie is reported to have spent time on board the Royal Navy Sloop Vulture patrolling the Moray Firth.
After the Battle of Culloden, Alexander spoke in Parliament to oppose the ban on wearing of the Kilt. Alexander died in 1754. Hs wife, Mary Sleigh, is credited with starting the flax industry in Scotland.
There are still Brodies present to this day in Scotland, England (lower Scotland), Europe, Canada, United States, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, China, Polynisia, and many other Countries. Clan Brodie is a World-Wide presence.

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CLAN BURNS

 

Names associated with the clan: BERNIS BERNES BERNYS BURNS BURNIS BURNICE BURNESS BURNES BURNACE BURNASSE BURNS

 

The surname of Burns comes from "Burnhouse" a dwelling near a burn or a stream. Although "burn" is a common word in Scotland for a stream, the word originated in Old English. The singular form "Burn" is found in Dumfries and Galloway in the 13th and 14th century.

 

The poet Robert Burns' father came from Kincardineshire on the east coast of Scotland and spelt his name Burness. Robert and his brother adopted the spelling "Burns" a form which first appeared in written records only in the 17th century.


1759 - Robert Burns Born Robert Burns was born in Alloway, Ayrshire on 25 January 1759.

His father was a gardener and tenant farmer, and the life he was brought up in made him acutely aware of society’s unfairness as he laboured hard yet lived in poverty.

 

In 1786 he published 612 copies of Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, the preface of which explains his early need to write to find ’some kind of counterpoise’ in his unhappy life. The book’s success changed that life.

 

He moved to Edinburgh and was welcomed into the literary circles. With the earnings from an expanded volume of his book, Burns began to travel around his country, drawing inspiration from the environments and people. As important to him as his own writing was the collecting of traditional works he came across.

 

In time he returned home to farming and trained to become a full-time excise officer in Dumfries. As well as editing volumes of James Johnson’s Scots Musical Museum from 1788 until his death on 21 July 1796, he wrote copiously and collected works with almost all his spare time.

With what remained of his spare time he socialised. Whether the women in his life brought to him his romantic words or vice versa, he wrote often of love and loved many women. His tolerant wife was Jean Armour.

 

With his eloquent identification of the injustices of society and his ability to describe the little sensations that make life bearable, such as the pleasure of drinking, the ‘Heaven-sent ploughman’ is held as a poet who belongs to the workers before the intellectuals, and his work still speaks for people all over the world today.

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Clan Brown

Motto: (Colstoun) "Floreat majestas" which means "Let majesty flourish".

Branches: Broun of Colstoun
Names associated with the clan: BRON BROWNE BROWYN BROWN BRWNE BRAUN BRUN BRUNE BROUIN BROUNE BROUN

Brown is the second most common name in Scotland and is also found frequently in England and the USA as well as other parts of the world. It might be thought that a name such as this, which was spread so widely, would not have a specifically Scottish pedigree. But the Broun family (spelt thus) has a crest recognised by the Lord Lyon King at Arms and is included in the list of clans and families maintained by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. They also have a recognised tartan.

 

The French "Le Brun" appeared early in England (around 970) but did not arise in Scotland until the 12th century. Walterus Brown was involved with the church in Glasgow in 1116 and Richard de Broun and others with the same surname signed the Ragman Roll in 1296 when all the nobles and landowners were forced to swear allegiance to King Edward I of England.

 

A long line of Browns, which can be traced for 850 years, is the Brouns of Colstoun in East Lothian. The first of the line may have been Sir David le Brun who gave the land and witnessed the charter founding the Abbey of Holyroodhouse in 1128. These Brouns claimed that they were originally descended from the royal house of France - their arms bore the three gold lilies of France. The Broun arms registered with the Lord Lyon has a lion rampant holding a French "fleur de lis".

 

Sir John Brune was High Sheriff of Aberdeenshire in 1368. Patrick Broun of Colstoun was created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1686. The 13th Baronet is Sir William Windsor Broun who lives in New South Wales, Australia.

Robert Brown, who was born in Montrose in 1773 was a botanist who worked in Australia. His experiments on powder suspended in water resulted in a phenomenon known as the "Brownian Motion".

 

Agnes Broun was the mother of the poet Robert Burns and the name occurs frequently in Ayrshire. James Brown of Lochton was the provost (roughly the mayor) of Dundee in 1844-47.

 

George Brown of Edinburgh emigrated to Canada in 1843 and was influential in the purchase of the Northwest Territories by CanadaThe name Brown was adopted by a fair number of Highland clansmen when they wanted to get rid of their cumbersome (or at times politically incorrect) Gaelic names. John Brown, Queen Victoria's famous gillie may have been in this category. Additionally, it has been suggested by some researchers that at least some of Celtic origins may have been named after local judges who were called "brehons".   Browns are sometimes regarded as septs (sub-branch) of the Lamont or MacMillan clans.

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Clan Cameron

Motto: "Aonaibh Ri Cheile" (Unite)
Badge: A sheaf of five arrows

 

The clan, settled in Lochaber since at least Bruce's time, later became an important branch of the Clan Chattan confederacy and their name, taken as Cam--shorn ('s' silent) "hook-nose", is reported to have fitted many Highland Camerons.  But Camerons also, from the Norman name Cambron, had for a century before Bruce been spreading widely from their Fife headquarters of the same name.  If the name in common is more coincidence, it is not the only one.

 

Among several branches of the Highland clan, hat of the Chief acquired their Lochiel property by marriage and made that name, with their motto "For King and Country" resound in the Stewart causes.  Then in 1793 under Cameron of Erracht they founded the 79th or Cameron Highlanders to serve with no less distinction.

 

The southern Camerons of the 17th century directed their zeal rather differently.  The scholarly John Cameron founded a protestant group in France called Cameronites; Richard Cameron, killed at Airdsmoss, 1680, a militant Covenanter, gave his name to the Cameronian sect and a later Lowland regiment.

 

Septs:  Chalmers, Chambers, Clark, Clarke, Clarkson, Cleary, Clerk, Dowie, Gibbon, Gilbertson, Kennedy, Leary, Lonie, MacAldowie, MacAlonie, MacChlery, MacClair, MacLeary, MacGillery, MacGillonie, MacIldowie, MacKail, MacKell, MacLear, MacCleary, MacLerie, MacMarti, Maconie, Macostrich, MacPhail, MacSorley, MacUlrig, MacVail, MacWalrick, Martin, Paul, Sorley, Sorlie, Taylor.

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CLAN CHISOLM

Motto: Feros ferio - "I am fierce with the fierce"
Badge: A hand holding aloft a boar's head on the point of a dagger.


Names associated with the clan: CHESOLME CHEISHAME CHESOM CHEISHOLME CHESOME CHESEHELME CHESSAM CHESEIM CHESSAME CHESHELME CHESSEHOLME CHESHOLME CHISHOLM CHESIM CHISHOLME CHEISHELM CHISM CHESEHOLM CHISOLM CHESHOLM CHESOLM CHESAME CHESHELM CHESHOM CHISOLME CHISOMME CHISSEM CHISSIM CHISSOLME SHESHELM SCHISOLME SCHISHOLME SCHISHOME SHISHOLME SCHISOME

Origins of the Clan

The early Scottish Chisholms were not to be found in the Highlands, but owned land near the English border. In 1296, in the Ragman Rolls, John de Chesolm (Chesehelm) was described as "of the county of Berwick" and Richard de Chesolm (Chesehelm) as "of the county of Roxburgh", while in 1335 Alexander de Chesholme was called "Lord of Chesholme in Roxburgh and Paxtoun in Berwickshire."

In Scottish Gaelic, the name is rendered "Sìosal" or Sìosalach".

 

Wars of Scottish Independence

Robert Chisholm fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, was taken prisoner with King David II and probably not released until eleven years later when his royal master returned to Scotland. In 1359 Robert Chisholm succeeded his grandfather as Constable of Urquhart Castle, and later became Sheriff of Inverness and Justiciar of the North. This Robert was the last Chisholm to hold lands in both the North and South of Scotland. He divided his estates among his younger children.

 

Clan Conflicts

Battle of John o' Groats; Hugh Freskin Sutherland is said to have strengthened the family's royal favor by ridding the north of a ferocious band of robbers lead by Harold Chisholm. Among the crimes, a number of Sutherland churchmen were tortured by nailing horseshoes to their feet and making them dance to entertain the followers before putting them savagely to death. On hearing of this outrage, King William the Lion ordered Hugh of Sutherland to pursue Chisolm to the death and a great fight ensued near John o' Groats. All of the robbers were either killed or captured. Harold Chisolm and the other leaders were given a punishment to fit the crime, horse shoeing and hanging. The rest were gelded to prevent any offspring from men who were so detestable. This seems to have been a frequent punishment of the time. The Chisholms became well known for cattle raiding. In 1498 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and others carried off 56 oxen, 60 cows, 300 sheep, 80 swine and 15 horses belonging to Hugh Rose of the Clan Rose. Later in 1513 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and Sir Alexander MacDonald of Glengarry were with Sir Donald MacDonald of Lochalsh on his return from the Battle of Flodden Field when he decided to invade the Clan Urquhart. Some sources say that Macdonald occupied Urquhart Castle for three years despite the efforts of Clan Grant to dislodge them.

 

Civil War

In 1647, Alexander Chisholm was appointed to the committee which arranged the defence of Inverness on behalf of the Covenanters against the Royalists. In 1653 the Chisholms stole cattle from the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser, they were however captured and brought to court where they were ordered to return all they had stolen and pay the Chief Munro of Foulis and Chief of Clan Fraser £1000 interest each.

After the Stuart restoration in 1660, Alexander followed his father as a Justice of the Peace, and in 1674 was appointed Sheriff Depute for Inverness. Once again his duties brought him up against the MacDonalds, for in 1679 he was ordered to lead a thousand men of the county to quell a disturbance created by some members of the clan, and in 1681 he was given a commission of fire and sword against them.

 

Jacobite Uprisings

During the Jacobite uprisings the Chisholms sided with their old enemies the Clan MacDonald in support of the Jacobites against the British Government. The Clan Chisholm took part in the Battle of Culloden in 1746.Another portion of the Clan was on the Government side at Culloden. After the battle, the officer leading the Government Chisholms was declared The Chisholm, the head of the Clan.

 

 Clan Chief

The present Chief is Andrew Francis Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm, Thirty-third Chief of Clan Chisholm

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CLAN CLARK

Names associated with the clan: CLAERK LEARY MACALEERIE MACCLERICHE MACCLERIE MACCHLERICH MACCLERICH MACCLURICH MACCLERY MACCLEARY MACCLEAREY MACCLIRIE MACCHLERY MACELEARY MACINCLERYCHT MACINCLERIE MACINCLERICH MACLERIE MACLEARY MACLERICH MACLEAR MACKLEIRY MAKLEARIE MACLEERIE CLERK CLERC CLEARY CLERKSOUN CLERKSONE CLERCSONE CLERKE CLEARKSON CLARKSON CLERKSSON CLARKSONE CLERKSON CLARKE CLARK CLERCK CLERACH CLERIE

 The term "clericus" was originally applied to someone in a religious order but it was later applied to anyone who was a secretary, scribe, scholar as well as a cleric in the church. It is therefore not surprising that this occupational name became widespread when surnames began to be used. At the end of the 12th century, a Roger clericus held land in Kelso and in 1249 Alan clericus was a witness to a charter in Aberdeen. There were nine people from Scotland with that name who signed the "Ragman Roll" when King Edward I of England demanded in 1296 that all landowners had to swear allegiance to him. However, it is only after 1400 that we can be certain that it was being used as a surname rather than as a description of someone's occupation or status.

There was never a Highland clan of that name. However, it is frequently found among the Clan Chattan confederacy. Clarks appear to have been a sept (under the protection) of the MacPhersons (whose origins were also from the church, "Mac-a Phearsain" meaning in Gaelic "son of the parson" in the days when celibacy of the priesthood was not enforced). The name is common throughout the Lowlands and Highlands of Scotland. It is particularly prevalent in Caithness and there were important families of Clarks in places as far apart as Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Paisley and some have become landed families with baronetcies. Two unrelated Clarks reached high office in the Swedish navy in the 17th century and the name is found in Sweden and Finland in the form Klerck. The American explorer George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) was of Scottish descent. The tartan used by the Clerks is a variation of one called "Blue Clergy" which was worn by ministers, though it dates from the re-invention of tartan after the visit (orchestrated by Sir Walter Scott) of King George IV to Scotland in 1822. Clark is currently the 14th most frequently found name in Scotland. The name is also common in England where it is often spelt Clarke. Clark is regarded as a sept (sub-branch) of both Cameron and Macpherson

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CLAN CRAIG

A "craig" in Scots is a cliff or an outcrop of rock (Ailsa Craig in the Firth of Clyde being a prime example). It followed that someone with the name Craig came from a place with that name or perhaps just a well-known crag of rock. The name is thus found across Scotland and was never identified with one specific area.

Landowners whose name was the same as the area they came from, were sometimes described as being "of that Ilk" - of the same name. Usually that title is applicable to only one person but in the 15th century were three "Craigs of that Ilk" in different parts of Scotland.

Johannes de Crag, a burgess of Aberdeen, held land at Rubislaw and his family and heirs occupied Craigston Castle at Kildrummy for over 250 years.

Richarde de Crag was the vicar at St Mary's in Dundee in the 1550s and John Craig at St Andrews University was imprisoned during the early stages of the Reformation for adopting Protestantism. He was sentenced to death but escaped and joined John Knox and survived to see the Reformation triumph.

Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton was a renowned writer on feudal law and his work "Jus Feudale" published in 1655 is still used by Scottish lawyers. Sir Thomas was admired by King James VI and was one of the Scots invited to attend the coronation of King James as king of England in Westminster Abbey in 1603.

The winner of the design for Edinburgh's New Town in 1766 was James Craig. Although his plans were modified, it is thanks to him that Edinburgh's 18th century Georgian architecture can be seen in all its splendour.

Sir James Craig took his family and followers to Ulster in 1610 during what was known as the "Plantations". A descendant, another James Craig, was a millionaire Irish whiskey distiller who organised the Ulster Volunteer Force against Home Rule for Ireland in the 1920s. He then became the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. He later became Viscount Craigavaon and the new town of Craigavon in County Armagh was named after him.

The Craig clan motto is "Vive Deo et Vives" which means "Live for God and you shall have life".

Craig was the 55th most frequent surname at the General Register Office in 1995 but apart from descendants of those who emigrated from Scotland, is relatively unknown elsewhere.

Names associated with Clan Craig:  Crag, Craig, Craigie

CLAN CRAWFORD

Branches: Crawford of Auchinames, Craufurd of Craufurdsland, Craufurd of Kilbirnie
Motto: Tutum te robore reddam (Latin: I will make you safe with strength)
Names associated with the clan: CRAUNFORD CRAFORT CRAWEFORD CRAFOORD CRAWFORD CRAWFURD CRAWFFURD CRAWFAIRD CRAFFORD CRAFOARD CRAFORD CRAFUIRDE CRAUFURDE CRAFURD CROUFORD CRAUFFURD CRAUFURD CRAWFEURD CRAUFOORD CRAUFORD CRAUFORTH KRAUFORD

The early history of Clan Crawford is diverse and complicated. And like so many other Clan histories, competing theories of Crawford history are difficult to decipher looking back 900 years through 30 generations. However, by employing all we know about the secular and religious history of the period and using certain physical and biological rules [eg. a person can't be in 2 places at the same time, people 15- and 50+ years typically are not prolific reproducers, and nobody lived over 100 years] we can sort out competing theories.

One anecdote that keeps returning "like bad haggis" is the claim that the Crawfords derive from Alan, the 4th Earl of Richmond. This version was widely distributed in Burke's General Armory, a series of editions published between 1842 and 1884, and separately in Burke's History of the Commoners. The registration of the Arms of Colonel Robert Crawford of Newfield in the mid-1800's states the basis of the connection being "presumptive evidence" in reference to the similarity of Arms between the House of Crawford (gules, a fess ermine) and the Earls of Richmond (gules, a bend ermine). There are several problems with this formulation. The first styling of the unofficial "Earls of Richmond" did not come about until 1136, well after the establishment of the House of Crawford absolutely no later than 1127 (stag incident and first use of the surname). Second, Arms designs of England (Richmond) and Scotland (Crawford) were independent with no prohibition against similarity as registrations didn't begin until a few centuries later. Third, aside from Alan technically being the 1st Earl of Richmond (although he could be justified as the 4th), Alan wasn't born until 1116. The claim is that his younger son, Reginald, is the father of John and Gregan who saved King David from the stag. Therefore, Alan was the 11 year old grandfather of the valorous Gregan of 1127, conclusively debunking the anecdote.

In 1296 Sir Reginald Crawford was appointed sheriff of Ayr. His sister married Wallace of Elderslie and thus became the mother of William Wallace the great Scottish patriot. Needless to say, the Crawfords rallied to his cause.

The main branches of the family were Crawford of Auchinames (in Renfrewshire) who received a grant of land from Robert the Bruce and Craufurd of Craufurdland (in upper Clydesdale). Sir William Craufurd of Craufurdland was a brave soldier who was knighted by King James I and fought for King Charles VII of France. The castle at Craufurdland was much extended in the 17th century. The castle passed to the Howiesons in 1793 and was restored in the 1980s.

Other lines of Crawfords began in the reign of James III when descendants of Archibald Craufurd created the families of Auchenairn, Beanscroft and Powmill. Archibald's son John was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513.

 

In the 16th century, Thomas Crawford of Jordanhill was a member of the household of Lord Darnley, husband of Mary Queen of Scots. During those turbulent times he captured Dumbarton Castle in 1571 with 150 men by scaling the supposedly impregnable rock and later received the surrender of Edinburgh Castle.

Lawrence Crawford (1611-45) fought for Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years War and returned to Britain to fight for the Parliamentary forces against King Charles I.

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CLAN CUNNINGHAM
Branches: Cunningham of Auchinharvie, Cunningham of Coreshill, Cunningham of Craigends, Cunningham of Kilmaurs, Cunningham of Robertland.
Motto: Over fork over
Names associated with the clan: CHONIGHAM CONIGHAM CONIGHAME CUNNYNGHAME CWNNINGHAME CUNNYNGAYME CUNYNGHAME CUNNYGAM CUNYNGAHAME CUNNINGHAME CUNYMGHAM CONYNGHAME CWNYGHAME CUNYNGAME CUNYNGAHAM CUNYGHAME CWNYGHAM CUNNINGHAM CONYNGHAM CUNNINGGHAME CONYGHANS CONNINGANS CUNYGAM CUNIGHAM CUNIGOM CUNINGGAME CUNINGHAM CUNINGHAME KUNINGHAM KYNINGHAME

This name is from an area in Ayrshire which in turn got its name from "cuinneag" meaning "milk pail" along with the Saxon "ham" meaning "village".

In the 12th century, the lands of Kilmaurs in Ayrshire were granted to a Norman named Warnebald. His descendants took the territorial name Cunningham and Harvey de Cunningham is reputed to have fought for Alexander III at the Battle of Largs against the Vikings in 1263.

The Cunninghams gave support to Robert the Bruce and received additional lands as a result. King James III created Sir William Cunningham as Lord Kilmaurs in 1462 and earl of Glencairn in 1488. But the first Earl was killed (along with his king) a few months later at the Battle of Sauchieburn when James was attempting to subdue some rebellious barons.

Alexander, the fourth Earl of Glencairn was a friend of the protestant radical John Knox and may have been responsible for vandalising the chapel at Holyrood after Mary Queen of Scots defeat at the Battle of Langside in 1568. During this time there was a feud between the Cunninghams of Glencairn and the Montgomery earls of Eglinton. The 4th Earl of Eglinton was later murdered by the Cunninghams in 1586.

The 8th Earl of Glencairn led an uprising in support of Charles II in 1653 and against General Monck, who was Governor of Scotland. He was captured but managed to stay alive until the Restoration in 1660 when Charles II appointed him Lord Chancellor. The title of Earl of Glencairn is now extinct.

The 14th Earl was a patron of Robert Burns (Burns named his fourth son James Glencairn Burns) and the poet wrote a lament on the Earl's death.

"The mother may forget the child
That smiles sae sweetly on her knee;
But I'll remember thee, Glencairn,
And a' that thou hast done for me."

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CLAN DUNBAR
 

Motto: "Honour is the prize of honesty".or “In Promptu” which means “In Readiness.”
Badge: A white horses head.
Septs: Clugston, Corbett,
Dunbar, Dundas, Edgar, Grey, Heryng, Home, Knox, Nisbett, Peddie, Strickland, Washington, Wedderburn
Names associated with the clan: DUNBARRE DUNBAR DUMBARE DUMBAR DOUNBARE ABERLADY

 

The name comes from the old barony of Dunbar, now in East Lothian. The name Dunbar itself comes from the Gaelic "dun" meaning "fort and "barr" meaning "summit". The lands were granted by King Malcolm III to the Earl Gospatric who had lived further south in Northumberland in the 11th century but had been forced to flee by William the Conqueror. Earl Gospatric in turn was descended from Crinan, the thane of Dunkeld whose grandfather was probably Duncan, lay-abbot of Dunkeld who died in 965.

 

Patrick of Dunbar married a daughter of King William the Lion in 1184. A later Patrick "Black Beard", 8th Earl of Dunbar, was one of those who competed for the crown of Scotland in 1291 when King Edward I of England volunteered to mediate in the argument. Later, the 9th Earl of Dunbar sheltered King Edward II at Dunbar after the flight of the English king from the field of Bannockburn in 1314.

 

During the 14th century, the 10th Earl enlarged his estates and became one of the most important nobles in Scotland. He accompanied the Earl of Douglas in his raids into England and fought at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 in which the Scots defeated Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but with the loss of the Earl of Douglas. But he fell out with the Douglas family when they disrupted his plans for his daughter to marry the son of King Robert III.

 

In the early 15th century, the 11th Earl of Dunbar became so powerful that he became perceived as a threat to King James I and he was imprisoned on a trumped up charge of treason so that the king could take over the large Dunbar estates. The last Earl died in exile in England in 1455.

 

In 1368 the Dunbars obtained lands of Glenkens and Mochrum in Dumfries and Galloway and the Dunbars also appear in Caithness around the middle of the 15th century, descended from the Dunbars of Westfield in that county. The present chief of the Dunbars is from the Mochrum line.

 

There have been a number of other Dunbars who have walked across the pages of Scottish history. In 1337, Agnes, Countess of Dunbar, known as Black Agnes, conducted a sturdy defence of Dunbar Castle while her husband was absent. She was the daughter of King Robert the Bruce's friend, Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray. She calmly dusted the stones off the battlements with her 'kerchief whenever the besieging cannons of the Earls of Salisbury and Arundel crashed into the castle walls. The siege lasted 19 weeks and was eventually abandoned. In the 16th century, the Archbishoprics of both Glasgow and Aberdeen were both held by Gavin Dunbars from the Mochrum line. The Archbishop of Glasgow was a tutor of King James V and became his Lord Chancellor.

 

Perhaps the best known member of the family was William Dunbar (1460-1513) who was a court poet to King James IV. While much of his poetry was composed by royal command, he also managed to include advice to his monarch! His works were meant to be read out loud and Sir Richard Burton listed Dunbar's "Lament for the Makaris" as one of his three favourite poems. William Dunbar may have died at the Battle of Flodden with his king.

 

In 1694, Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia and in his coat of arms he was allowed to use supporters "Imperially Crowned". The present line of Dunbar clan chiefs was established in a celebrated court case in 1990 which went all the way to the House of Lords.

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CLAN DUNDAS

Branches: Dundas of Arniston, Dundas of Fingask, Dundas of Inchgarvie
Motto: Essayez (French : Try)
Names associated with the clan: DASS DUNDAS DUNDASS

The name Dundas (the emphasis should be on the second syllable) is derived from a place name near Edinburgh which, in Gaelic was "dun deas" (south fort). The first record of the name is Helias de Dundas in the reign of William the Lion in 1200. He may have been a descendant of Gospatrick, earl of March. His descendants styled themselves as Dundas of that Ilk, signifying the head of a landed family and held their property until the 19th century.

In the reign of King James III, Sir Archibald Dundas was a favourite of the king and was sent on missions to England. James IV later gave a grant of lands to the Dundas family.

The main branches of the family can be found in Duddingston in Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Blair Castle, Arniston and in Fingask in Perthshire.

The 18th Laird of Dundas supported the cause of the Covenanters and was a member of the committee which tried the first Marquis of Montrose when he refused to support the extreme aspects of Presbyterianism. Sir James Dundas was knighted by King Charles I in 1641 and became a Member of Parliament. On the restoration of the monarchy (in 1660), he became a member of the supreme court, with the title Lord Arniston, in 1662. There were a number of further generations of Dundas (all confusingly named Robert) who became judges also.

William Dundas of Kincavel was a supporter of the Jacobites in 1715 and was afterwards imprisoned. The 23rd Laird joined the East India Company and died in a shipwreck off the coast of Madagascar in 1792.

The most famous Dundas was Henry, 1st Viscount Melville, who lived from 1742 to 1811. He held the office of Lord Advocate, Keeper of the Signet and Privy Seal and, by controlling political patronage in Scotland, he had considerable power in the Westminster Parliament. He was instrumental in taking over India (from the East India Company) and large numbers of Scots gained the opportunity to work there as a result. He was also the driving force behind the repeal of the Proscription Act which banned the wearing of tartan and the carrying of weapons (implemented as a result of the 1745 Uprising in support of Bonnie Prince Charlie). A Bill in 1784 also restored forfeited land to the Jacobites. His power as a politician was unequalled in his day and has not been matched since, lending his support to a succession of UK Prime Ministers. He built a house in St Andrew Square in Edinburgh. It was recently the head office of the Royal Bank of Scotland and is fronted by a statue of Viscount Dundas, designed by William Burn.

CLAN FARQUHARSON

 

Motto: Fide et Fortitudine - "By fidelity and fortitude".
Badge: The upper half of a lion rampant, with a sword in his paw.
Septs of the Clan: Barrie, Brebner, Christie, Coates, Coutts, Farquhar, Findlay, Findlayson, Finlay, Finlayson, Gracie, Greusach, Hardie, Hardy, Kellas, Lyon, MacCaig, MacCardney, Macartney, MacCuaig, MacEarachar, MacFarquhar, Machardie, Machardy, MacKerchar, MacKerracher, Mackindlay, Mackinlay, Paterson, Reoch, Riach, Tawse.

 

The immediate ancestor of the Farquharsons of Invercauld, the main branch, was Farquhar or Fearchard, a son of Alister "Keir" Mackintosh or Shaw of Rothiemurchus, grandson of Shaw Mor. Farquhar, who lived in the reign of James III, settled in the Braes of Mar, and was appointed baillie or hereditary chamberlain thereof. His sons were called Farquharson, the first of the name in Scotland. His eldest son, Donald, married a daughter of Duncan Stewart, commonly called Duncan Downa Dona, of the family of Mar, and obtained a considerable addition to his paternal inheritance, for faithful services rendered to the crown.

Donald's son and successor, Findla or Findlay, commonly called from his great size and strength, Findla Mhor, or great Findla, lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century. His descendants were called MacIanla or Mackinlay. Before his time the Farquharsons were called in Gaelic, clan Erachar or Earachar, the Gaelic for Farquhar, and most of the branches of the family, especially those who settled in Athole, were called MacEarachar. Those of the descendants of Findla Mhor who settled in the Lowlands had their name of Mackinlay changed into Finlayson.

Findla Mhor, by his first wife, a daughter of the Baron Reid of Kincardine Stewart, had four sons, the descendants of whom settled on the borders of Braemar, and some of them in the district of Athole.

His eldest son, William, who died in the reign of James IV, had four sons. The eldest, John, had an only son, Robert, who succeeded him. He died in the reign of Charles II.

Robert's son, Alexander Farquharson of Invercauld, married Isabella, daughter of William Mackintosh of that ilk, captain of the clan Chattan, and had three sons.

William, the eldest son, dying unmarried, was succeeded by the second son, John, who carried on the line of the family. Alexander, the third son, got the lands of Monaltrie, and married Anne, daughter of Francis Farquharson, Esq. of Finzean.

The above-mentioned John Farquharson of Invercauld, the ninth from Farquhar the founder of the family, was four times married. His children by his first two wives died young. By his third wife, Margaret, daughter of Lord James Murray, son of the first Marquis of Athole, he had two sons and two daughters. His elder daughter, Anne, married Eneas Mackintosh of that ilk, and was the celebrated Lady Mackintosh, who, in 1745, defeated the design of the Earl of Loudon to make prisoner Price Charles at Moy castle. By his fourth wife, a daughter of Forbes of Waterton, he had a son and two daughters, and died in 1750.

His eldest son, James Farquharson of Invercauld, greatly improved his estates, both in appearance and product. He married Amelia, the widow of the eighth Lord Sinclair, and daughter of Lord George Murray, lieutenant-general of Prince Charle's army, and had a large family, who all died except the youngest, a daughter, Catherine. On his death, in 1806, this lady succeeded to the estates. She married, 16th June 1798, Captain James Ross, R.N. (who took the name of Farquharson, and died in 1810), second son of Sir John Lockhart Ross of Balnagowan, Baronet, and by him had a son, James Farquharson, a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, representative of the family.

There are several branches of this clan, of which we shall mention the Farquharsons of Whitehouse, who are descended from Donald Farquharson of Castleton of Braemar and Monaltrie, living in 1580, eldest son, by his second wife, of Findla Mhor, above mentioned.
Farquharson of Finzean is the heir male of the clan, and claims the chieftainship, the heir of line being Farquharson of Invercauld. His estate forms nearly half of the parish of Birse, Aberdeenshire. The family, of which he is representative, came originally from Braemar, but they have held property in the parish for many generation. On the death of Archibald Farquharson, Esq. of Finzean, in 1841, that estate came into the possession of his uncle, John Farquharson, Esq, residing in London, who died in 1849, and was succeeded by his third cousin, Dr Francis Farquharson. This gentleman, before succeeding to Finzean, represented the family of Farquharson of Balfour, a small property in the same parish and county, sold by his grandfather.

The Farquharsons, according to Duncan Forbes "the only clan family in Aberdeenshire", and the estimated strength of which was 500 men, were among the most faithful adherents of the house of Stuart, and throughout all the struggles in its behalf constantly acted up to their motto, "Fife et Fortitidine". The old motto of the clan was. "We force nae friend, we fear nae foe". They fought under Montrose,and formed part of the Scottish army under Charles II at Worcestor in 1651. They also joined the forces under the Viscount of Dundee in 1689, and at the outbreak of the rebellion of 1715 they were the first to muster at the summons of the Earl of Mar.

In 1745, the Farquharsons joined Prince Charles, and formed two battalions, the one under the command of Farquharson of Monaltrie, and the other of Farquharsons of Balmoral; but they did not accompany the Prince in his epedition into England. Farquharson of Invercauld was treated by government with considerable leniency for his share in the rebellion, but his kinsman, Farquharson of Balmoral, was specially excepted from mercy in the act of indemnity passed in June 1747.

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CLAN FERGUSON

Motto:  "Dulcius ex asperis" - literaly, "Sweeter after difficulties". Names Associated with Clan Fergus:  Ferguson, Fergusson, Fergie, Fergushill, Ferrar, Ferrie, Ferries, Ferris, Ferriss, MacFergus, McKerrass, McAdie, Keddie, and Kiddie, Kydd, MacAdie, MacCade, MacErries, MacFergus, Mac Fhearghuis, Mac Firries, MacHerries, MacInlay, MacIrish, MacKeddie, MacKerras, MacKersey, MacKestan, McMagnus, MacTavert.

History of the clan

Before the 18th century, at least five groups of Fergusons possessed lands and lived in the style of a clan under their respective chiefs in Argyll, Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, Galloway, and Carrick. Today, the Kilkerran Fergusons in Ayrshire and the family of Ferguson of Baledmund and the Fergusons of Balquhidder, both in Perthshire, are still owners of extensive lands.

Fergussons from both Galloway and Carrick alike claim descent from Fergus of Galloway. The grandfather of Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick and in turn great-great-grandfather to Robert Bruce, Fergus, restored the see of Whithorn and founded Dundrennan Abbey during the reign of David I and Malcolm IV. He died as a monk at Holyrood in 1161. Through Robert Bruce passes the line of the Royal Family of Britain. It was the 1st Earl of Carrick's signature that might suggest the origins of the Fergusson surname, Duncan, son of Gilbert, the son of Fergus, hence MacFhearguis.

It is known with certainty that by the 13th century there were men in widely separated districts of Scotland which called themselves "sons of Fergus". It is recorded in the Annals of Ulster there was in 1216 a day of disaster to the Cenel-Ferghusa at the hand of the Mormaer of Lennox's son, Muireadhach. Through the passing of the ages however the particulars of the story have been lost.

Robert I of Scotland granted certain lands in Ayrshire to Fergus MacFergus, and in 1466 John Ferguson resigned a portion of his estate to Fergus Ferguson (of Kilkerran), his son, and Janet Kennedy, his wife. From this line stems Sir Charles Fergusson, 9th Baronet, and Baron of Kilkerran who holds the undifferenced arms as Chief of the Name.

The name is also common in Ulster where there have been several landed families, some claiming to have been planted there from Ayrshire in the 17th century. Others of the name in Antrim and nearby counties descend from people who did not migrate to Dalriada in the 5th century.

The Anglicised "Fergusson" was widely used by the reign of James IV. The shortened form of the name with the single "s" was initiated by record clerks before the 1600s. The common spelling of the day was "Fergussoun" and by the reign of Charles II, "Fergussone".

 

17th century & Civil War

The dispersed Clan Fergusson has not blazed the battlefield with glories won by the sword. However, "Sons of Fergus" fought with Clan Bruce in the Scottish Civil War and the English Civil War. Some Perthshire Fergusons fought alongside James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1644.

 

18th century & Jacobite Uprisings

The oldest soldier in Prince Charles Edward's Army at the Battle of Prestonpans in the '45 was an 80-year-old Ferguson. In the 18th century the head of the Kilkerran family came gradually to be regarded as the chief of all the Fergus(s)ons. This family has produced notable statesmen, military leaders, lawyers, writers and agricultural improvers. The present Chief is Sir Charles Ferguson of Kilkerran, 9th Baronet, who lives in the ancestral home near Maybole, Ayrshire.

 

World wars

In modern times and during World Wars I and II many Fergus(s)ons from Scotland and abroad were distinguished military leaders. Clan Ferguson has been termed a "gentle force" that gained respected prominence from live and let live. Recently, however, a clansman, after looking at McIan's depiction of "The Ferguson" as a barefooted, Claymore-wielding, helmeted warrior wearing the ancient Lein-croich, or saffron colored shirt of the Celts, remarked that "if Clan Ferguson is a "gentle force" he was glad the warrior was one of us and not a foeman!"

 

Clan Fergusson today

"Sons of Fergus" the world over have gained distinction in nonmilitary activities, e.g. in the law, the church, government, the arts and sciences, medicine, education, agriculture and in business and industry. Mention can only be made of Adam Ferguson the philosopher (1724-1816) and Robert Fergusson (1750-1774) the poet and mentor of Robert Burns. And in the realm of romance, the heroine of the song Annie Laurie was married to Alexander Ferguson of Craigdarroch.

In the modern era the peers of Ayrshire, Dumfries, Argyll, and Perthshire families have retained the double 's' while those of Fife, Aberdeenshire, Angus and Ireland have the single "Ferguson".

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CLAN FORSYTH

 

Forsyth Clan Crest: A crowned blue griffin.

Forsyth Clan Motto: Instaurator Ruinae (A repairer of ruin).

 

Origins of the Clan

The first recorded person of the name was William de Firsith on the Ragman Roll in Berwick on the 28th August 1296. Much of the records of Clan Forsyth were destroyed by Oliver Cromwell in the Civil War, therefore little is known.

 

Wars of Scottish Independence

In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence Robert de Forsyth received lands from King Robert I of Scotland. Roberts de Forsyth's son called Osbet Forsyth led the clan against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

In 1364 the accounts of the 'Customers' of Stirling were rendered by Fersith the Clerk who was probably Robert's brother and who was granted ú100 per annum from the lands of the Polmaise Marischal by Robert II.

 

15th Century

In 1418 Robert Forsyth renderd the accounts of the Burgh of Stirling. In 1432 his son who was also called Robert became Burgess of Stirling and a Baille in 1470. Duncan Forsyth and David Forsyth became Burgesses in 1497 and descendants of the family settled in Stirling and held civic office for centuries.

In 1488 David Forsyth the now Burgess of Stirling bought the land of the Dykes also known as Hallhill which is near Strathaven near Lanarkshire. The castle there had fallen into ruin but it was not demolished until 1828.

 

16th Century Anglo-Scottish Wars

In the 16th century the Clan Forsyth led by Alexander Forsyth fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where Alexander was slain.

Alexander's grandson James Forsyth married Elizabeth Leslie in around 1520. Elizabeth was the granddaughter of George Leslie who was the Chief of Clan Leslie and the 4th Earl of Rothes. Elizabeth was also the great granddaughter of King James III of Scotland.

In 1540 the family left Dykes and moved to Inchnoch Castle in Monkland which was also in Lanarkshire.

 

17th Century

In 1621 William Forsyth had become a member of Forres in the Scottish Parliament.

 

20th Century

Alistair Charles William Forsyth, Baron of Ethie, was recognised by Lord Lyon King of Arms as Chief of the Name and Clan of Forsyth in 1978.[1]

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CLAN GRAHAM

 

Motto: Ne oublie - "Do not forget".
Badge: A winged falcon attacking a stork.
Septs of the Clan: Airth , Allardice, Allardyce, Bonar, Bonnar, Bontein, Bontine, Buntain, Bunten, Buntine, Bunting, Graeme, Grahame, Grahym, Grim, Grymn, Hadden, Haldane, Macgibbon, Macgilvernock, Macgrime, Maharg, Menteith, Monteith, Pitcairn, Pye, Pyott.

 

History

The Grahams

By

Archie McKerracher

From the greed of the Campbells,
From the ire of the Drummonds,
From the pride of the Grahams,
From the wind of the Murrays,

Good Lord Deliver us, prayed a 17th century laird who’s land was bordered by all four. And indeed, the pride of the Grahams was famous throughout Scotland for they were a close knit race deeply loyal to kith and kin. The also took pride in their unswerving devotion to their monarch even when this was sometimes rewarded with scant thanks. And lastly, they took pride in following their personal conscience, whatever the consequences.

Tradition says the first Graham was a Caledonian chief called Graym who attacked and burst through the mighty Antoine Wall which divided Scotland in two, and drove the Roman legions back to Hadrian’s Wall on the English border. More likely, the chiefs spring from an Anglo-Norman family who originally came to England with William the Conqueror in 1066, and are recorded in his Doomsday Book as holding the lands of Graegham or Grey Home.

David I, king of Scots, was brought up in England and given a Norman education. He married a Norman heiress and through her acquired vast estates in England. Thus when he succeeded to the Scottish throne in 1124 he brought with him many of his Anglo-Norman friends to help create order in what was then a very primitive and savage land. He granted them large estates in the Lowlands and without exception these barons then intermarried into the local Celtic aristocracy. Within a generation or two they had become totally integrated with the older race and were soon exclusively Scottish.

William de Graham, the first recorded of that name, was granted land around Dalkieth and Abercorn in Midlothian and appears as a witness on David I’s charter of 1128 founding the Abbey of Holyroodhouse. His descendant, Sir David Graham, acquired the lands of Dundaff in Strathcarron in 1237, and built a castle there. This was probably a wooden fortification on a motte or artificial earth mound in the Norman style. The remains of the later stone castle can still be seen. Sir John de Graham of Dundaff was William Wallace’s right hand man and close friend in the first struggle for Scottish independence in the late 13th century. The contemporary poet Blind Harry calls him ‘’Schir Jhone the Grayme’’ and records his brave death at the battle of Falkirk in 1298 when the small, ragged Scottish army was crushed beneath the hooves of the heavy armoured cavalry of the English army of Edward I. Sir John’s gravestone and effigy can be seen today at Falkirk Old Church and bear the inscription ‘"Here lyes Sir John the Grame, baith wight and wise, Ane of the chiefs who rescewit Scotland thrise, Ane better knight not to the world was led, Nor was gude Graham of truth and hardiment".

Although principally a Lowland and Border clan the Grahams never forgot the Highlanders who had fought for them. The 3rd Duke of Montrose, when Marquis of Montrose and a Member of Parliament, was responsible in 1782 for the repeal of the law forbidding the wearing of Highland dress. Mugdock was the principal seat of the Graham chiefs until 1680 when they acquired the lands of the Buchanans and moved to Old Buchanan House near Drymen. In 1707 James Graham, 4th Marquess, was created the 1st Duke of Montrose by Queen Anne. He is perhaps better known for being firstly the partner, and then the foe, of the Highland folk-hero Rob Roy McGregor.

The Grahams had become the largest landowners in Stirlingshire by Victorian times and in 1857 built the huge Gothic Buchanan Castle on the foundations of a much older fortification. This became the residence of the Dukes of Montrose until the beginning of the Second World War when it was requisitioned as a military hospital. Here was kept Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy, after he made his mysterious flight to Scotland in 1940. The roof was removed after the war and the castle is now a ruin. James Angus Graham, b. 1907, was the 7th Duke of Montrose and was also Earl of Kincardine; Viscount Dunduff, Lord Graham; Aberuthven; Mugdock and Fintry. He became a farmer in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and was a cabinet minister in the Rhodesian Government of Ian Smith. He moved to South Africa and later returned to Scotland before his death in 1992. His son, James, the 8th Duke of Montrose lives on the ancestral estates, at Auchmar near Loch Lomond. The name of Graham is an honourable one not only in Scottish history but also in more modern times. For example, it was the 6th Duke of Montrose who invented the aircraft carrier during the First World War. Others of note include the evangelist Billy Graham; Kenneth Graeme who wrote the classic "Wind in the Willows:; Admiral Sir Cunningham Graham of the last war and many others too numerous to mention.

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CLAN GUTHRIE

Motto:  I Stand For Truth [Sto Pro Veritate]

Clan Chief: The current chief of Clan Guthrie is Alexander Guthrie of Guthrie, 21st of that Ilk, who lives in both Italy and England. Following the sale of Guthrie Castle out of the family, the clan seat is known generally seen as being Torosay Castle on the Isle of Mull

Origins of the name:  The name Guthrie almost certainly derives from the barony of the same name near Forfar. Other theories are that it is a corruption of Guthrum, which was the name of a Scandinavian Prince.

Branches of Clan Guthrie:  Although the Guthries of Guthrie were the main line of the family, many offshoots existed, some of them mentioned in an old rhyme: "Guthrie o' Guthrie And Guthrie o' Gaigie Guthrie o' Taybank An' Guthrie o' Craigie." An old tale without substance gives an alternative derivation for the name. One of the early Scottish Kings had taken shelter, along with two attendants, in a fisherman's hut. The King, knowing his attendants would be hungry, asked the fisherman to prepare two fish for them, but the fisherman offered to feed the king as well and "gut three"; and so, the legend insists, the name stuck.

Wars of Scottish Independence:  The first of the name Guthrie on record in Scotland was one Squire Guthrie in 1303 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He had been sent to France to request the return of William Wallace, who had retired there having resigned the guardianship of Scotland. The mission was evidently successful, as William Wallace did indeed return to Scotland. However, Wallace was later captured and executed by the English.

The Guthries of Guthrie received their estates by a charter from King David II of Scotland between the years 1329 and 1371.

15th Century: In 1457, Sir David Guthrie of Guthrie was Armour-Bearer to King James III of Scotland and the Sheriff of Forfar; he became Lord Treasurer of Scotland in 1461 and continued in this office until 1467, when he was appointed Comptroller of the Exchequer. In 1468, he obtained a warrant under the Great Seal to build Guthrie Castle near Friockheim in Angus, which remains standing to this day.

16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars: In the 16th Century, during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Clan Guthrie fought at the Battle of Flodden Field (1513) against the English. Sir David Guthrie's eldest son Sir Alexander was killed in this battle.

The Guthries were supporters of the young King James VI of Scotland against his own mother Mary, Queen of Scots, who had been portrayed as a challenge to his authority as King. It was around this time that Alexander Guthrie was murdered following a feud with the neighboring Gardynes (which continued until 1618).

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CLAN GRAY

Gray Clan Crest: An anchor

Gray Clan Motto: Anchor, Fast Anchor.

Gray Clan History

Fulbert de Gray was Great Chamberlain to Robert, Duke of Normandy, and owned lands in Picardy. There is a tradition that his daughter Arlotta was the mother of William the Conqueror and that the family arrived in England in 1066 with the Norman Conquest.

The name first appears in Scotland in 1248  and Henry Gray of Fife rendered homage to Edward I in 1296, but, like many other established families of the time, followed Robert the Bruce when the timing was right. It was Sir Andrew Gray who scaled the rock of Edinburgh Castle to recapture it from the English in 1312, and he was rewarded with lands at Longforgan in Perthshire.  In 1377, the lands of Fowlis also passed to the Gray family through marriage to a daughter of the powerful de Maule family, and in 1444, Sir Andrew's descendant, also Sir Andrew, and a loyal supporter of James I and II, was created 1st Lord Gray.

Thereafter the Grays remained close to the ruling House of Stewart. Patrick, son of the 2nd Lord Gray, was a Gentleman of the Bedchamber to James II. The 3rd Lord Gray  was Lord Justice General of Scotland in 1506. Patrick, 5th Lord Gray, was taken prisoner at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and ransomed for £500 sterling, a princely sum at the time. Patrick, 7th Lord Gray, was caught up in the intrigues surrounding the fall of Mary Queen of Scots and although tried for treason, was released and exiled. Andrew, 8th Lord Gray, followed the Marquis of Montrose.  In 1639, he resigned his honours to obtain a new patent in favour of his daughter Ann who had married her kinsman William Gray, younger of Pittendrum. William was killed in a dual with the Earl of Southesk in 1660 and the title passed to the earls of Moray, but on the death of the 14th Earl of Moray passed to his niece who became Baroness Gray in her own right.

David Gray (1838-61), born in Kirkintilloch, was a prominent Scottish poet.

Places of Interest:
Huntly Castle, Longforgan, Perthshire was built in 1452 for Lord Gray of Foulis. Broughty Castle, Dundee, Perthshire. Five storey tower built by Lord Gray of Foulis in 1490. Owned by Historic Scotland.

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CLAN KINNAIRD

The true translation (not the literal meaning) of "Ceann Ard" is "head land" ie. a high piece of land jutting into the sea. This may be the reason for the naming of the Kinnaird Head Lighthouse in Faserburgh, Aberdeenshire.

Rauf de Kinnaird in Kincardine swore fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296.

Sir Richard de Kinnaird (grandson of Rauf de Kinnaird) had a charter of lands and barony of Kinnaird, lying in the sheriffdom of Perth. This was witnessed by John, Earl of Carrick, the King's son and Sir Richard's son, Walter, Earl of Fife. He also had a charter of confirmation of the lands of Chethynrawoch and Kinnynmond, in the barony of Slains in Aberdeenshire.

When Alan de Kinnaird (elder son of Sir Richard) died, his son Thomas succeeded him and with his wife, Egidia, (the heiress of Culbin, Forres and of half the barony of Naughton, Fife) started the family of Kinnaird of Culbin, Moray.

Reginald Kinnaird (younger son of Sir Richard) and wife Marjorie (daughter and heiress of John de Kircaldy of Inchture) received a Charter from King Robert III of all the lands Marjorie held of the King in the barony of Inchture (which she had previously resigned). He founded the family of Kinnaird of Inchture, Perthshire.

The family of Kinnaird managed to Flourish during the middle ages, even though they made no alliances with the powerful clans.

Scotland during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, was ravaged by religious conflict. The newly found passionate fervor of Presbyterianism and the Church of Scotland rejected all who could not pass "The Test" of taking an oath of belief in the Church. Those failing 'The Test' were sometimes burnt at the stake or, more kindly, banished to Australia, the Carolinas or the West Indies.

Many were freely "encouraged" to migrate to Ireland. Families migrated from Scotland to Ireland with promises of cheap Irish land. They became known as the "Scotch/Irish". There is no record of distinguished family migration to Ireland, but this does not preclude the possibility of individual migration.

The migration or banishment to the New World also continued. Some went voluntarily from Ireland, but most went directly from Scotland.

In North America, some of the first migrates which could be considered kinsmen of the name Kinnaird, or having a variation of the family surname spelling were: William Kinnaird who settled in Charles Town SC in 1767 and William Kinnard who settled in Philadelphia P.A. in 1786.

From the original ports of entry the immigrants moved westward, some to the middle west, some across the prairies to the west coast. During the American War of Independence some remained loyal to the cause, whilst others became United Empire loyalists and moved north to Canada.

Many prominent people were a part of the Kinnaird name, notably Lord Kinnaird of Inchture, Baron Kinnaird of Rossie and the Laird of Culbin. The last Lord Kinnaird (#13) died in 1997, there were no living male heirs.

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CLAN MacDOWALL


Chief:  Fergus Macdowall of Garthland is the Chief of the Name and Arms

Motto:  Vincere Vel Mori  (To conquer or die)

 

MacDowalls of Galloway

    The Society has a strong membership of McDowells who are anciently connected to it through "Prince" Fergus, Lord of Galloway, a contemporary ally of King Somerled of Argyll and the Isles. A younger son of Uchtred, second Lord of Galloway was Duegald the eponym of the MacDougalls of Galloway. The "w" in MacDowall is a Norman transliteration introduced under Edward I of England circa 1300 and the "e" is an Irish spelling.
     The MacDowalls (M'Dowells) of Galloway are the senior descendants in the male line of the princely house of Fergus (b.1096) first of the ancient Lords of Galloway who maintained native leadership by adopting Normanization under David 1. Fergus' successive heirs through Elizabeth (daughter of Henry 1 of England), were Uchtred, Roland (Constable of Scotland), and Alan (co-signatory of the Magna Charta) whose daughter Dervorgilla passed the lordship and heirship of the crown to her son John 1 (Baliol). Roland had a brother Duegald (k. 1185) from whom the MacDowalls are descended according to Garthland records, as a result of which they carry the undifferenced Arms of Galloway, the same Dalriadic lion used per pale by Somerled, or quartered by the MacDougall, except crowned in Galloway.
     John ("The Red ") Comyn of Badenoch was the grandson-in-law of Dervorgilla Lady of Galloway and Lord of Galloway by right of his mother. He was a leading contender for the crown of Scotland. He was murdered during a meeting in the Greyfriars Kirk at Dumfries in February 1306 by Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, (afterwards Robert I King of Scots) in order to usurp the crown. The murder started blood feuds and civil war in which the Galloway MacDougalls were mortal foes of Robert I and close allies of the crowned Baliols of Galloway, of Alexander Comyn Earl of Buchan and of their fifth cousin Edward I of England. After several battles in which the Gallowegians followed their native leader Sir Dougal MacDougall (first translated " MacDowyl" by the English at that time), Sir Dougal was dispossessed by the Bruces. The next three generations changed sides several times until reinstated at Garthland in 1413 defenders of Scotland.
     The main branches of the family eventually included the MacDowalls of Garthland, the Makdougals of Makerston, the MacDoualls of Logan, the MacDoualls of Freugh, and the MacDowalls of Machrimore. The caput baroniae of Garthland near Stoneykirk, Wigtonshire, was sold to the Earl of Stair and a substitute estate was established in Renfrewshire at Lochwinnoch. Logan House and Gardens are extant under different ownership in Wigtonshire. The barony of Freugh belongs to the Marquess of Bute. Makerston on the Tweed in Roxburghshire belongs to Baron Biddulph, and Machermore castle is a seniors' residence at Newton Stewart, Kikcudbrightshire.
     The main migrations of the family name were to Ireland during the Plantations of Ulster, and then to America during the Irish potato famine as a result of which most members of the family now live in the United States.
     Today, Fergus Macdowall of Garthland is the Chief of the Name and Arms. The caput baroniae is at Garthland Mains on the Rhinns of Galloway. The present seat is at Barr Castle, Garthland, Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire

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CLAN BARCLAY*

Roger de Berchelai came to England with William the Conqueror and was granted Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire. This early form of the name was believed to be the Anglo-Saxon version of 'beau' meaning beautiful, and 'lee', a meadow or field. Roger was mentioned in the Domesday Book as well as his son, John. In 1069 John de Berchelai accompanied Margaret (later St. Margaret) to Scotland. In gratitude for his service, King Malcolm (Canmore) granted him the lands of Towie, near Turriff, in Aberdeenshire, as well as the title, Barclay of that Ilk. 900 years of Barclay history in Scotland descend from John's three sons, Walter, Alexander, and Richard.

The Barclays formed important alliances and held land throughout the north-east of Scotland, principally Towie, Mathers, Gartley and Pierston in Aberdeenshire. They also settled in Banff, Collairnie in Fife, Brechin in Forfarshire and Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. One family line settled on the west coast in the Ardrossan and Kilbirnie areas in Ayrshire.

Sir David Barclay was one of Robert the Bruce's chief associates and was present at many of his battles. Sir Walter de Berkeley, Gartley III, Lord Redcastle and Inverkeillor, was Great Chamberlain of Scotland 1165-1189. Alexander de Berkeley, Gartley IX, became Mathers I in 1351 when he married Katherine Keith, sister of the Earl Marischal. Their son Alexander was the first to adopt the Barclay form of the surname. Sir George Barclay, Gartley XIX, was Steward of the household of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a later Sir George was second in command of James IV forces in the Highlands in the 1689.

One of the major Barclay families was established at Urie near Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. The first Laird, Colonel David Barclay, was a professional soldier serving with such armies as that of Gustavus Adolphus. He returned home when civil war broke out and serviced as a colonel of a regiment of horse fighting for the king. Following his retirement and the conclusion of the war, he was confined in Edinburgh Castle where he was converted to the Society of Friends (Quakers). His son Robert, Urie II, was widely known for his Apologia, described on the title page as being an Explanation and Vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the People called Quakers.

The last Laird of Urie, Captain Robert Barclay-Allardyce (Allardyce added when he married an heiress of that name whose lands were added to those of Urie), was known as the Great Pedestrian. Many tales exists of his walks over the Scottish hills, such as his walk from Urie to Crathynaird (28 miles), staying less than an hour and then walking home again the same day. His most famous record, however, was that of walking 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours. This feat was accomplished in 1809 and five days later, he embarked with his regiment for the Walcheren Expedition in the Napoleonic Wars.

Names Associated with Clan Barkley: Ardrossan Barklaw Berclie Barckley Barklay Berekele Barckly Barkley Berkeley Barclaye Barkly Tollie Barclet Barraclough Tolley Barclye Berckley Towie Barcula Berclay Towy Barkla Bercley Tullie

*excerpted from Clan Barclay web site

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CLAN BUCHANAN

Buth Chanain is Gaelic for “Canon’s House,” and the lands which received this designation border Loch Lomond. The Earl of Lennox, to whom the first MacMhuirich bard to come to Scotland addressed a poem early in the 13th century, referred to Sir Absalon of Buchanan as “Clericus Meus.” The Buchanans thus appear equally early in the ranks of the Scottish intelligentsia.

Among the Buchanan Clan, two men are outstanding. George Buchanan (1506-1582) was born at Killearn in Stirlingshir. George was sent to study in Paris during the intellectual ferment of the Reformation. He became an outstanding scholar, wrote plays and poetry in Latin, and returned to Scotland a convert to Calvinism - just as Mary, Queen of Scots, returned from France and began to reign in Scotland. She became his patron despite the fact that he did not share her Catholic beliefs. When Mary was deposed, he sided with her enemies - as did many others. He was appointed tutor to her son and it was felt by Mary that he poisoned the child’s mind against his mother. However he was a brilliant man and it may well have been due to his influence that the child who later became King of both England and Scotland is known for his own intelligence and pursuit of knowledge.

James Buchanan (1791-1796) 15th President of the United States, was born near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He was the son of a Scottish Calvinist who emigrated to the States with his family in 1783. It was Buchanan’s misfortune to preside over the outbreak of the American Civil War. Though the clan no longer holds land around the area of Loch Lomond, Buchanan County in Missouri commemorates their name and their president.

Septs: Colman, Cormack, Cousland, Dewar, Dove, Dow, Gibb, Gibbon, Gibson, Gilbert, Gilbertson, Harper, Harperson, Leavy, Lennie, Lenny, MacAldonich, MacAlman, MacAslan, MacAslin, MacAuselan, MacAuslan, MacAusland, MacAuslane, MacCalman, MacCalmon, MacCammond, MacCasland, MacChrutter, MacColman, MacCormack, MacCubbin, MacCubing, MacCubin, MacGeorge, MacGibbon, MacGreusich, MacGubbin, MacInally, MacIndeor, MacIndoe, MacKinlay, MacKinley, MacMaster, MacMaurice, MacMurchie, MacMurchy, MacNeur, MacNuir, MacNuyer, MacQuattie, MacWattie, MacWhirter, Masters, Masterson, Morrice, Morris, Morrison, Murchie, Murchison, Richardson, Risk, Rusk, Ruskin, Spittal, Spittel, Walter, Walters, Wason, Waters, Watson,Watt, Watters, Weir, Yuill, Yool, Yule, Zuill

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CLAN BOYD

The Gaelic for Bute, the island next in size to Arran in the Firth of Clyde, is Bod and its genitive case is Boid. The first in Scottish records to take their name from the island were vassals of the de Morevilles, and may have accompanied them from England.

In the 15th century Malcolm de Bute became chaplain to King Robert III and Thomas Boyd was selected as one of the hostages for the King of Scots in 1425. About 1466, Robert, eldest son of Sir Thomas Boyd of Kilmarnock, carried out a daring coup d’etat. He had been created Lord Boyd in 1454 by James II. James was subsequently blown up by a cannon, and Lord Boyd became Regent for young James III in 1460. He then kidnapped his charge and obtained an Act of Parliament appointing him sole governor of the realm. His rule was competent and his role was cemented when he was appointed Great Chamberlain for life. His son married the King’s sister Mary and was created Earl of Arran and Lord Kilmarnock. In 1468 Boyd negotiated the royal marriage with Norway which brought the Orkney islands to the Scottish Crown.

Despite many reverses due to evil plots furthered by enemies of Clan Boyd, the clan persisted. The 10th Lord Boyd was created Earl of Kilmarnock in 1661 for his family’s services to Charles II. The 3rd Earl supported the Union with England in 1707, but the 4th commanded the cavalry of Prince Charles at Culloden and was beheaded on Tower Hill. His earldom was forfeited but his second son became the 15th Earl of Erroll by inheritance from his great-aunt and adopted the surname of Hay. To this title the barony of Kilmarnock was added in 1831. So when the 22nd Earl of Erroll died in 1941, leaving a daughter as Chief of Clan Hay and Countess of Erroll, his brother resumed the name of Boyd and became the 6th Lord Kilmarnock as Chief of Clan Boyd. He was succeeded in 1975 by the 7th Lord Kilmarnock.

For further information on Clan Boyd contact: Donald Boyd Mellen, 4820 Carlton, NW, Canton, Ohio 44709.  Tel.:  330-497-8110

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CLAN CAMPBELL

Like most Europeans, the Scots are a blend of races: Neolithic survivors mixed with Celtic "Pict", Britonic Celt incomers, Celtic "Scots" invaders from Ireland, Viking and Norse raiders and settlers, Norman and Flemish knights and even some few Angles in the south. All these joined to add their genes to this sturdy race of people. Like most Scots, all Campbells are a blend of races through maternal ancestry, although there were times from the 16th through the 18th centuries when, among some leading families in Argyll and Perthshire, they had grown so numerous as frequently to intermarry, intensifying their characteristics as a kin. Many also share the Scots Gaelic blood of the Dalriadic O'Duibne people whose heiress their ancestor married on Lochawe in the 13th century.

Their paternal ancestry is apparently from the Britonic Celts of Strathclyde, sometimes called the "Romano British" from the northwestern part of the early "Kingdom of Strathclyde".

The capital of Strathclyde was Al Cluit or DunBriton (now Dumbarton Rock) in the area known as the Lennox. According to legend, here in An Talla Dearg, the Red Hall of Dun Briton, was born the first ancestor of the Campbells who appears in all three of the early Gaelic genealogies; Smervie or Mervyn, son of an Arthur, who became known as "the Wildman of the Woods", perhaps being a notable hunter. If the legend is based upon a real character, he likely lived in the eleventh or twelfth century. However those names at that period can have absolutely no actual connection with the legendary Arthur, whose possible existence is said to have been many centuries earlier.

The name Campbell did not come into use until several generations later.

It was Sir Cailein Mor Campbell's grandfather Dugald on Lochawe who is said to have been the first given the nickname "Cam Beul" since he apparently had the engaging trait of talking out of one side of his mouth. Cam beul means curved mouth in the Gaelic. This Duncan was so much loved by his family that they took his nickname as their family name and held to it even beyond Argyll.

The spelling of the surname (family name) was originally Cambel. Then when Robert the Bruce's son King David came to the throne as King of Scots he brought with him a number of Norman knights to whom he gave lands in an attempt to introduce Norman efficiency in administration. David had been at the English court and admired the Norman system of feudalism. The use of the spelling "Campbell" may perhaps have been as a result of Norman rather than Gaelic scribes attempting to write the Gaelic name.

The name Cambel was first used by the family in the 13th century. The first chief of the clan to appear on record as "Campbell" may well have been Sir Duncan of Lochawe when he was created Lord Campbell in 1445

Clan means family group in the Gaelic. There came to be roughly three uses of the word clan: for the large clans like Clan Campbell, Clan Donald and Clan Gordon; for the smaller clans like Clan Callum or Clan Lachlan; for the sub-clans or name groups within the larger clans like Clan Tavish or Clan Arthur (the McTavishes of Dunardry and McArthurs of Tirevadich).

The idea of all members of a clan being of one name is a Victorian misconception. Clans begin to emerge as recognizable units in the 12th and 13th century. Initially the Chief and the Chief's close kin were the leaders of the clan while their followers were the local people who were their tenants or who looked to them for leadership in defense. So while the Clan Campbell were led by Campbells, until about the 18th century, many of their followers, and sometimes even they themselves often used patronymics or father's names.

Patronymics lie behind many modern Scottish family names, particularly those now beginning with the `Mac' or `Mc' prefix, meaning `son of'. Further, in early records these sometimes appear with `Vic', meaning `grandson of'. For example Archibald MacDougall V'Gillespic (Gaelic for Archibald) was Archibald son of Dougall son of Archibald. Sometimes, such as in the 16th century, such names might even appear followed by `alias Campbell'. In modern times families who were not of Campbell origin yet who had long given their allegiance to the Chief of the clan have come to be called "septs". Names associated with Clan Campbell may be found on their web site.

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CLAN CHATTAN

This long-powerful group of clans comprised two main divisions, respectively under Macintosh and MacPherson leadership, with some subsidiary septs and family groups joining for protection. Dissension arose among the sections from various causes, not least from their encroaching neighbours, the Gordons, enticing them into opposing camps.

Accounts of the Clan Chattan’s origin vary. The Macintoshes, holding to their own Maduff origin, regard it as a confederacy, with the MacPhersons just a branch from Macintosh stock. MacPhersons, putting reliance on a written genealogy of 1450, favour the Chattan sections as having branched from an ancestor, Gillechattan Mor, a Moray chief of the early 11th century, his elder son Nechtan founding the MacPhersons and the younger, Neil, the Macintoshes, which surname only appears two centuries later. Either way of it, the Clunie MacPhersons retained the old Chattan chiefship, although in 1291 the Macintoshes, through marriage of their chief Angus to Eva, the MacPherson heiress, achieved the greater share of land and followers and also their chief’s right to be styled “Captain of the Clan Chattan” leaving their claim to full chiefship a good-going dispute scarcely yet settled.

MacPherson Group/ Macintosh Group:MacPherson,Macintosh, Machardie,Davidson, Farquharson, Macqueen,Gillespie, Macbean, Noble,Keith, Macgillivray, Mactavish,Smith, Macglashan, Shaw.  Also: Cameron, Cattanach, Clark, Macphail.

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CLAN CUMMING

The name Cumming (or Comyn) is of Norman origin, derived from Comines near Lisle on the French/Belgian border. Robert de Comyn came to England with William the Conquerer in 1066 and was given lands in Northumberland. His grandson was later given land in Roxburghshire by King David I. His nephew, Richard de Comyn, married a grandaughter of Kind Duncan I. Through careful alliances and beneficial marriages, the Comyn held three earldoms by the 13th century: Monteith, Mentieth, and Atholl and Buchan.

The Cummings (as the name came to be spelled) of Altyre were eventually recognized as the chiefly line. Alexander of Altyre was created a baronet in 1802. Until recently the chief was Sir William Gordon Cumming. He lived at Blairs House, Altyre, Forres in Morayshire. His son, Alastair succeeded him in the baronetcy.

Branches: Cumming of Altyre, Cumming of Inverallochy.

Septs: Buchan, Cheyne, Chiene, Common, Commons, Cummin, Cummings, Cumyn, Farquharson, MacNiven, Niven, Russell, Skinner, Tindell, Tyndale.

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CLAN DONALD

Clan Donald, greatest and largest of the Highland Clans, begins it's recorded history with Somerled, a descendant of Conn of the Hundred Battles and Clan Colla. Somerled's defeat of the Norse King of Man in 1156 gained independence for southwestern Scotland that survived for over four centuries.

The clan takes it's name from Donald, the 3rd Lord of the Isles and grandson of Somerled who lived until 1269. Donald's son was the original "Mac" (meaning "son of"). It was Donald's great-grandson, Angus Og, the 6th Lord of the Isles who sheltered Robert the Bruce at the lowest ebb of his career. Later, leading a small band of Islemen, Angus Og was instrumental in Bruce's defeat of the English at Bannockburn. This battle won independence for Scotland. In recognition of Clan Donald's part in the victory Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald would forever occupy the honored position on the right wing of the Scottish Army.

Angus Og's grandson, Donald, the 8th Lord of the Isles, married the heiress of the Earldom of Ross and in 1411 fought the Battle of Harlaw to keep his wife's inheritance from being usurped by the Regent Duke of Albany. His army of 10,000 men included the forces of almost every clan of the Highlands and Isles. All these clans were willing vassals of the Lord of the Isles. They regarded the MacDonald Chiefs as the heads of the ancient "Race of Conn," and lineal heirs of the ancient Kings of the Dalriadic Scots, going back to the 6th century and beyond.

Donald of Harlaw's son and grandson were both Earls of Ross and Lords of the Isles, controlling not only the Hebrides from Islay and Kintyre to the Butt of Lewis, but most of Argyll and the modern County of Inverness, along with the County of Antrim in northern Ireland. The Earldom was lost in 1471, but the Lordship of the Isles was not absorbed by Scotland until the middle of the 16th century. A MacDonnell (a variation of the surname MacDonald) is still Earl of Antrim.

The power of the clan survived and formed the backbone of the army of the Marquis of Montrose, fighting for the survival of the Stewarts in the 17th century, and, though divided, it was an important factor in the Jacobite Rebellions of the 1700's.

Names & Families of Clan Donald

Some people and clan associations speak of a "sept list" to indicate the various names associated with their clan. It is the official position of the Clan Donald-USA Genealogy Committee that this an improper use of the term, at least when speaking of Clan Donald, and probably when speaking of any Highland clan. Our preferred terminology is "Families of Clan Donald."

Most of the family names connected to Clan Donald have territorial limitations. (This is true with names connected with almost all clans, although many do not recognize or impose those restrictions, leading to unseemly confrontations about, for example, "my Clark" no "MY Clark!" -- when almost every clan probably had families named Clark attached to them -- from the clerks or clerics who did most of the accounting and book work. The same can be said of Gowans, Smiths, Taylors and a number of others.)
Clan Donald feels that these territorial limitations are important. Therefore, where those limitations are listed, a prospective member must indicate that his or her family of the correct name did come from the indicated area before they may be accepted for membership. In over 35 years of using this list we have found that a strong family tradition of being of Clan Donald has proven correct in 99.99% of all cases.

If you feel you might have Clan Donald heritage, it is strongly suggested you check the Clan Donald web site for more information: http://www.clan-donald-usa.org/

[above material extrapolated from Clan Donald web site]

For more information on Clan Donald in Ohio:

Deputy Regional Commissioner

Donne E. Shepperly, 4373 Westchester Ct.,Hudson, OH 44236-4177,(h) 330-463-5559,(c) 216-650-1311 - cragnadun@aol.com  clandonaldohio@aol.com

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CLAN DOUGLAS

An adequate history of the Douglases would be largely one of Scotland itself, where they long rivaled the royal power and eleven times married into it. It would be far too lengthy to do justice here. But an attempt to somewhat sum up their history follows.

Perhaps originally kinsmen of Freskin, the founder or Clan Murray, it is in the South the Douglas Family is first noted. In the 12th century we find the Black Douglases of Douglasdale, Dumfriesshire, and Galloway. The next century saw the establishment of the Red Douglases at Dalkeith, and then in Angus. The first use of the term “Black Douglas” was applied by the English in referring to Sir James Douglas, lieutenant to Robert the Bruce. The term, of course, was redundant.

The name “Douglas” derives from the Gaelic “dubh” meaning black and “glas” meaning grey. The origins are unknown, despite a multitude of legends. The first known to carry the name is William of Douglas. He witnessed several charters between 1175 and 1199, and again in about 1200 and 1211. Between 1198 and 1239 came Archibald Douglas, progenitor of those great families that were to play a resounding part in Scottish history. He was succeeded by William, who became the founder of the senior line of the Black Douglases. He was the father of Sir William the Hardy, the companion of William Wallace of “Braveheart” fame.

The son of Sir William was named James. As Good Sir James Douglas, the first Earl of Douglas, he is often given a place equal to that of King Robert himself. He attended Bruce at his death in 1328 and promised to take his heart to the Holy Land. But he was unable to do this as he fell in battle in Spain, and his son fell fighting against the English at Halidon Hill in 1333. He did, however, leave a bastard son named Archibald the Grim, who inherited his father’s estate as the 3rd Earl of Douglas. He is known to have ruled with strength and justice. The ruins of his castle at Threave still stand as a memorial to the Black Douglas Lords of Galloway.

Through a long and complicated disagreement with King James II of Scotland, the Douglas family lost its estates and the earldom was extinguished. But this was not the end of them. Like a phoenix rising from the ashes, the Douglas family was to rise to power again, this time as the Red Douglases. A bastard son of the first Earl, named George, married a daughter of King Robert III and was then raised to the earldom of Angus, as befitted the husband of a princess. By the time the Black Douglases had forfeited their lands and title, he was well established and had an heir, Archibald. The Red Douglases, therefore, began to occupy the centre of the stage of Scottish history almost as soon as the Black Douglases had departed from it.

Septs: Cavers, Douglass, Drysdale, Forest, Forrest, Glendinning, Inglis, Kirkpatrick, Lockerby, Macguffie, Macguffok, Morton, Sandilands

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CLAN DRUMMOND

The name is from the clan’s earliest land at Drymen, near Loch Lomond. Tradition says it was conferred upon their ancestor, Maurice, who married Queen Margaret’s maid-of-honour. Either he or his father was the Hungarian prince who piloted the refugee vessel of 1066 that brought Malcolm Canmore’s bride-to-be to Scotland. The earliest chief now documented was Malcolm Beg (the “little”) a 13th century steward to the Earl of Lennox.

The Drummond arms display a motto, “Gang Warily,” and the caltrops. These are the four-spiked cavalry spikes that a later Sir Malcolm contributed to the victory at Bannockburn. For his services, Bruce awarded the lands in Perthshire where the clan was to flourish. Annabella Drummond became Queen to Robert II, the first Stewart king; and from then on to the last Stewart, no clan remained more faithful to the Stewarts than the Drummonds.

Septs of Clan Drummond include: Begg, Brewer, Cargill, Dock, Doig, Grewar, Gruar, Gruer, Maccrouther, Macgrewar, Macgrouther, Macgruder, Macgruer, Macgruther, Macrobbie, Macrobie, Mushet, Robbie.

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CLAN ELLIOT

The Elliots were an important family in the south of Scotland. The Chief of the clan was of Redheuch, and some other branches of the family were designed as of Larriston, Braidlie, Horsliehill, Arkleton, and Stobs.

Of the last-named branch came Gilbert Eliot of Stobs, celebrated in Border history as “Gibbie wi’ the gowden garters,” who died leaving several sons. William, the eldest, was ancestor of the Baronets of Stobs, now regarded as the principal line of Eliots extant; also of John Eliot, M.D., Physician to the Prince of Wales, who was created a Baronet, 1778, but died unmarried in 1786; and also of the celebrated General George Augustus Eliot, who successfully defended Gibraltar for three years (1779-83) against the whole power of France and Spain. General Eliot was created Lord Heathfield Baron Gibraltar, 1787, but the title became extinct on the death of his son, Francis, 2nd Baron, 1813.

Gavin Eliot of Midlem Mill, 4th son of the above-named Gilbert Eliot of Stobs, was father of Gilbert Eliot, Lord Justice Clerk, created a Baronet in 1700. His great-grandson, Gilbert, after having been Governor-General of India, was created Earl of Minto in 1813.

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CLAN FORBESMotto: Grace Me Guide

Names associated with Clan Forbes: Bannerman, Berrie, Berry, Boyce, Boyes, Faubus, Fobes, Fordice, Fordyce, Forbess, Forbis, Forbus, Forbush, Furbush, Lumsden, Macouat, Macowatt, MacQuattie, MacWatt, Mechie, Meldrum, Michie, Middleton, Walter, Walters, Watson, Watt,Watters, Wattie,Watts

Forbes is a parish in the Aberdeenshire area. A reliable tradition tells that the 'Braes o’ Forbes' were once uninhabitable because of bears living in the area. Oconachar, founder of the clan, killed the bears and claimed the land as ‘first occupier’. The present chief still holds part of the Lordship of these Forbes lands.

In 1271, the chief of the time, Duncan de Forbes, obtained a charter from Alexander III for the land, confirming his claim. In the fourteenth century John de Forbes of the Black Lip had four sons with whom the family expanded widely and prosperously. William began the Pitsligo line, John was progenitor of the branch of Polquhoun and Alistair of Brux was ancestor of extensions in Skellater and Inverernan.

Alexander, the eldest of the brothers, fought in the 1411 Battle of Harlaw against the invaders from the Isles, led by Donald. He was created Lord Forbes by James I around 1444. To this day the Lordship is regarded as Scotland’s premier. His own three sons would extend the family with the branches of Corsindae and Monymusk, Corse, and later the Baronets of Craigievar.

There was a point where, from the coasts of Banff and Buchan, to the mountains of Aberdeenshire, there were one hundred and fifty Forbes houses and estates. Clan Forbes was, through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, constantly at odds with their powerful, predatory neighbours the Gordons, Earls of Huntly. The consistent murders by both sides escalated, fuelled with the excuses of religious self-importance, into two battles at Craibstone and Tillieangus during 1571.

These were followed by the plunder of Lord Forbes' seat itself, and then the murder of twenty-seven Forbes' of Towie at Corgarff. It eventually took two Acts of Parliament to force them to lay down their arms against each other.

During the 1715 rebellion, Duncan Forbes of Culloden, President of the Court of Session, was in opposition to the Jacobite cause. He is remembered however, for his efforts to win the rebels better treatment from their captors. Speaking out for the people after Culloden, Butcher Cumberland responded with the sneer, 'that old woman talked to me about humanity.' A memorial to Duncan Forbes stands in the Parliament Hall at Edinburgh.

Built in 1815, Castle Forbes stands on the land claimed by Oconachar, overlooking the Don.  Information obtained at: www.scotclans.com

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Clan Fraser

(Scottish Gaelic: Clann Frisealach, French: Clan Frasier) is a Scottish clan of French origin. The Clan has been strongly associated with Inverness and the surrounding area since the Clan's founder gained lands there in the 13th century. Since its founding, the Clan has dominated local politics and been active in every major military conflict involving Scotland. It has also played a considerable role in most major political turmoils.The Clan's current chief is Simon Fraser, the 16th Lord Lovat, and 25th Chief of the Clan. The arms of Clan Fraser are Quarterly: 1st and 4th Azure, three fraises Argent, 2nd and 3rd Gules, three antique crowns Or, or in layman's terms, the traditional three cinquefoils, or fraises (strawberry flowers), as they have come to be known, in the first and fourth positions and three crowns in the second and third positions. Only the Lord Lovat is allowed use of these arms plain and undifferenced

Origins of the surname

The surname 'Fraser' is of an uncertain origin.The first record of the name occurs in the mid-twelfth century as "de Fresel", "de Friselle", and "de Freseliere", and appears to be a Norman name, though there is no known placename in France that corresponds with it. Also, it has been thought possible that a medieval scribe could have corrupted a Gaelic name beyond recognition.

A tradition, favoured by the leading family of Fraser, derived the clan's descent from a Frenchman, Pierre Fraser, Seigneur de Troile, who came to Scotland in the reign of Charlemagne to form an alliance with the mythical King Achaius. Pierre's son was then to have become thane of the Isle of Man in 814.

Another explanation for the surname is that it is derived from the French words fraise, meaning strawberry (the fruit), and fraisiers, strawberry plants. There is a fabled account of the Fraser coat of arms which asserts during the reign of Charles the Simple of France, a nobleman from Bourbon named Julius de Berry entertained the King with a dish of fine strawberries. De Berry was then later knighted, with the knight taking strawberry flowers as his Arms and changing his name from 'de Berry' to 'Fraiseux' or 'Frezeliere'. His direct descendants were to become the lords of Neidpath Castle, then known as Oliver.This origin has been disputed, and seen as a classic example of canting heraldry, where heraldic symbols are derived from a pun on similar sounding surname: (strawberry flowers - fraises).

Early Frasers

Around the reign of William the Lion (r.1165-1214), there was a mass of Norman immigration into Scotland. Thomas Grey, a fourteenth century English Knight, listed several Norman families which took up land during William's reign. Among those listed were the Frasers. The earliest written record of Frasers in Scotland is in 1160, when a Simon Fraser held lands in East Lothian at Keith. The Frasers moved into Tweeddale in the twelfth and 13th centuries and from there into the counties of Stirling, Angus, Inverness and Aberdeen.

During the Scottish Wars of Independence, Sir Simon Fraser, known as "the Patriot", fought first with the Red Comyn, and later with Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce.

Sir Simon is celebrated for having defeated the English in three separate engagements at the Battle of Roslin in 1303, with just 8,000 men under his command. Along with the Clan Fraser, the Red Comyn's Clan Comyn, and the Clan Sinclair are known to have fought at the battle, which took place on 24 February 1303.At the Battle of Methven in 1306, Sir Simon led troops along with Bruce, and saved the King's life in three separate instances. Simon was allegedly awarded the 3 Crowns which now appear in the Lovat Arms for these three acts of bravery. At the end of the day, he was captured by the English and executed with great cruelty by King Edward in 1306, in the same barbaric fashion as Wallace. At the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Sir Simon's cousin, Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie, was much more fortunate. He fought at Bannockburn, married Bruce's sister, and became Chamberlain of Scotland. The Frasers of Philorth trace their lineage from Alexander. At the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, Alexander Fraser's three younger brothers, Simon Fraser of Lovat, Andrew, and James, were killed while fighting the English.

As most all Highlanders, the Frasers have been involved in countless instances of Clan warfare, particularly against the Macdonalds. Two Gaelic war cries of the Frasers have been generally recognized. The first, "Caisteal Dhuni" (Castle Dounie/Downie) refers to the ancestral Castle and Clan seat, which once existed near the present Beaufort Castle. The second is "A Mhòr-fhaiche" (The Great Field).

In 1544, the Frasers fought a great clan battle, the Battle of the Shirts (Blar-ne-Léine in Gaelic) against the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, over the disputed chiefship of Clan Ranald. The Frasers, as part of a large coalition, backed a son of the 5th Chief, Ranald Gallda (the Stranger), which the MacDonalds found unacceptable. The Earl of Argyll intervened, refusing to let the two forces engage. But on their march home, the 300 Frasers were ambushed by 500 MacDonalds. Only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds are said to have survived the battle. Both the Lovat Chief, Hugh Fraser, and his son were amongst the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory.

Robert Mor Munro, 15th chief of Clan Munro, was a staunch supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he consequently was treated favourably by her son, James VI. Robert was also a faithful friend of Mary. Scottish historian George Buchanan, a contemporary, wrote that when the unfortunate princess went to Inverness in 1562: "as soon as they heard of their sovereign's danger, a great number of the most eminent Scots poured in around her, especially the Frasers and Munros, who were esteemed the most 'valiant of the clans inhabiting those countries in the north.' " These two clans took Inverness Castle for the Queen. The Queen later hanged the governor, a Gordon who had refused her admission.

In 1571 the Clan Fraser joined forces with the Clan Forbes in their centuries-long feud against the Clan Gordon. The Frasers and Forbes were joined by Clan Keith and Clan Crichton. The Gordons were joined by Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The feud culminated in two full scale battles: the Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. At the first, the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son, known as Black Aurther Forbes, was killed.

During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644–1650, the Clan was as active as ever, supporting the cause of the Covenanters.

In 1645, at the Battle of Auldearn, in Nairnshire, the Clan opposed the Royalist leader James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and fought under a Fraser of Struy (from a small village at the mouth of Glen Strathfarrar). The battle left eighty-seven Fraser widows

In 1689, the Glorious Revolution deposed the Roman Catholic King James VII as monarch of England, replacing the King with his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband and cousin William of Orange. Swiftly following in March, a Convention of the Estates was convened in Edinburgh, which supported William & Mary as joint monarchs of Scotland. However, to much of Scotland, particularly in the Highlands, James was still considered the rightful, legitimate King.

Bonnie Dundee

On 16 April 1689 John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, raised the royal standard of the recently deposed King James VII on the hilltop of Dundee Law. Many of the Highland clans rallied swiftly to his side. The chief of the Clan Fraser, Thomas Fraser, tried to keep the members of his clan from joining the uprising, to no avail: The Clan marched without him, and fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie. In 1690, Thomas gave in and joined them.

The Fifteen

The Clan Fraser was split during the first Jacobite rising in 1715. While some supported the Jacobite cause, Simon "the Fox" Fraser, Chief at the time, supported the British Government. In 1715, a force led by Simon, who had been outlawed by the Stewarts and was in exile, surrounded the Jacobite garrison in Inverness. The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch attempted to relieve the garrison, but when their path was blocked by the Frasers, Keppoch retreated.The Inverness garrison surrendered to Fraser on the same day that the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought.

The Forty-Five

On 2 August 1745, a frigate successfully landed Bonnie Prince Charlie, grandson of James VII with his seven men of Moidart on the island of Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides. He would go on to raise the royal standard at Glenfinnan, and led the second Jacobite rising in Scotland. The by-now-infamous Simon "the Fox" Fraser supported the Jacobites and Bonnie Prince Charlie during The '45. One very strong reason was that Simon had been created Duke of Fraser, Marquess of Beaufort, Earl of Stratherrick and Abertarf, Viscount of the Aird and Strathglass and Lord Lovat and Beauly in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland by James Francis Edward Stuart in 1740. Frasers were on the front lines of the Jacobite army at the Battle of Falkirk, and the Battle of Culloden in 1746.

Culloden

The Battle of Culloden in 1746 was a decisive defeat for the Jacobites and the House of Stuart. At the battle, Frasers made up the largest Centre Regiment of the Front line, with 400 men under Charles Fraser of Inverallochy, and Simon Fraser, Master of Lovat. The Fox was not present at the battle, reportedly trying to gather dispersed Clansmen to fight.

Being on the front line, the Frasers were one of the few units to actually close with Government forces, breaking through Barrell's regiment with 800-900 other Highlanders. The Frasers were massacred by the Government second line. Hundreds may lie buried in a mass grave underneath the Fraser gravestone at Culloden. Each clan had its own grave.

Today the Clan Fraser is composed of many thousands all over the world. Large Fraser populations exist in the United States and Canada, and smaller populations are in Australia, New Zealand (both of which have had Fraser Prime ministers), and South Africa, not to mention those who never left Scotland. In 1951, the Lord Lovat Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser was able to muster some 7,000 Frasers to the family seat at Beaufort Castle, and in 1997, some 30-40,000 Frasers from 21 different countries came to Castle Fraser over a period of four days for a world-wide Clan gathering

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CLAN GORDON

The Gordons had their Scottish origin in the Berwickshire lands of Gordon. As a Norman family they became settled there under David I and retained estates for three centuries. Sir Adam de Gordon was one of the ambassadors who conveyed to the Pope the 1320 Declaration of National Independence, the first of its kind. For this and other services, Robert the Bruce granted him land forfeited by the Cummings at Strathbogie in Aberdeenshire. From that centre the Gordons came to exert great power (their chief was often called “The Cock of the North”) and often feuded with neighboring clans. In 1777 and 1794 they founded the regiments that became the Gordon Highlanders.

Septs for Clan Gordon include the following names: Adam, Adams, Adamson, Addie, Addison, Adie, Aitchison, Aiken, Aitken, Atkin, Atkins, Atkinson, Barrie, Connon, Craig, Cromb, Crombie, Cullen, Darg, Darge, Dorward, Duff, Durward, Eadie, Eddie, Edie, Edison, Esslemont, Gardiner, Gardner, Garioch, Garrick, Garriock, Geddes, Gerrie, Huntly, Jessiman, Jopp, Jupp, Laing, Lang, Laurie, Lawrie, Leng, Marr, Maver, Mavor, Meldrum, Mill, Mills, Miln, Milne, Milnes, Moir, More, Morrice, Morris, Muir, Mylne, Tod, Todd, Troup

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CLAN GRANT

A correction to our prior information was sent to us by Clan Grant.  They would prefer that any members interested in their history check their web site at: http://www.clangrant.org.uk/

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CLAN GUNN

Clan Gunn claims descent from the Norse Jarls or Earls of Orkney and from the ancient Celtic Mormaers of Caithness through Ragnhild, daughter of Moddan in Dale, son of Moddan, Mormaer (High Steward) of Caithness, who was killed in 1040, and granddaughter of Saint Rognvald, Jarl of Orkney, who married Gunni, the reputed name-father of the Clan. Gunni was himself a grandson of Sweyn Asleif's-son, the 'Ultimate Viking' and hero of the Orkneyinga Saga.

Sweyn Asleif's-son had his long hall on the island of Gairsay, off the east coast of the Mainland of Orkney and lands in Caithness at Freswick, a few miles south of Duncansbay. The principal Gunn lands were, however, acquired through Ragnhild, who inherited great estates in Caithness and Sutherland on the death of her brother, Harold Ungi, Jarl in Orkney and Earl of Caithness in 1198.

These were inherited by Snaekoll (White head) Gunni's-son the second chief of the Clan. His rights to the Norse Earldom were, however, forfeited as he had murdered John, the then Jarl in Orkney, over a land claim dispute arising from their mutual descent from the ancient Jarls of Orkney. Thus from the middle of the 13th century the Gunns were essentially a Caithness family.

At this time Clan Gunn were at the height of their power. They appeared to possess virtually the whole of Caithness, which was then passing from the influence of the Norse Earldom to that of the King of Scots. Snaekoll Gunni's-son is reputed to have built Castle Gunn at Bruan, on the east coast of Caithness south of Wick. There is a tradition that Castle Gunn was destroyed by the King of Norway, whose daughter one of the Gunn chiefs had married, though he already had a wife at Castle Gunn. When the second wife sailed to Caithness to join her husband, the Gunn clan arranged for the beacon to be placed on a dangerous rock at Ulbster and so wrecked the ship and all aboard were drowned. The castle was destroyed in revenge and the Gunn chief and his retainers were slain.

Little is known of the history of the Clan during the 13th and 14th century and it is not until the 15th century that history records the exploits of the Clan and its chiefs. Nonetheless, it is clear that during the 14th and 15th centuries the Gunns were gradually dispossessed of their lands in the fertile parts of Caithness by the Sinclairs, Keiths and others, who obtained grants of land from the Scottish kings, anxious to increase their influence over the fringes of their kingdom. Consequently by the mid 15th century George Gunn of Ulbster, Chief of Clan Gunn and Crowner of Caithness, held his main lands at Ulbster and Clyth on the rocky coast of Caithness, and the majority of the Clan by then occupied the highland regions of Caithness in what are now the Parishes of Latheron, Halkirk and Reay.

It was George Gunn, the Crowner, also known as "Am Braisdeach Mor", or "Big Broochy" from the insignia worn by the Gunn Chiefs, as Crowners of Caithness, who after many skirmishes with Clan Keith over rival land claims sought to reach a conciliation with the Keiths at St. Tayre's Chapel, near Ackergill Tower, the seat of Keith of Ackergill in 1478 (other say 1464) and was killed in the unequal battle at the chapel where the Keiths arrived for the twelve-aside parlay with two men to each horse. In 1978 the Earl of Kintore, Chief of Clan Keith and Iain Gunn of Banniskirk, the Commander of Clan Gunn, signed a Treaty of Friendship between the two clans at the site of the chapel, bringing to end the 500 year old feud.

After the death of George, the Crowner, and his sons at Ackergill, the Clan split into three distinct families -- James or Seumas, the Crowner's eldest son who survived the battle, moved with his family to Kildonan in Sutherland, subsequently known as Gleann na Guineach or Gunn's Glen, where he obtained lands from the Earls of Sutherland; Robert, the second surviving son established his line in Braemore, in the southern heights of Caithness as the Robson Gunns, and John, the third surviving son settled in Cattaig or Bregual in Strathmore, in the higher reaches of the River Thurso above Westerdale.

The Hendersons and Williamsons and Wilsons of Caithness are said to be descended from Henry and William, two of the Crowners' younger sons. Other Gunn families established themselves at Crosskirk, near Forss, on the North coast of Caithness and in Reay, Strathy and Strath Halladale in the MacKay country. The various chieftains leased their lands from the Chiefs of Clan Sutherland and Clan MacKay and in turn sublet these to their immediate families who subdivided them among their families. There was, however, a surprising amount of movement from one part of the country to another and so it cannot be assumed that all Gunns in one area were necessarily all of the same branch of the family.

Indeed many clansmen do not bear the surname of Gunn. Surnames were not commonly used until comparatively recent times. They would have been of little use where everybody was of the same clan. A man or a woman was therefore known as John or Jean mac Sheumais or mac Dhaidh, son or daughter of James or David, of Clan Gunn, and when a surname came to be used many adopted their father's name and hence John or Jean Robson, Georgeson, Williamson etc.

The Mac Sheumais (or McHamish) Gunns continued to live in Strath Kildonan, first at Killearman and later at Badenloch at the top of the Strath, until the old line died out in 1782.

The chiefship of the Clan has been dormant since the death of the son of George Gunn of Rhives in 1874. The head of the Clan, in the absence of a recognized chief is Iain Gunn of Banniskirk, who has been appointed Commander of the Clan by the Lord Lyon King of Arms at the request of the landed and armigerous members of the Clan.

The Clan Gunn Society which was formed in 1960 to promote a spirit of kinship among members of the clan throughout the world acquired the Old Parish Church at Latheron as a Clan Heritage Center. The Clan gathers in Caithness every three years.


Material from The Clan Gunn and Its Country, published by the Clan Gunn Heritage Center, Latheron, Caithness.

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CLAN HOME

“Home” pronounced “Hume” and frequently spelled in this manner, comes from the lands in Berwickshire acquired in marriage by a 13th Century descendent of the Northumbrian Earl Gospatrick, ancestor also of the Dunbars. By further marriages the Homes extended widely over the east Borderland and participated fully in its wars and forays. David Hume (1711-76), philosopher-historian and indirect inspirer of many efforts to bring logic into practical history, also John Home, minister unfrocked for producing his poetic drama Douglas in 1756, might both claim family predeccors. Lord Kames, the lawyer-philosopher, and Lady Grizel Baillie, the balladist were also from the clan. Members were sometimes described as the “Haughty Homes” because of all their lofty achievements.

Septs: Ayton, Buncle, Bunkle, Dunbar, Eaton, Greenlaw, Haliburton, Holm, Landale, Landels, Mack, McHolm, Nesbitt, Nisbet, Wedderburn

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CLAN HUNTER

The first Hunters arrived in Ayrshire in the opening years of the 12th century. Experts in hunting and fieldcraft with generations of experience in the forests of their land of origin, these Norman lords were invited to Scotland by Scottish King David I who was himself brought up in the Norman court. In papers relating to the King’s Inquisition in 1116, we find mention of WILLIELMO VENATOR (William the Hunter - 1st Laird) who was appointed as Royal Huntsman while his wife had the honour of serving Queen Matilda as a lady-in-waiting. William put his expertise to good use in the wile forests and fens, then rich with wildlife, which surrounded the site of the timber fortress which was to become Hunter’s Toun. As recognition of his family’s skills, the title of Royal Huntsman became a hereditary appointment.

In the mid-thirteenth century King Alexander III of Scotland urged his liegemen to build in stone against possible incursion by Norsemen. It was probably about this time that the pele-tower of Hunterston Castle was constructed.

From this stronghold the family, allied with other powerful neighbours, faced down the aggression of King Hakon of Norway and drove him to defeat at the Battle of Largs in 1263. It sheltered them throughout the turbulent Wars of Independence from which they emerged with their lands intact, having probably supported William Wallace and certainly Robert the Bruce. In 1374 the great king’s grandson Robert II granted William Hunter (10th Laird) a charter of lands “for faithful services rendered.” The family still possess this ancient document. For many years the Hunters continued to serve the Scottish Crown as Royal Huntsmen and as soldiers, sometimes at great cost. John Huntar (14th Laird) died with King James IV at Flodden in 1513, and Mungo Huntar (16th Laird) died for Mary at Pinkie in 1547.

Clan Gatherings are held every five years at Hunterston Castle, Hunterston, in order to strengthen the traditions of the clan and foster a sense of togetherness.

(Information about Clan Hunter obtained from the Hunter Clan Association brochure.)

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CLAN KENNEDY

It has been suggested by genealogical sources that the name “Kennedy” meant “a kinsman.” Henry Cinnidh or Kennedy being a younger brother of William the Lion and founder of this great Carrick clan. From supporting Bruce against the Comyns and James II against the Black Douglases, the Kennedies acquired great power and wealth. Branches spread into Lennox in the 13th century and Aberdeenshire in the 14th. The grandson of Sir John Kennedy of Dunure married a daughter of King Robert III. His son, Gilbert, was created Lord Kennedy about 1452. The 3rd Lord was created Earl of Cassillis about 1509, but was killed with most of the Scottish nobility at Flodden in 1513. The 3rd Earl died in 1558, probably having been poisoned. For centuries there was a feud for seniority between the Bargany and Cassillis branches of the clan. One chief, the Earl of Cassillis in Mary’s reign (and fighter in her cause), even ventured on the unofficial title “King of Carrick.” The learned Bishop James Kennedy and his daughter, Kate, are still celebrated annually by the students of St. Andrews University where he founded a college in 1455.

For more information on Clan Kennedy, please contact local Chieftain, William Kennedy, Jr., 241 Everhard Rd., North Canton, Ohio 44709.  Tel.:  330-433-9323

Septs of Clan Kennedy include: Carrick, Cassels, Cassillis, and Macwalrick.

For more information, check the Clan Kennedy Society web site:  http://www.kennedysociety.org/

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CLAN LAMONT

Around 500 AD, a migration to southwest Scotland from the Irish kingdom of Dal Riata  in northern Ireland took place. Our oral traditions and written history state that this invasion was led by the three sons of Erc, the King of the Irish Dal Riata. This action was the start of the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada. During this time it is said that the Stone of Destiny was taken to Scotland by the Gaels that migrated to Argyll, and it became the Coronation Stone of the early Dalriadan kings at Dunstaffnage. Then, in the ninth century, the stone is believed to have been transported to Scone, the capital of the Southern Picts. It is here that the Picts and the Scots became unified in 844 under the direction of Kenneth MacAlpine.
Among the clans  that dwelled within this Dalriadan kingdom (including the Outer and Inner Hebrides, and the region of Argyll) were : The Lamonts, The MacNeils, The MacEwens, The Gilchrists and MacLachlans.
According to Skene in the Table of the Descent of the Highland Clans, he separates what is known as the Gallgael to give five major clans, from which nine smaller clans are said to have sprung forth. One of these, the Siol Alpin, for instance, is considered the Royal line from which Kenneth MacAlpine came from.  Considered the second of these great clans is the Siol Gillevray and within the sphere of influence of this group is clan MacNeil, MacLachlan (including Clan Gilchrist), MacEwen, and Lamont.
The Lamonts, like the MacNeils, MacEwens, MacSweens, and the Gilchrists, are said to descend from the royal line of the O'Neill High Kings of Ireland (who mainly resided in great numbers in Tir Eoghain [Tyrone], northern Ireland). The Lamonts are believed to descend directly from Anrothan O'Neill, who gave up his rulership in Ireland and moved to Argyll. From Anrothan's line came a man named Aodha Alainn O'Neil who had three sons: Gillachrist, Neill, and Dunslebhe. Gillachrist had a son, Lachlan, who is the ancestors of the MacLachlans; Neill, who is the ancestor of the MacNeills; Dunslebhe had two sons, Fearchar, who is the progenitor of the Lamonts, and Ewen, the ancestor of the MacEwens.
From Fearchar came a son named Laumon and it is from him that the Clan Lamont received it's name.  Some sources say that these same Lamonts were known at one time as MacErchar from Fearchar (as in the original Dal Riata MacErc). It is clear that this clan has very old roots in the Kingdom of Dalriada, evidenced not only by the previous name MacErchar and the tie with the original kingdoms of northern Ireland, but also from centuries old conflicts with the Clan Diarmaid, or Campbell
In 1235,Sir Laumon, signed a charter granting lands to the Paisley Abbyll This charter isstill in existence. Few clans can document their existence at such an early date.  Sir Walter Scott refers to Sir Laumon in Antiquary as "Lamon mor ", or the Great Lamont in English. Sir Laumon's mother is believed to have been a daughter of the great Somerled, ancestor of the MacDonalds. Tradition, supported by a genealogical work of 1682 found in Inveraray Castle, maintains that a son of Sir Laumaon, had to flee Cowal as a result of a murder; and founded the Lyons of Glamis. He took the name of Lyon from the Lamont arms, and chose as his arms, the reverse of the Lamonts, a blue lion on a silver field.
As the Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth, is a Lyon of Glamis, if this tradition is correct, the Queen Elizabeth II is a Lamont on her mothers side !
 
James Patton
Clan Lamont Society North America
Bellville, Ohio
A longer history is on the official society website http://ogdenj.com/clsna/lamont.htm 
 
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CLAN LINDSAY

The widespread Lindsays may have originated in Normandy, the name from an “Isle of lime-trees” near Rouen. Though they most likely did come from Normandy, there are those who disagree with this assumption. The name is said to have had many different spellings, possibly as many as 200 plus. The family was located both in England and in Scotland.

The Lindsays were not among those who came over with William the Conqueror in 1066. When Henry I of England reconquered Normandy in 1106 from his older brother, Robert, much of his support came from Western Normandy. There was thus a second wave of Norman migration to England and it is thought most likely that the Lindsay ancestor, following the Earl of Chester, brought the family name across the channel at that time.

Lindsay is a noble name and has proved to be quite illustrious, when only the facts are given that are backed up by Charter evidence. This evidence starts with Walter de Lindeseia, who sat as a member of Prince David's council in the Scottish borders (Cumbria) along with other Norman Knights in the early part of the 12th century. When this Prince became King of Scotland, he placed these Knights as Great Barons in the power structure. Walter was followed by two Williams in the ordinary line of succession.

In the reign of William the Lion, 1165-1214, the greater part of the parish of Crawford was held by William de Lindsay in lordship of Swan, the son of Thor. William undertook for himself and his heirs to render the services required from these lands to the overlord and to the King. This is the first Lindsay found associated with the territory of Crawford.

David Lindsay of Glenesk was, by solemn belting and investiture, created Earl of Crawford by his brother-in-law, Robert, III, on the 21st of April, 1398 in the Parliament held at Perth. This creation was accompanied by a regrant of the principal fief of Crawford "with a regality" and a herald called Lindsay was then created. Though the Lindsays were now situated in Glenesk, Crawford was their principal fief and remained so until the 5th Earl resigned the superiority of the various lands in the barony of Crawford.

Earl David, being trained in Angus, permanently fixed there the main dwelling place of his family, at the castle of Finhaven. The urban dwelling of the Crawford house was in Dundee. At this time the Lindsays possessed more than twenty great baronies and lordships, besides other lands of minor importance.

Through the centuries, the Lindsays have been eminent in many fields of endeavor. David Lyndsay, Lord Lyon, King at Arms, was also a playwright and poet of the Reformation. His fame is rivaled by that of Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, whose History of Scotland is one of the most valuable national documents. Lady Anne Lindsay, daughter of the 5th Earl of Balcarres, wrote "Auld Robin Gray", one of the finest and most favorite of Scottish ballads.

Rev. David Lindsay, minister of Leith, became Bishop of Ross in 1600. Patrick Lyndsay was Archbishop of Glascow. David Lindsay, Bishop of Edinburgh, crowned Charles I at Holyrood in 1633. James Bowman Lindsay, the Forfarshire weaver, electrician and philologist, patented a wireless system of telegraphy in 1854. Marconi credits him as being his true predecessor.

A Lindsay was one of ten people who signed the declaration of independence of Scotland, declaring themselves totally independent of England. They were allies of Robert the Bruce and fought in Bannockburn. They intermarried with the family of William Wallace and handed over some of their castles to help him in his great battle for independence.

The 20th Earl of Crawford raised the Black Watch regiment in 1739, which was originally called the Lindsay-Crawford Regiment. Today, they still stand guard over Edinburgh Castle. Later, this Earl commanded the Scot Grays. Robert Lindsay, cousin to the 26th Earl, was the first recipient of the Victoria Cross.

Lord Crawford, current chief of the family, is the 29th holder of the title and 40th feudal lord of Crawford. He is the premier Earl of Scotland. If precedence were determined by length of service in Parliament, he would also be the premier peer of the Empire, for his predecessors and he have sat in every Parliament, either Scottish or British, since 1147.

Septs: Affleck, Buyers, Byers, Cobb, Crawford, Deuchar, Deuchars, Downie, Fotheringham, Rhind, Rhynd, Summers, Sumner

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CLAN MAC CALLUM

Clan Mottos:  "In ardua tendit" which means "He has attempted difficult things". Or "Deus refugium nostrum" (Latin : God is our refuge.)

 

The surnames Malcolm and MacCallum are both derived from the Gaelic word "calaman" which means a dove; this came to symbolise the Holy Spirit and the Latin equivalent was "columba" - the name of the Irish Saint Columba who established the monastery on Iona. Followers of Columba were "maol Chaluim" which gradually became the name Malcolm. While the two names may be from the same roots, there was no genealogical relationship between the two (although an early MacCallum chief did change his name to Malcolm, confusing the situation).

 

From the 10th century onwards, there were four kings named Malcolm and there were three landowners named "Maucolum" ( from Berwick, Perth and Montrose) who were signatories to the Ragman Roll in 1296.

 

The clan MacCallum became established in northern Argyll and in 1414 Sir Duncan Campbell granted lands to them at Craignish peninsula, not far from Kilmartin where family legend says one of the early branches of the name became established. The Campbells also made Ranald MacCallum hereditary keeper of Craignish castle. The Campbells also granted land to Donald, son of Gillespie MacCallum, another branch of the clan in Duntrune, adding to property already owned at Poltalloch in Argyll. The Poltalloch MacCallums have held the chieftainship of the clan from that time but later adopted the name Malcolm. The 15th Laird of Poltalloch was raised to the peerage as Lord Malcolm of Poltalloch late in the 19th century. However, the home of the present clan chief is now Duntrune Castle.

 

In the middle of the 17th century, Zachary MacCallum met a party of MacDonalds (enemies of the Campbells) and killed seven of them before being scythed down. Neil MacCallum, a nephew of Zachary, served in the French navy and is reputed to have been the father of the Marquis de Montcalm, who defended Quebec against the Highlanders who scaled the Heights of Abraham there, bringing to an end French rule in Canada.

The surname Malcolm is associated initially with Dunbartonshire and Stirling in the 14th century and later in Dumfriesshire. In the 18th century, George Malcolm of that county had three sons, all of whom became Knights of the Order of the Bath, two as generals and one as an admiral. General Sir John Malcolm was the British representative in the court of the Shah of Persia and published a history of that country in 1815 which is still highly regarded. His brother, Admiral Sir Pultney Malcolm commanded St Helena during Napoleon's exile there after the Battle of Waterloo.

 

Branches: MacCallum of Colgin, MacCallum of Glen Etive, MacCallum of Kilmartin, Malcolm of Poltalloch

Names associated with the clan: MACCALLOME MACCALUME MACALLUM MACCALUIM MACCALME MACCALIM MACCALLUM MACCOLLOM MACCOLLUM MACCOLEM MACCOLUM MACCULLUM MACCULLOM MAKALLUM MOLCALLUM CALLUM CHALLUM ALLUM CALLAM

 

 

Malcolmson is regarded as a sept (sub-branch) of the Malcolm/MacCallum clan

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CLAN MACKENZIE

Probably one of the old transplanted tribes from Moray, though firmly rooted in Ross-shire ever since, this clan took their name, MacKenny or MacKenzie after a 13th century chief Kenneth, descended from Colin of the Aird who was ancestor also to the Celtic Earls of Ross. When that earldom fell by marriage to the Lord of the Isles, the clan followed the MacDonald lead until these lords were suppressed. Independence attained, the MacKenzies became by the 17th century the most powerful clan of the West after the Campbells, and their chief, MacKenzie of Kintail, was raised to Lord Seaforth by James VI. This earldom was forfeited through the clans sharing the Jacobite ventures but restored in 1778 when the Seaforth Highlanders regiment was founded.

Septs: Charles, Charleson, Cluness, Clunies, Cromarty, Iverach, Iverson, Ivory, Kenneth, Kennethson, Kynoch, MacAweeney, MacBeolain, MacConnach, MacElhiney, MacIlhiney, MacIver, MacIvor, MacKenna, MacKenney, MacKerlich, MacKinney, MacMurchie, MacMurchy, MacQueenie, MacVanish, MacVinish, MacVinnie, MacWeeny, MacWhinnie, Murchie, Murchison, Smart

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CLAN MACLAREN

The older form MacLaurin is nearer to the Gaelic pronunciation. Whether originally called after the martyred St. Lawrence, or from Loarn, son of the Erc who founded Scottish Daliada about 503, and namer of the district of Lorne, the clan does claim descent from three brothers from the area which is now Argyll. They served with Kenneth MacAlpin in his successfull campaign of 843-50 to unite the Northern Picts into Scotland. A branch remained in their first home-country and was for long in possession of Tiree, but those three brothers’ awards in Balquhidder and Strathearn becams the clan’s main territory. Here they enter records surviviving from the 13th century. Although it is claimed that Rob Roy MacGregor is buried in MacLaurin burial ground, this is a false statement. There is a grave there, only recently marked as Rob Roy’s by one rather dubious member of Clan Gregor, but the grave is highly unlikely to have been his. He lived at the end of Balquhidder Glen, far closer to his family just over the mountain from his home, than to the church which he never attended. He would have been buried in the family plot there. Unfortunately that is now under the waters of Loch Katrine and access to the area is in private hands. The Clan Gregor members couldn’t show off by marching there so they chose another location. Sadly. This ground belongs to the MacLaren Clan.

Septs of Clan MacLaren: Faed, Larnach, Laurence, Laurenson, Law, Lawrence, Lawson, Low, Lowe, Lowson, MadFade, MacClarence, MacCrorie, MacFait, Mac Fater, MacFead, MacFeat, MacGrory, MacLsurin, MacPatrick, MacPetrie, MacPhait, MacPhater, Macrorie, Macrory, Paterson, Patrick, Patterson, Peterkin, Peters, Peterson, Rorie, Rorison

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CLAN MACLEAN

Though the name means “Son of a devotee of St. John”, MacLeans claim as legendary ancestor a 5th century Gillean-na Tuaidhe, i.e., Gillean of the Battle Axe. They may have been transplanted by Malcolm IV from Glen Urquhart, as one of the Celtic tribes then rebelling against centralized feudalism. A century later, the 13th, we find them in Mull, strongly established as vassals of Clan Donald, and soon one of the most powerful clans behind the Lords of the Isles. Duart Castle, facing Lismore, is their family stronghold. They ceased to be vassels of the Lords of the Isles in 1476, upon the Clan Donald forfeiture of that title. There was an ensuing feud with the MacDonalds that lasted until 1498. Their territory ranged from Coll and Tiree to Ardgour on the mainland, though the main families remained MacLeans of Duart (Chief) and Maclaines of Lochbuie, both in Mull.

Lachlan Maclean of Duart, finding his wife to be unsatisfactory, left her at sea on a low rock, hoping that the returning tide would drown her. Unfortunately for him, she was rescued. Her brother, Sir John Campbell, vowed revenge for this act, and saw to it that Lachlan MacLean was assissinated in Edinburgh.

The Chief of Clan MacLean fell protecting James IV at Flodden. The clan was prominent in all Stewart causes. Their maxim was: “The MacLeans Must Never Turn Their Backs to a Foe.” Their motto: “Virtue and Honor are Mine ”

Septs include: Beath, Beaton, Bey, Black, Gillan, Billand, Gillian, Billon, Gilzean, Huie, Lean, MacBay, MacBeath, MacBeth, MacBey, MacBheath, MacClane, MacClean, MacCormick, MacFadden, MacFadyen, MacFadzean, MacFayden, MacFetridge, MacGillivray, MacGilvra, MacIldowie, MacIlduff, MacIlduy, MacIlvora, MacLaine, MacLergan, MacPhadden, MacRankin, MacVay, MacVeagh, MacVey, Padon, Paton, Patten, Patton, Peden, Ranken, Rankine.

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CLAN MACLEOD

of Harris

The MacLeod Chiefs claim descent from Leod, nephew of Magnus, the last of the Norse Kings (13th century) of the Isle of Man. From Tormod and Torquil, Leod’s two sons, come the Harris and Lewis branches. The bulk of the clan, however, remains of native Celtic stock. Tormod’s grandson, Malcolm, was awarded a charter of Glenelg territory by David II and by marriage acquired the clan’s large foothold in Skye, with its famed fortress of Dunvegan as the Chief’s seat. Harris was held by MacLeods as vassals to Clan Donald until the Lords of the Isles forfeited their land and title. Clear of the entanglement, they aided the MacLeans against the MacDonalds. At Worcester in 1651 the clan lost so many men for Charles II that the other clans agreed to exonerate them from further conflicts. The MacCrimmons, named among the septs, were famous for their piping skills.

Septs include: Beaton, Bethune, Beton, Grimmond, Harold, Harrold, Macandie, MacCaig, Maclure, MacCrimmon, MacCuig, MacHarold, Maclure, Macraild, MacWilliam, Norman, Normand, Williamson

of Lewis

The clan of Torquil (see above) early became so powerful as to dispute the superiority of the Harris branch chiefship, attaining at least an independent status. Important branches were the MacGillechallum or MacLeods of Raasay, and those of Assynt. The MacNichols (Nicholson, etc.) were originally an independent clan of the Assynt district. They moved to the Portree corner of Skye after a 14th Century Lewis MacLeod had married their Chief’s heiress.

Septs include: Askey, Aulay, Callam, Callum, Caskey, Caskie, Lewis, Macallum, Macaskie, Macaskill, MacCabe, Macaulay, MacCallum, MacCaskie, MacCaskill, MacCorkill, MacCorkindale, MacCorkle, Maccorquodale, MacGillechallum, MacKaskill, MacLewis, MacNichol, MacNicol, MacNicoll, Malcolmson, Nicholl, Nicholson, Nicol, Nicoll, Nicolson, Norie, Norrie, Tolmie.

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CLAN MACNAB

The Macnabs are of ancient origin in Breadalbane and claim to be descended of Clan Alpin, also from a family of hereditary abbots of St. Fillan’s monastery once in Glendochart, hence the Mac an Aba, “Son of the abbot”. The old Celtic church did not stipulate celibacy. The Dewar sept long held custody of the beautiful Celtic “Crozier of St. Fillan” now in the Royal Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.

From their once extensive clan lands there remains only the MacNab burial island at Killin. The reduction arose through supporting MacDougalls against the unforgiving Robert the Bruce, and again for following Montrose. Their royalist Chief was taken prisoner and escaped only to fall at Worcester in 1651 with many other Highlanders.

Septs include: Abbot, Abbotson, Abbott, Cleland, Clelland, Dewar, Gilfillan, Gillan, Gilland, Gilliland, MacClelland, MacLellan, MacClelland, MacNabb, MacNair.

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 CLAN MAC NAUGHTON

The name MacNaughton comes from the Pictish Nechton meaning "the pure one". Clan Nechtan were established in Strathtay in the 12th century, probably transferred there from Moray by Malcolm IV, but their possessions extended over the upper part of Loch Awe, Glenarn, Glenshira and Loch Fyne. Gilchrist MacNaughton was granted the castle and island of Fraoch Eilean in Loch Awe by Alexander III in 1267. In addition, Gilchrist also held Dunderave on Loch Fyne and the castle of Dubh Loch in Glenshira. As the MacNaughtons were allied to the MacDougalls of Lorne, their chief Donald MacNaughton opposed Robert the Bruce (as did the Comyns in the north). On Robert becoming King, the MacNaughtons lost many of their lands in Argyll to the Campbells. However Donald's son, Duncan, loyally supported King David II, who rewarded his son Alexander with lands in the Isle of Lewis. Sir Alexander, chief of the clan during the reign of James IV fell with his King at Flodden in 1513. The MacNaughtons continued to be loyal to the Stewarts both during the wars of Charles I and at the revolution of 1688 that overthrew James VII, for which they lost their estates in 1691. The 17th and last chief of the MacNaughtons was John of Dundarave who fell out with Campbell of Ardkinglas whose daughter he was to marry. MacNaughton thought he was to marry the younger daughter with whom he was in love, however after taking too much refreshment prior to the ceremony he discovered he'd been wed to the eldest daughter. On realising his predicament he promtly deserted his wife and eloped to Ireland with his love, the second daughter. Ardkinglas gained possession of the MacNaughton estates on the grounds of incest and the chiefship became vacant. In 1818, the Lord Lyon King of Arms accepted Edmund A MacNaghton of Bushmills Co. Antrim as chief of the clan and its his descendant Sir Patrick Macnaghton of that Ilk and Dundarave Co. Antrim who is the present-day chief.

Septs of Clan MacNaughton: Kendrick, Hendry, Maceol, MacBrayne, MacHendry, MacKendrick, MacKenrick, Macknight, MacNair, MacNayer, MacNiven, MacNuir, MacNuyer, MacVicar, Niven, Weir.

Reference: ElectricScotland.com

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CLAN MORRISON

     The Morrisons shared Lewis in the Hebrides with their earliest neighbors the MacLeods and the MacAulays. They took their name from a chief Maurice, after being earlier known as MacGilmore* from some "son of a devotee of St. Mary," but the change occurred before the Reformation. For a period ending with the MacKenzies taking charge of Lewis in 1613, Morrisons held the strenuous post of hereditary "Brieve" (arbitrating judge) in the "Long Isle," though in face of the powerful MacLeods this was a source rather of feud than of justice. Courts were usually held on the side of a hill where they were seated on green banks of earth.

Branches of the clan became settled in Harris, Skye, the Northwest mainland, and Aberdeenshire. A Perthshire group claim as its ancestor the Buchanan Clan's Maurice.

In the present century, the Morrisons have come into their own again. Two Hebridean Morrisons have been made Peers of the Realm. William Morrison, 1st Viscount Dunrossil, of a branch of the Morrison clan settled in North Uist, was Speaker of the House of Commons and then died in 1961 as Governor-General of Australia. John Morrison, 1st Lord Margadale, was Chairman of the powerful 1922 Committee of Conservative back-benchers. He owns the island of Islay which was once the home of the Norse sea-kings and also of the Clan Donald Chiefs, from a combination of both of which families the Morrison chiefs claim descent.

Septs of Clan Morrison include: Brieve, Gilmore, Gilmour, Judge, MacBrieve, Morison.

[Tracing Scottish names requires some detective work. "Gilmore" for example, might not easily be recognized as a "devotee of St. Mary" unless you know that a "Gillie" (or ghillie) is a servant and "More" (or Mhuire) can refer to St. Mary.

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CLAN MOREHEAD

Clan Muirhead, thought by many historians to be one of Scotland's oldest names, can trace its roots to the late 14th century. The first recorded holder of the name is William Muirhead of Lauchope.

William Muirhead of Lauchope, born ca. 1380 - died ? William was born in the Village of Lanark, which, a century before, had spawned the great William Wallace (hero of the movie "Braveheart.") The pedigree puts his birth around 1380, but, considering what followed a mere 13 years later, I would put his birth somewhat sooner.

Around the 1390s, a giant (as in "Andre the ..." not "fe-fi-fo-fum.") named Bartram was terrorizing the area around Kirk O'Shotts in Lanarkshire. He was a notorious robber and and murderer. King Robert III, weary of constant complaints from the area (Robert was not Scotland's greatest king) offered a reward for anyone who could rid the area of Bartram deShotts. William Muirhead took him up on it.

William studied the habits of the giant for a long time, discerning that Bartram always stopped to drink at one spot at a stream near Kirk O'Shotts. William began piling heather at the area, a bit at a time, until the pile was very large. Bartram was suspicious of the pile at first, but gradually began to ignore it until he paid it no mind at all. Then, one day in 1393, William took his claymore and hid in the heather pile until Bartram came. When Bartram knelt to drink, William leaped out and slashed Bartram's hamstrings, crippling the giant. The suprised giant laughed, angering William who said, "Will ye lauch up?" and cut off his head.

William carried the head to the king, who knighted Willam, granted him lands, a crest and coat of arms. The Muirhead lands came to be called "Lauchope." The family prospered for some time after William, becoming one of the great houses of the lowlands. William's brother, Andrew, became Bishop of Glasgow and was one of the regents for the minor King James I. Eight years later, he arranged James' marriage to Princess Margaret, the Fair Maid of Denmark. William's great-grandson carried the name and the sword William used on the giant to the saddest day in Scottish history.

John Muirhead of Lauchope and Bullis, born 1443 - died 1513 John was a "tacksman" and a favorite of King James IV. He was so favored, the king made him captain of his personal guard when the Scots marched to Flodden in 1513. John took 200 loyal Muirhead clansmen with him and all fell.  And so the fortunes of this bold family grew, but the prestige and power did not come without a price, which came due with Willam's descendent, James Muirhead of Lauchope. Poor James is an example of everything that can go wrong going wrong. At first glance, one would expect James to have married very well. His wife was Janet Hamilton, reat-granddaughter of King James II and a child of one of the most powerful families in all the lowlands. This was actually the problem.

The struggles of Mary, Queen of Scots, are legend. After her dramatic escape from imprisonment in Lochleven in 1568, partisans rallied to her defense and an attempt to retore her to the throne. They gathered at Langside, not far from where William Muirhead had killed Bartram deShotts. Among Mary's partisans were the Hamiltons and their kin, including James Muirhead.

The battle, short and relatively bloodless, did not go well for Mary's partisans. Mary fled to her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the rest is history. James was "forfeited by Parliamentary attainer until 1573," according to historian Alexander Nisbit.

A year later, in 1569 in the town of Linlithgor, James' brother-in-law, James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, assasinated James, Earl Murray, the regent for the infant King James VI. Hamilton fled to James Muirhead's home of Lauchope House and, because of their kinship, gave him refuge. Friends of the regent descended on Lauchope House and put it to the torch. James Muirhead was unharmed, but many important papers, including the family's charters of nobility, were lost. Bowed but not broken, the family continued in prestige and power, however, and James' descendent, John Muirhead, became Provost of Glasgow.

John Muirhead of Glasgow, 1660-1725

John was a member of the Solemn League and Covenant, however, and fought against Charles II, eventually losing at the Battle of Bothwell Bridge in 1679. John, his brother, James, and others of the band were arrested and imprisoned in Dunnotar Castle. When the Muirheads and others refused to sign an oath of allegiance to the Catholic James VII and II, they were transported to the tollbooth at Leith and, in 1685, were exiled aboard the Henry and Francis to New Jersey, enduring an inhuman voyage. John did well in the New World, though, becoming High Sheriff of Pennington.

The fortunes of the family diminished. The last "chief of the name," the Rev. Dr. James Muirhead of Logan, became a butt of Robert Burns' jokes, albeit good-natured. Minister of Urr, Muirhead was a landed proprietor, and claimed to be chief of Clan Muirhead. According to Young, he was a man of considerable humour', but also of the irritable genus, and nowise disposed to submit to the abuse and sarcastic ballads of Burns, whom he purposed to hunt out of society as a public nuisance.' Burns described him as being 'as guid as he's true' in the Second Heron Election Ballad. There is an even more pointed reference in the third election ballad: "And by our banners march'd Muirhead, And Buittle was na slack, Whase haly priesthood nane could stain, For wha could dye the black?"

And so the "Clan" fell, forgotten as an organized family, until 2000 when Raymond L. Morehead of Bonney Lake Washington formed the Muirhead Clan Society to reorganize. A case to reestablish the name with a chief is pending before Lord Lyon and the clan's tartan has been rediscovered in a 150-plus-year-old kilt and registered. More can be learned at www.clanmuirhead.com.

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CLAN ROSS

Motto: Spem successus alit - "Success nourishes hope".
Badge: A hand holding a laurel wreath.

The clan Ross derives its name from the old Celtic earldom of Ross and they are believed to be descended from Gilleon na h-airde, ancestor of Anrias, whose descendant Fearcher Mac-an-t-Sagairt, "Son of the Priest" helped crush a rebellion for the crown in 1215. For his services he was knighted and recognized as the Earl of Ross in 1234. This title in turn gave its possessors great authority and power in the North of Scotland. His grandson William fought at the Battle of Bannockburn and Hugh, the 5th Earl was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. Hugh's successor, William died without male issue and succession passed through the female line which later led to a struggle for the Earldom between the Lords of the Isles and the Regent Albany. The chiefship devolved upon William Ross, 2nd of Balnagowan and for over three centuries this line remained the principal family of the clan. From the 15th to the 16th century, the Rosses were preoccupied with a feud against the Mackays of Strathnaver culminating in the Battle of Blar Ault an Charish on the River Carran in July 1486, when Alexander 6th of Balnagowan and 17 of his clan were killed. David Ross, 12th of Balnagowan fought for Charles I at Worcester and died a prisoner in London in 1653. His son David supported William and Mary and was the last of the direct line. On his death in 1711, the estate was settled on the Renfrewshire family of Ross of Hawkhead, who were of no blood relation. The Munro Rosses of Pitcalnie became the senior representatives of the old line. During the Jacobite rebellions the Rosses supported the government, but later, during the 19th century the Rosses suffered heavily through the clearances particularly in Strathcarran in 1854. The Rosses are distinguished by having possibly the most important American connections of any Scots clan and took prominent roles in key episodes of American history. Many other Rosses have also achieved distinction in Canada and in Prussia, where the Counts von Ross were famous soldiers.

Septs of Clan Ross: Anderson, Andrew, Dingwall, Gillanders, MacAndrew, MacCulloch, MacLulich, MacTaggart, MacTear, MacTier, MacTire, Taggart, Vass, Wass.

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CLAN SOMERVILLE

Motto: Fear God in Life

This name is derived from Somerville , a town near Caen in Normandy. Sir Gaulter de Somerville accompanied the Duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror, to England in 1066. One of his descendants Philip of Whichnow , in Staffordshire, instituted the gift of a side of bacon called the Dunmow Flitch which is still given today to husbands and wives who have lived together a year and a day without strife or disagreement.

William de Somerville , Gualters second son, came to Scotland with David I and Received lands near Carnwath in Clydesdale. William died around 1142 and was buried at Melrose Abbey. William de Somerville, who, according to tradition, killed the last serpent in Scotland, obtained the lands of Linton around 1174 from Malcolm IV. He later became chief falconer to the king and sheriff of Rovburgh. Sir William de Somerville , fifth of that name, fought for Alexander II, driving back the Norse invasion at Largs in 1263.

His son, Sir Thomas appears on the Ragman Roll of Nobles forced to swear fealty to Edward I of England in 1296, but the following year he joined Sir William Wallace in the fight for Scottish Freedom. Sir Walter Somerville commanded a brigade of cavalry under Wallace at the Battle of Biggar, and was later a steady supporter of Robert the Bruce. His great-grandson, Sir Thomas, was created Lord Somerville around 1430. He was Justicar of Scotland south of the forth.

John, the third Lord, was wounded fighting against the English at the Battle of Sark in 1448 and was present at the siege of Roxburgh in 1460, when James II was killed by an exploding canon. John, Fourth Lord Somerville, died without issue and was succeeded by his brother, Hugh, who was taken prisoner after the rout at Solway Moss in 1542. He was ransomed for 1,000 merks and the promise of his support for the proposed marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots to Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VIII of England. He was later arrested for treason but was pardoned . He supported Mary of Guise, the Queen Mother, as Regent of Scotland. Like many nobles who had been secretly intriguing with England, he was an early adherent to the reformed doctrines. However his son-later the sixth Lord Somerville- opposed the Reformation and voted against the Confession of Faith proposed in the Parliament of 1560. He supported also Mary, Queen of Scots, and fought at the Battle of Langside where he was severely wounded.

Hugh Somerville, the seventh Lord, was also a supporter of the queen, but in the shifting politics of the time he later supported her son, James VI, becoming a Privy Councilor. James was entertained by the Somervilles in such splendor that they burdened themselves with debt and had to sell their estates at Carnwath, When the Scots nobility was ranked in 1606 after the union of the crowns, the name Somerville did not appear. James Somerville, titular tenth Lord Somerville, served on the continent, where he gained considerable reputation as a soldier commanding his own regiment. His grandson, James Somerville of Drum, died from wounds received during a duel with Thomas Learmounth in 1682.

In 1723 the Somerville peerage was acknowledged by the House of Lords and John, now thirteenth Lord Somerville, stood for election as a representative peer of Scotland. He built the elegant House of Drum which still stands on the outskirts of Edinburgh. Mary Somerville who died in 1872 was a noted mathematician and scientific writer as well as a great pioneer of women's education, and Somerville College in Oxford, founded in 1879, is named after her.

[From Clan Somerville web site.]

CLAN SINCLAIR

The surname Sinclair or St. Clair, is derived from Saint-Clair-sur-Elle, which is near St. Lo in the Conentin peninsula of Normandy in France. The St. Clairs first arrived in England with William the conqueror. In 1162 Henry de St. Clair received a charter of the lands of Herdmanston in Haddingtonshire from the Constable of Scotland, whose Sheriff he was.

The principal line of the Sinclairs was founded in the Scotland of David I. Their chief, Sir William Sinclair, Sheriff of Edinburgh, Haddington, Linlithgow and Dumfries, was also Justiciar of Galloway. He was guardian of the heir to the throne and was granted the Barony of Rosslyn in 1280. His son, Sir Henry Sinclair of Rosslyn, Pantler of Scotland, fought for the Bruce at Bannockburn. Sir William Sinclair of Rosslyn was slain with the Douglas, carrying Robert Bruce’s heart on Crusade against the Saracens in Andalusia.

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The next baron of Rosslyn married Lady Isabel, co-heiress of Orkney and Caithness. Their son, Henry Sinclair, was recognized as Jarl [Earl] of Orkney in 1379 by the King of Norway. As Jarl of Orkney, Henry “the Holy” Sinclair was the premier noble of Norway. Through Lady Isabel, the later Sinclair chiefs descend from the pagan Norse and ancient Pictish dynasts who were already ruling in Orkney and Caithness at the time of the earliest surviving records, a thousand years ago. Many Sinclairs believe green is unlucky for them since so many of them wearing it fell with their Chief at Flodden in 1513.

Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster, 1st Baronet, P.C., M.P., was the first President of the Board of Agriculture, which he persuaded Pitt to found in 1793. He was painted by Raeburn as Commander of the Fencible Regiment he raised in 1794. He was a most practical idealist. He produced the forerunner of social surveys and planned agriculture. He was the first to use the term “statistics”. Descended from the 4th Earl of Caithness, he was the ancestor of the present Viscount Thurso.

Septs include the folowing names: Budge, Clyne, Groat, Lyall, Wares.

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CLAN STEWART (OR STUART)

The surname Stewart (or Stuart) is derived from Steward, indicating an official in charge of a household and/or treasury- often of a king, but also of a notable earl, or bishop.  It was from Walter fitz-Allen that the line of Stewart (or Stuart) kings descended.  He was a Norman noble appointed to the post of hereditary High Steward of Scotland by King David I.  Walter's influential family and descendents established various separate branches of Stewarts before their main line became a royal one. This transpired through Walter, the sixth High Steward, ho fought at Bannockburn and married King Robert Bruce's daughter, Marjory.  Their son became Robert II, the first Stewart king.

Previous to 1371, Walter's uncel, Sir John Stewart of Bonkill who fel at Falkird in 1298) left seven sons.  The first three founded respectively the Stewart earldoms of Angus, Lennox, and Galloway.

Septs:  Bod, Carmichael, Dennison, Denniston, France, Francis, Lennox, Lisle, Lombard, Lumbard, Lyle, MacMichael, Menteith, Monteath, Monteith, Moodie, Moody, Steuart, Steuart, Stuart.

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CLAN STEWART (STUART OF BUTE

The beautiful Isle of Bute formed part of the domain of Walter, the first High Steward, and remained a Stewart possession except for a brief Norse occupation. But only after 1385 did a family branch become established there, when Sir John Stewart, a son of King Robert II, was appointed hereditary Sheriff of Bute and Arran. His descendants still hold the marquisate of Bute.

The spelling ‘Stuart’ originated with some Stewarts living in France where the alphabet has no ‘w’. Adopted there also by Mary Queen of Scots, it became fashionable when she continued using it on her return. Steuart was a compromise between the two forms.

Septs of Clan Stuart include: Ballantyne, Bannatyne, Caw, Fullarton, Fullerton, Glass, Hunter, Jameson, Jamieson, Lewis, Loy, MacCaa, MacCammie, MacCloy, MacCurdy, MacElheran, MacKerron, MacKirdy, MacLewis, MacLouis, Macloy, MacMune, MacMurtrie, Malloy, Milloy, Munn, Neilson, Sharp, Sharpe

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CLAN SUTHERLAND

The founder of the line of Sutherland was Hugh, son or grandson of Freskin de Moravia who, probably by marriage, obtained the clan territory about the time of William the Lion. Hugh’s son, William, was created Earl of Sutherland about 1237, and died 1248. William, 2nd Earl, had a feud with the Mackays, which was carried on by his son, Robert. John, 12th Earl, fought at Corrichie in 1562. William, 16th Earl, Chief of the clan in 1745, supported George II. His son, William, 17th Earl, left a daughter Elizabeth (his only child), whose right to the earldom was established in 1771. She married George Granville, Marquis of Stafford and was ancestress of the Dukes of (now again Earls of) Sutherland. Dunrobin Castle is the seat of the Moirair Chat, Chief of the clan.

For further information Clan Sutherland contact:  Lloyd Leadbetter, 2645 Gladiola St. NE, Canton, Ohio 44705

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CLAN URQUHART

The name Urquhart is considered to be of Gaelic origin and various translations have been offered. Some Gaelic scholars say it means “on a rapid torrent” and others “upon a rowan wood.” Perhaps the most sensible is “the fort on the knoll” which is exactly what Castle Urquhart is. Castle Urquhart, of course, is the imposing structure often seen in conjunction with photos of Loch Ness and the eternal search for the Loch Ness Monster known as “Nessie.”

The locality called Urquhart lies on the north side of the Great Glen, where woods descend steeply to a promontory that dominates the eastern end of Loch Ness. It was the obvious place to build a fortress guarding old Pictland from the Gaelic west. Once it stood within the vast sphere of influence of the Comyn family, but when Robert the Bruce won the crown, he destroyed the Comyn power in the north.

William of Urquhart became the Sheriff of Cromarty, the fertile peninsula beyond Inverness called the Black Isle. In 1357, David II granted the heriditary sheriffdom of Cromarty to Adam of Urquhart, William’s son, thus establishing the dynasty. In 1470 William Urquhart of Cromarty built there a castle of the characteristically Scottish tower form.

His successor, Sir Thomas Urquhart (1582-1642) became something of a favorite of James VI, sharing with him a love of learned pursuits. His son inherited both his name and his penchant for learning. Sir Thomas Urquhart (1611-1660) attended Aberdeen University during its golden age and fell under the spell of his great uncle John Urquhart of whom he wrote: “He was over all Britain reknowned for his deep reach of natural wit and great dexterity in acquiring of many lands and great possessions, with all men’s applause.”

Thomas went on a grand tour of Europe after leaving university. He collected a vast library of books for his ancestral tower while traveling. He supported Charles I in the Civil War, and fought for Charles II when he was routed by Oliver Cromwell at Worcester in 1651. A learned scholar, Thomas had written four trunks full of manuscripts on developing a universal language and on the genealogy of the Urquharts which he unfortunately brought with him. He was taken prisoner and English soldiers ransacked his lodgings and destroyed his writings.

He was brought to the Tower of London where, in 1653, he published the first book of Rabelais, one of the world’s supreme masterpieces of translation. In 1660 he died, not yet fifty years old. It was said that what killed him was a fit of Rabelaisian laughter when he was informed of the Restoration of the King. His last draft of Rabelais was published after his death.

His line was extinguished, the Cromarty property sold, the ancestral tower demolished. But the chiefship of Urquhart was kept alive by the descendents of Sir Thomas’s ingenious great uncle, John. In 1766 George Urquhart (c.1733-1799) went to Florida and his son, David, settled in New Orleans, Louisiana. His descendent, Kenneth Urquhart of Urquhart, a historian, still lives there and is the current chief. His daughter, Christy Urquhart Walsh, lives in Akron, Ohio, and teaches Highland Dancing.  For more information on this clan, you may contact her at:  345 S. Rose Blvd. Akron, Ohio 44313 or by telephone, 330.867.1030.